mining (ayus), body-making (nama) and the status determining (gotra), exist and function in the structure of the self.- When the duration of three Karmas lacks equality with the duration of Ayu Karman, and an Antar­muhurta remains for the soul to attain disembodied liberation, a certain process of equalization technically known as Samudghata, takes place in the omniscient being.' The term Samudghata implies the emanation of the Pradesas of the soul along with Karmic and electric bodies from the gross body without leaving it.2 Now, the self before taking recourse to the stoppage of vibrational activities undergoes the process of Samu­dghata in the thirteenth Gunasthana for accommodating other three Karmas to Ayuhkarman.

When the equalisation process has come to an end, the omniscient soul in the thirteenth Gunasthana turns to the cessation of vibrational activities, and just after doing this he enters the fourteenth stage of spiritual evolution called Ayoga Kavali Gunasthana where the soul stays for the time required for pronouncing five syllables-a, i, u, r, 1r3. After this the disembodied liberation results. In this Gunasthana the Atman has crowned himself with a great number of mystical virtues, has attained steadiness like the Meru mountain, has stopped the influx of all sorts of Karmic particles, and has become devoid of Yogas4 (activities of body, mind and speech).

SIDDHA STATE OR TRANSCENDENTAL LIFE PAR-EXCELLENCE: This stage is immediately followed by final emancipation, which is the same as dis­embodied liberation, the last consummation of the spirit, the attainment of Siddhahood, transcendental life par-excellence, and the state of Videha Mukti. This state of self is beyond Gunasthanas. Just after the termina­tion of the last stage of spiritual evolution, the soul in one instant goes to the end of the Loka, since beyond that there is no medium of motion in the Aloka.5 The upward motion of the self is on account of the fourfold reasons.' First, it is due to the persistence of the effects of previous strenuous endeavors for disenthralment, just as the wheel of the potter continues to move even when the force of hand is removed. Secondly, it is on account of the fact of freedom from the Karmic weight, just as there


1 Labdhi. 616. Jndnd. LXII-43.                   2 Gornma. Ji. 667.                   The Jaina recognises the five types of bodies.                   1. Audarika-8arira-(Gross body).

 2. Vaikriyika (Transformable body). 3. Aharaka (Projectable)                   4. Taijasa (Electric).                   5. Karmana (Karmic).Sarvdrtha. II. 36.                   3 Jniznd. LXII-59.                   4 Gomma. Ji. 65.                   Sat. Vol. I-199.

5 Niyama. 175, 183.          6Sarvartha.X.6,7.


 is the upward motion of the Tumadi in water after the dissolution of the burden of clay.  Thirdly, it results owing to the destruction of all Karmas, just as there is the upward movement of castor-seed after the bondage of cover is removed.  Lastly, it is due to its intrinsic nature which manifests owing to the absence of the aberrant power of Karmas like the upward direction of the lam flame in the absence of the deflecting wind.  In other words, the original dwelling place of the Atman is the top of the Loka; and it is only due to the Karmic encumbrance that the Atman has been forced to bear the mundane form; and when he has attained supreme consciousness of his inherent nature, he is quite consistent in resorting to his actual habitation.

          CHARACTERISTICS OF SIDDHA STATE: The Siddha state transcends the realm of cause and effect, inasmuch as the Dravya and Bhava Karmas and the consequential four types of transmigratory existence have ceased to exist.  The category of causality is applicable only to mundane souls and not to the Siddha who is an unconditioned being.  Kundakunda announces that the Siddha is neither the product of anything nor produces anything, hence neither effect nor cause.1  According to the Satkhandagama he who has destroyed all the Karmas, who is independent of external objects, who has attained infinite, unique, intrinsic and unalloyed bliss, who is not attached to anything, who has achieved steady nature, who is devoid of all sorts of mal-characteristics, who is the receptacle of all virtues, and who has made the top of the universe his permanent abode, is Siddha.2  The acquisition of Siddhahood is indistinguishable from the accomplishment of Nirvana,3 where, negatively speaking, there is neither pain, nor pleasure, nor any Karmas nor auspicious and inauspicious Dhyanas, nor anything such as annoyance, obstruction, and, where, positively speaking, there is perfect intuition, knowledge, bliss, potency, immateriality and existence.4  The Acaranga pronounces “All sounds recoil thence where speculation has no room, nor does the mind penetrate there.”  “The liberated is without body, without resurrection, without contact of matter; he is not feminine, nor masculine, nor neuter; he perceives, he knows, but there is  of analogy; its essence is without form; there is no condition of the unconditioned.5  This state of


1 Panca. 36.  2 sat. Vol. I. P. 200.  3 Niyama. 183.  4 Niyama. 178 to 181.

5 Acara. 1-5-6-3-4 (p.52).


self is the termination of mystic’s journey.  It is the final destination for which the self was all along struggling.  In other words, the history of the Siddha state of self is the history of his mystical trials and tribulations in his march from bondage to freedom.  Also, it is the history of the triumphant conclusion of his moral and spiritual exertions.




The Jaina and the non-Jaina Indian Ethical Doctrines


          SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER:  In our previous discussion of the ‘Mystical Significance of Jaina Ethics’, we have pointed out how the human self emerging from the cave of passions rests in the in the abode of transcendental consciousness.  The Bahiratman accepts every thing as his own, the Antaratman negates all, but the Paramatman neither accepts nor negates but transcends these dualities of acceptances and negation.  In the first place, the Jaina conception of mysticism and its relation to metaphysics have been explained.  Secondly, the plight of the self steeped in ignorance and the nature and process of emergence of spiritual conversion as distinguished from the ethical and the intellectual conversion have been expounded.  Thirdly, we have shown the necessity of purgation and moral preparation with proper emphasis on Svadhyya and devotion.  Fourthly, the conception of illumination, and the possibility of the two types of fall, first, from spiritual conversion and, secondly, from illumination have been dealt with.  And, fifthly, the characteristics of transcendental life in the form of embodies and disembodied liberation have been ported.  To sum up, we have delineated all the above States of the self under the fourteen stages of spiritual evolution along with the Siddha state which transcends these stages.

          In Indian soil we find the growth of different, solutions for the ontological, ethical and religious problems.  The Vdeic, the Jaina, the Buddhist and the materialistic (Carvaka) speculations illustrate the enormous divergence of thought current in the domain of philosophy.  The term ‘Vedic’ needs elucidation.  It includes two-fold philosophic literature.  First, it comprehends within its sweep the Vedas, the Brahmanas, the Upanisads, the Bhagavad-Gita, the Brahmasutra along with its interoperations, and the Puva-Mimamsa.  Secondly, the systems like Nyaya-Vaisesika, Samkhya-Yoga which do not challenge the authority of the Vedas are also comprised under its extent.  Notwithstanding the difference in metaphysical conclusions arrived at by the various trends of thought, their exponents, confronted with the same sort of transitoriness of thing of the world, have resorted to similar methods and contrivances in order to go beyond the manifest superficialities of objects.  It is astonishing that they concur remarkably with one another on the psychological, ethical and religious planes of existence.  In the present chapter we propose to confine ourselves to the study of the ethical considerations as found in the Rg-Veda, the Brahmanas, the Upainsads, the Bhagad-Gita, the Vedanta of Samkara, the PurvaMimamsa, the Nyaya-Vaisesika, the Samkhya-Yoga and early Buddhism.  We set aside the Carvaka Materialism because it adheres only to the sensuous outlook and smothers all the consciousness of deeper meaning in life.1  it refuses to rise above the hedonistic level of thinking and living.  Naturally, all the systems of Indian philosophy including Jainism depreciate such an unwholesome and superficial perspective.

          Before proceeding to the comparative study of the ethical ideal recognised by the various currents of thought, we shall deal with the attitude of the Rg-Veda and the Brahmanas toward the moral issues, inasmuch as they isolate themselves notably from the later developments in the province of philosophy.  Besides, we shall trace, in a very brief way, the relation of the Upanisads to the Rg-Veda and the Brahmanas which will enable us to witness a tremendous change in the attitude of the Upanisadic seers, and the advance of the Upanisads on the Rg-Veda and the Brahamanas.

          ETHICS OF THE RG-VEDA AND BRAHMANAS: The conception of Rta in the Rg-Veda furnishes us with the stand of morality.  “it is the Satya or the truth of the things.  Disorder or An-Rta is flathead, the opposition of truth.2 The goal of conduct is held out as prosperity.3 “Right conduct according with one’s conscience and understanding seems to be stressed as an independent value.4” “Malign intention,


1Outline of Indian Philosophy, p. 194/.

2Rg-Veda, VII-56. 12; IX-115. 4; II-6. 10; IV-5.5; VIII-6. 2; 12; VII-47. 3. Vide Radhakrishnan: Indian Philosophy Vol. I. P. 110.

3Rg-Veda, I-189. 1; VIII-97. 13, vide History of philosophy Eastern & Western, p. 46.

4Rg-Veda, X-31. 2. Vide Ibid.


swearing, falsehood, imprecation, calumniation, back-biting, dishonesty, sorcery, gambling, debt, egoistic enjoyment, wantonness or adultery, theft and any injury to life are sins, while honesty, rectitude, fellow feeling, charity, non-violence, truthfulness, salutary and agreeable speech, continence and control of senses, reverential faith and austerity are virtues highly extolled”1 The five-fold duties of man towards gods, seers, manes, men, and lower creation have been recognized, in the Stapatha-Brahmana.2

          EVALUATION OF THE UPANISADIC CONTENTS: After stating briefly the ethical virtues as propounded by the Rg-Veda and the Brahmanas, the Vedic hymns to the Upanisads indicates the displacement of the objective side of religion by the subjective one.  There is exhibited a transplantation of interest from God to self, from the extrinsic to the intrinsic aspect of life.  In the hymns of the Rg-Veda the personified forces of nature engage our attention, but on the contrary in the Upanishads, the exploration of the depths of the soul of man occupies the energies of the seers.  The Katha Upanisad recognizes that the wise man striving for immortality turns his eyes inward and peeps into the self within.3 This sort of penetration into the profundities of human self banishes the offering of prayers to gods and goddesses for materi8al prosperity, and results into the recognition of the consubstantiality of the spirit in man and the great cosmic power.  Brahman which is the ultimate cosmic principle or the source of the whole universe has been identified with the deepest self in each man’s heart.4  It may be pointed out that the identification of Brahman and Atman pre-eminently pertain to the Upanisadic age.  It is here that the cosmological and theological approaches to the problem of ultimate reality were subordinated to the psychological approach.  The subservience of world and God to self is specifically Upanisadic.  In the words of Professor RANADE, “As we pass from the Vedas to the Upanishads we pass from prayer to philosophy, from hymnology to reflection, from henotheistic polytheism to monotheistic mysticism”.5 As regards the relation of the Upanishads to the Brahamanas, the former represents a sharp antagonism to the rituals and sacrifices as embodies in the latter.  The Mundaka


1 History of Philosophy, Eastern & Western, pp. 45-46.

2 Indian Philosophy, vol. I. P. 131.  3Ka Up. II-1-1   4 Cha. Up. III-14-4;  III-13-7.            5 Constructive Survey of Upanisadic Philosophy, p. 3.


Upanisad decries the ceremonialism of the Brahmanas by pronouncing that those who hail the sacrifices as the highest good are snared in the meshes of death and decrepitude.1 But the Brahmanical idea of sacrifice was modified in the times of the Upanisads which gave rise to a new conception of mental sacrifice.

          VARIOUS EXPRESSIONS OF THE MORAL IDEAL: We now proceed to dwell upon the nature of the moral ideal as advocated by the Gita and the Upanisdic thinkers.  They have envisaged and brought it out in manifold ways, which signify simply the diversity of expression and not distinctness of the essential meaning conveyed by them.

          First, of the two diverse paths that are open to man, the wise one after distinguishing them properly chooses the path of good in preference to the path of pleasure, by virtue of which the true aim of life is realised.  On the contrary, the fool hankering after the path of pleasure is defeated in attaining to real beneficence.2 The mundane path which many men follow must be distinguished from the supermundane one which relieves man from the transitoriness of worldly objects, and from sorrows and sufferings.  In Jaina terminology the path of right belief, right knowledge and right conduct is traversed by the prudent souls, while that of wrong belief, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct is traversed by the ignorant.  The former emancipates man from terrestrial curses in contradistinction to the latter which entangles him in the mire of distressing and insatiable sensual desires.  According to he Chandoya Upanisad3 the forest ascetics adorned with knowledge and faith tread the path of the gods (Devayana) which consequentially leads to the attainment of the Brahman or deliverance in contrast to the householders who are busy performing sacrifices and who therefore go by the path of fathers (Pitryana) to be born again I this world.  Exactly in the same fashion the Gita4 also recognizes the two paths, namely the bright and the dark; the former is suggestive of emancipation and the latter, of rebirth.  The bright Gati amounts to the termination of transmigration, while the dark Gati, to the wanderings into the wheel of birth and death.  Jainism5 speaks of Siddha Gati and the four Gatis (celestial, human, sub-human and hellish).  The former is permanent and immutable, and


1 Mu. Up. I-2-7.                       2 Ka. Up I-2-1,2.

3 Cha. Up. V-10-1, 3, 5.

4 B. G. VIII-26.

5 Samaya-1;  Gomma. Ji 145, 151.


it implies the complete cessation of transmigratory existence.  The latter i8ndicate the rounds of birth and death in the empirical world.

          Secondly, the realisation of Paragati,1 the deliverance of one from the mouth of death2 is tantamount to experiencing that Brahman or Atman which is the dearest of all,3 the target to be aimed at,4 the only desirable5, singularly discernible, preferentially knowable6,is the resting abode of all that is conceivable and perceivable.7  As viewed by the Gita, the attainment of Anamayam padam8 (status beyond misery), BrahmiSthiti9 (divine state), Brahmanirvana10 (beatitude of God) Param Gatim11 (highest goal), Parama Santim12 (supreme tranquillity) Param Siddhim13 (highest perfection ) and the like has been conceived to be the transcendental aim.  According to the Kathopanisad, the Brahman or the Parama Purus is the highest goal of the aspirant’s journey, which, after being known by the mortal man, release immortality, transcends the senses, the objects of senses, the mind, the intellect, the great self, and the unmanifest.14  The same may be expressed by saying that the senses need be merged into mind, mind into the Jnana-Atman, Jnana-Atman into Mahat-Atman and lastly, Mahat-Atman, into Santa-Atman15.  Thus Santa-Atman which is equivalent to Parama-Purusa or Brahman or Atman is the terminus of all our endeavors.  The Santa-Atman or Brahman is bereft of sound, touch, colour, taste, smell, is eternal, indestructible, infinite, Mahat, and higher than stable.16 According to Jainism also, Paramatman or Brahman is the highest object to be pursed.  The aspirant should enquire into, long for, and strive after the eternal light of knowledge which is subversive of ignorance.17  The nature of Paramatman according to the Jainas and Upanisdic thinkers is similar to a great extent.  Paramatman is eternal, without any flaw, is devoid of colour, smell, sound, taste, touch, is without birth, death18 etc.  The Bhavapahuda tells us that the supreme self is devoid of taste, colour, smell, touch and sound; it is characterized consciousness, not assignable by any mark and lastly indefinable as regards form.19 Notwithstanding a very close similarity in the characteristic nature of Paramatman the 


1 Ka. Up. 1-3-11.  2 Ibid. 1-3-15.          3 Br. Up. I-4-8.          4 Mu. Up. II-2-2.

5 Sve. Up. I-1-12.  6 Cha. Up. VIII-7-1.     7 Pra. Up.-IV-7, 8, 9.  8 B. G. II-51.  9 Ibid. II-72.   10 Ibid V-25.  11 Ibid. VI. 45; IX-32.              12 Ibid IV. 39.          13 Ibid-1. 3. 15.   14 Ka. Up. I. 3-10-11; II. 3. 7, 8.          15 Ibid. I. 3. 13.

16 Ibid-1. 3. 15.     17 Istopa. 49.   18  Pp. I. 17, 19.               19 Bhava  Pa. 64. Cf. Prava. II. 80; Panca. 127.


difference is also striking and cannot be ignored.  It is already pointed out that, on account of the metaphysical perspective adopted in Jainism, Brahman cannot be the cosmic principle.  In view of the metaphysical pluralism of soul advocated by Jainism each soul is potentially Brahman or Paramatman.

          Thirdly, the attainment of bliss is the objective to be aimed at.  Brahman is the delight of life and mind, the fullness of peace and eternity1.  The Taittiriyopanisad compares Brahmanic bliss with other types of physical blisses and after enamouring a number a number of blisses enjoyed by men, gods etc, concludes that hundred blisses of Prajapati constitute the bliss of Brahman.  Such an Ananda is experienced by the sage who is free from all desires2.  It may be pointed out here that the spiritual bliss is a type of its own and no physical bliss can stand comparison with it.  Kundakunda recognises that the highest happiness is beyond any Upama.3  Yogindu affirms that the attainment of highest bliss which is experienced in realising Paramatman in course of meditation is impossible to be had in the mundane life.  Even Indra in the company of crores of nymphs is incapable of having such an infinite bliss of the sage in contemplation.4  In order to emphasize the blissful aspect of life, the Taittiriyopanisad5 proclaims it in terms of the five sheaths of the soul, the last being the Anandamaya Atman which includes the other four and transcends them.  The first sheath of Atman is constituted of food essence, the second of vital air, the third of mind, the fourth of intelligence, and the fifth of bliss.  The subsequent sheaths include the precedent ones and the last embraces all the four.  In the third chapter of the Taittiriyopanisad Varuna is said as not to have been satisfied with the difference answer as food, vital air, mind, intellect, given in succession by Bhrgu to the question of the nature of ultimate reality.  He seems to be convinced when eventually he presents the result of his esquire in terms of ‘beatific consciouness6’ constituting the sources of all things whatsoever.  “We have different kinds of pleasures answering to the different levels of our existence, the vital pleasure, the sensuous, the mental and the intellectual, but the highest is Ananda”.7  With certain reservations we may regard Bahiratman of Jainism as comprising Annarasamaya, Pranamaya, Manomaya Atmans; Antaratman may be regarded as Vijnanamaya Atman and


1 Tai. Up. I-6.  2Ibid. II-8.  3Prava. I-13.  4 Pp. I-116, 117.  Tattvanusasana. 246.

5 Tai. Up. II-1 to 5.   6 Constructive Survey of Upanisdic Philosophy p. 301.

7 Indian Philosophy, Vol. I. P. 208.


Paramatman as Anandamaya Atman, or the beatific consciousness, though not cosmic consciousness.  According to the Gita1 also, the attainment of bliss is the supreme end, the absolute value.  The Yogin whose mind is thoroughly quiet, who is passionless, stainless, constantly putting himself into the Atman, experience easily and happily the highest bliss of contact with the Brahman.  Pujyapada2 and all others speak of Atman as full of excellent bliss.  In the Istopadesa he tells us that a supreme kind of happiness is experienced by the Yogi who is established in his own self.3  The Yogasara of Yogindu recognises that those engrossed in great meditation after renouncing all conceptual thinking enjoy ineffable bliss which is equivalent to the happiness of liberation4.   The author of the Chandogya Upanisad also lays stress on the pursuance of immortal happiness which consists in seeing, hearing and mediating upon the Atman to the utter exclusion of the radically different kinds of perishable happiness experienced in seeking things beside the Atman.5  The experience of great happiness is consequent upon the realisation of the Atman as above and below, before and behind, to the right and to the left.6  The author of the Tattvanusasana proclaims that on account of looking into the self by the self, and on account of the supreme concentration, nothing is seen by the yogi in spite of the existence of External objects.7  According to Pujyapada, the Yogi engrossed in meditation transcends the bodily consciouness.8  Thus the Gita, the Upanisdic and the Jaina saints exhibit a remarkable concurrence regarding infinite happiness as the only object of pursuit, but the Jaina does not acquiesce in making all other objects of the world as dependent on or identical with the Atman.

          Fourthly, the Mundakopanisad9 distinguishes between the Para and Apara Vidyas and seems to decide in favor of the former as constituting the ethical Summum Bonum, by the realisation of which all else becomes known.  The Para-Vidya which is the same as the higher knowledge consists in knowing the Brahman which is invisible, unsuitable, without connections, without hue, without eye or ear, without hands, or feet, eternal, pervading, impalpable, imperishable, and the womb of creatures.10  This does not amount to the intellectual, but to the intuition appre-


1 B. G. VI. 27, 28.       2 Samadhi. 32.        3 Istopa. 47.

4 Yogasara. 97. Tattvanusasana. 170.        5. Cha. Up. VII-22, 23, 24.

6 Ibid. VII-25. 2.    7 Tattvanusasana. 172.     8 Istopa 42.

9 Mu. Up. I. 1.3, 4 & Comm. Of Samkara.     10 Ibid I. 1-5, 6.


hension of Brahman.  The Apara Vidya which may be equated with the lower knowledge comprises within its fold the Rg-Veda, the Yajur-Veda, the Sama-Veda and the Atharva-Veda, also chanting, ritual, grammar, etymological interpretation, prosody and astronomy.1  The above recognition of Para-Vidya as the highest good may be corroborated by the conversation between Narada and Sanatkumara as given in the Chandogya Upanisad.2 Narada in spite of his vast study comprehending the Vedas, history, mythology, mathematics, logic, ethics, fine arts etc., complains to his spiritual teacher Sanatkumara that he is invaded by grief on account of not having the knowledge of the self.  Thus we learn that the intuitive knowledge of the self alone is capable of making us able to cross the ocean of sorrow and no amount of mere intellectual equipment.  Hence the Para-vidya is the crowning experience, the sublime good.  It may be pointed out here that intellectual knowledge should not be utterly depreciated on this account, nor should it be overemphasized as the expense of intuition.  When the highest is reached the intellectual it displaced by the intentional.  We find striking concordance when Kundakunda announces that ‘Suddhanaya is true and Vyavahara-naya is false’.3  Paramartha-naya and niscaya-naya are indistinguishable from Suddhanaya.  Suddhanaya is identical with the intentional experience of the Atman.  Vyavahara-naya creates differentiation’s in the unitary nature of the Atman by explaining it through its distinguishing characteristics.  Thou who have ascended the loftiest heights of mystical experience deserve the knowledge of Suddhanaya, but those of the aspirants who fall short of this sublime ascension should take shelter under Vyavaharanaya without losing sight of the ideal4 Thus the Apara Vidya or the Vyavahara-naya is true to the extent to which it leads a man intellectually on the path, but it is not all.  “Just as every house-holder submits himself to Samnyasa or renunciation and realizes his spiritual aim, so ultimately Vyavahara is discarded in favour of Niscaya.”5  There is witnessed another meaning ascribed to Niscaya and Vyavahara.  The former indicates that the self is unbound and untouched by Karmas, while the latter indices that it is bound and touched by Karmas.6  The spiritual experience however transcends these intellectual points of view.7  In a Similar vein, Amrtacandra argues that the proper results of instruction to a disciple


1 Mu. Up. I. 1. 5.       2 Cha. Up. VII. 1, 2, 3.     3 Samaya. 11.

4 Ibid. 12.        5 Paramatma Prakasa, Intro. P. 30.

6 Samaya.  141.    7 Ibid. 142.


can only issue if he, after assimilating the nature of Niscaya-naya and Vyavahara-naya, adopts the attitude of indifference towards both of these, i.e., if he transcends these intellectual points of view.1  Thus according to this interpretation the Apara Vidya corresponds to these points of view, and the Para Vidya, to spiritual experience.  In other words, Niscaya-naya may be understood to mean mystical experience as well as the knowledge of the pure self, or both the intuition intellectual ideals, and Vyavahara-naya may be understood to mean a lapse from the superb heights as well as the knowledge of the impure self.  Considered from the view-point of spiritual experience or the knowledge of the pure self, Vyavaharnaya includes a lapse from superb heights and the knowledge of the impure self.  In the present context of Para Vidya and Apara Vidya, Suddhanaya in the sense of intuitions experience represents the former, and Vyavahara-naya in point of intellectual knowledge of any sort expresses the latter.  Hence the Para-Vidya or Suddhanaya may be legitimately said to denote the moral ideal in contrast to the Apara Vidya or Vyavahara-naya.

          Fifthly, the consummation of human pursuits has been conceived to be the attainment of a state of life beyond good and bad, virtue and vice.  The Mundakopanisad represents that he who has realised the Brahamn, the lord and governor of all, has shaken off merit and demerit, and has attained perfect equanimity.2  In a similar vein, the Kathopanisad point out that Paramatman is beyond duty and non-duty, action and nonfiction, past and future.3  According to the Gita, the attainment of supreme status exceeds the fruits of meritorious deeds resulting from the study of the Vedas, the performance of sacrifices, pursuance of austerities, and charitable gifts.4  Again, the realisation of Brahman will liberate one from good and evil results which constitute the bonds of action.5  This spirit of transcendence is also expressed in the Gita in another form.  When the embodied soul rises above the three Gunas, (sattva, rajas and tamas) which cause the bodily existence, he is freed from the subjection to birth and death, old age and suffering, and thus attains the life eternal.6  Thus to go beyond the spell of the three Gunas is the ideal.  In other words, one is required to be possessed of the self, to be free from the dualities, to be fixed in the true being, to be away from the triple modes,


1 Puru. 8.          2 Mu. Up. III. 1. 3.             3 Ka. Up. I. 2. 14.

4 B. G. VIII. 28.        5 Ibid. IX. 28; II. 50.       6 Ibid. XIV. 20.


and getting and having,1 inasmuch as the bondage to these Gunas leads one to the round of births.  To be more clear, when the Sattva predominates, the embodied one is born in the spotless worlds of the those who are attached to action, and lastly, when Tamas invades him, he takes births in the wombs of beings involved in nescience.2  The same may be expressed by saying that those in Sattva rise upwards, in Rajas stay in the middle and in Tamas sink downwards.3  Thus the culmination of human achievements consists of human achievements consists in transcending the ethical level and rising to the spiritual.  The considerations of the Gita, the Upanisad and the Jaina conform to one another regarding the transcendental plane of life beside and beyond righteousness and unrighteousness.  According to Kundakunda, the worldly persons generally recognise inauspicious conduct as bad and auspicious one is taken by them as good.  But how can the latter be understood as good, since it makes the entrance of the self into the cycle of birth and death ?4  Just as a shackle, whether of gold or of iron, indiscriminately ties a man, so also the auspicious and inauspicious conduct bind the self to mundane miseries.5  The wise shun both Subha and Asubha.6  Rare are such persons as are disposed to discard even Punya as Papa.7  Pujyapada tells us that vowlessness causes vice and the observance of vows engenders virtues; but deliverance is the destruction of both.8  The aspirant should adhere to vows after renouncing vowlessness and after attaining to the supreme status the former should also be abjured like the latter.9  The highest state of the Paramatman transcends both good and evil; and such persons as have realised Him within themselves go beyond the vicious circle of Samsara or the reach of good and bad.

          Sixthly, the ethical ideal may be expressed in terms of action.  The Isopanisad tells us that “a man should try to spend his life-span of a hundred years only in the constant performance of action.  It is thus only that he can hope not to be contaminated by actions.10  Prof. RANADE remarks, “The actions, that are here implied have no further range than possibly the small circumference of ‘Sacrifice’, ad further, the way in


1 B.G. II. 45.      2 Ibid.  XIV. 14, 15.        3 Ibid. XIV. 18.

4 Samaya. 145.   5 Ibid. 146.               6 Yogasara 72.

7 Ibid. 71.       8 Samadhi. 83,               9 Ibid. 84

10 I. Up. 2 (Translation vide Constructive Survey of Upanisadic Philosophy, p. 297).


which, even in the midst of a life of action, freedom from contagion with the fruit of action may be secured is not here brought out with sufficient clearness.”1  According to the Bhagavad-Gita, Karma-Yoga or the life of activism constitutes the supreme end to be aimed at.  It is no doubt true that we can find passages in the Gita where Jnana is superior to Karma,2 where Karma is superior to Jnana,3 and where they are at par.4  But “the law of the body,5 the law of society6 and the law of the Universe7 indicate and even vindicate activism.”8  The Gita tells us that the actions should be performed after brushing aside all attachment to and the desire for, the fruit.9  Besides, their performance is to be effected by dint of wisdom10  and equanimity.11 We may here affirm that the performance of action in the aforementioned spirit is rendered possible only when the ideal of Karma-Yoga which is the same as Atmanic steadfastness is accomplished.  “The Niskama Karma is the natural accompaniment or result of a spiritually illumined life; it simply cannot exist, if egoism is not completely annilated.”12  According to Jainism the Tirthamkara exemplifies the idea life of activism.  He performs all actions dispassionately, therefore, spontaneously.  But according to Jainism all the Bhavyasouls are not capable of this lie of activism; only those souls which have earned Tirthamkara body-making Karma can lead a life of benevolent activities, while other remain engrossed the lie of contemplation which indirectly elevates human beings.  Thus the life of activism, according to Jainism, cannot be the universal rule of life, though in the case of some souls it accompanies spiritual experience without being incompatible.  But this does not negate Punya-engendering activities of saints for the benefit of human beings.

          AVIDYA AS THE OBSTRUCTION: Having reviewed the various expressions of the ethical ideal as conceived by the Gita and the Upanisads and having compared them with the deliberations of the Jaina speculators, we now propose to ideal with the process of attainment of the excellent heights, as pointed out by the Gita and the Upanisads.  In the first place,


1 RANADE, Ibid, p. 298.     2 B. G. IV. 33; II 49.      3 Ibid. V.2; V. 6.

4 Ibid-VI. 2; V. 4; V.5 Reference no. 3 to 5 are based on ‘The Bhagavad-Gita as a Philosophy of God Relalisation’ pp. 194-195.

5 B.G. III. 8.    6 Ibid. II. 20.         7 Ibid. III. 16.

8 RANADE, ‘The Bhagavadgita as a Philosophy of God-realisation’ pp. 196-197.

9 B. G.    10 Ibid. II-50.     11 Ibid. II-48.

12 Vedanta explained. Vol. II. P. 527.


we shall converge our attention to the obstruction which prevents a man from realising the Atman in spite of its being present in his heart.1  The kathopanisad like the Brhadaranyakopanisad, afirms that he who sees plurality in the world despite the existence of one Brahman here there, everywhere is continually devoured by the enemy of death.2  In other words, the ignorant man deeming himself very learned dwells in Avidya with the consequence that he moves helplessly like blind man led by the blind.3  The Isa Upanisad announces that delusion and grief and repulsion are foreign in the Atman.4  Thus the perverted outlook which is born of Avidya obliges us to perceive plurality.  According to the Bhagavad-Gita the three modes born of Prakrti bind the imperishable dweller in the body; and so the whole world, being deluded by these threefold Gunas or dualities of desire and hatred, does not recognise the immutable above them.5  To explain further, the Sattva Guna enslaves one by producing attachment to happiness and knowledge; the Raja, by attachment to action, and the Tamas, by negligence, indolence and sleep.6  On account of the identification of the self with these Gunas, one forgets the true nature of the spirit which transcends them, hence becomes the victim of transmigration.  When the Yogi refuses to be corrupted and led away by them, he sees the self abiding in all beings and all beings in the self.  Oneness remains, plurality goes away.  Jainism views the identification of not-self with the self as the main cause of worldly existence.  Pujyapada points out that the essence of wisdom may be epitomized by saying that the self is different from matter, and that matter is different from the self.7  All the rest of knowledge is but a dilation of this.  Mithyatva is the root of endless transmigration.  When the realisation of the transcendental self is achieved, all the objects of the world are reflected in the knowledge of the Yogi; but he does not, according to Jainism, see his own self in the objects of the world.   Yogindu points out that the universe is existing in the omniscience of Paramatman and he dwells in the universe but he is not convertible into the form of the universe.8 The mundane things remain quite distinct from him even at the pinnacle of realisation.  This distinguishes the position  of  the Jinas  from the  Upanisads and the bhagvate gita . the Jaina would not speak that the plurality is ostensible,


1 Cha. Up. VIII. 3. 3.    2 Ka. Up. II. 1. 10, 11; Br. Up. IV. 4. 19.

3 Ka. Up. I 2. 5.      4 I. Up. 6. 7.     5 B. G. XIV. 5; VII. 13. 27.

6 Ibid. XIV. 6, 7, 8.     7 Istopa. 50.    8 Pp. I. 41.


but regards plurality as ontologically certain.  Only the self should refuge to be seduced by it  thus in spite of recognising the beginnings Avidya as the root cause of Samsara, the implications differ.  For the former plurality constitutes Avidya, but for the latter it is the confusion of self and not-self, of Jiva and Pudgala.

          CONVERTED AND PERVERTED SOULS: We shall now in brief record the nature of the perverted and converted souls.  According to the Kathopanisad, the ignorant soul looks outward by his senses created as they are by God with a tendency to move externally, but the wise desiring immutability turns them inwards and sees the self within him.1  Again, the fools indulging in the pleasures of the senses walk into the snare of death, but the calm souls having learned of immortality do not hanker after ephemeral pleasures.2  The Samadhisataka recognises that the Bahiratman engaging itself in the external objects through the sense doors confounds the self with the body, but the Antaratman repents for this indulging tendency of senses and determines to see the self within.3  The Istopadesa point out that the wise man will not strive for, and rejoice in, the pleasures which are painful in their acquisition, unsatisfying after attainment, and difficult to be renounced, but the stupid relishes them on account of ingnorance.4

          The Mundakopanisad recognises that the perverted souls who regard sacrifices and works of merit as most important and do not know any other highest good, are born in this world or even in lower regions after enjoying the fruits of heaven.5  The Knot of ignorance is broken of that man who knows the supreme Brahman hidden in the secret heart.6  The Kathopanisad says that we ought to separatepatiently the Atman from our own body, as one isolates a blade of grass from its sheath.7  The kausitaki Upanisad declares, “Just as a razor is laid in a razor case or a bird is pent up in its nest, even so is this conscious Being placed in the body u to the very nails, up to the very hair of the body.”8  The Samayasara tells us that those who, without turning towards Paramartha perform austerities and observe vows, have a yearning for Punya without knowing that it is also the cause of transmigration in Samsara.  Hence all their austerities and vows are childish.9  According to the Yogasara of


1 Ka. Up. II. 1. 1.        2 Ibid. II. 1. 2.        3 Samadhi. 7, 16.

4 Istopa. 17  Samadhi. 55.    5 Mu. Up. I 2. 10.   6 Ibid. II. 1. 10.

7 Ka. Up. II. 3. 17.           8 Kau. Up. IV. 2- (Trans. Constructive Survey

                                      of Upanisadic Philosophy p. 342.   9 Samaya. 152, 154.


Yogindu rare are such wise persons who are convinced of the fact that Jina-deva is inside the body and that he is neither in the holy places nor in the temples.1  Amitagati tells us that we ought to be capable of sundering the Atman from the body just like the separation of sword from its cover,2 and in the words of Karttikeya the body is like an outward covering.3

          According to the Bhagavad-Gita, in the first places, the wise man is not disturbed by the change of body but simply regards it as equivalent to the physical changes in the form of childhood, youth and old age; he further thinks that just as a person change worn-out garments for new, so the embodied soul casts away old bodies and takes up new ones.4  Again, both of them are ignorant who consider this soul as a slayer and that it can be slain.  The wise man estimates that this soul is unborn, eternal, permanent, all-pervading, not slain with the slaying of the body.  It is uncleavable, incombustible, can neither be drenched nor dried.5  The Samadhisataka point out that since the Antaratman has detached itself from the body, it does not regard the bodily strength, enervation and destruction as belonging to itself.  The separation of body from the soul is considered by the internal self as the putting on of another cloth by taking off the previous one.6  According to the Samayasara the imprudent esteems “I kill other beings or I am killed by other beings.”7  The soul is not all-pervading according to Jainism.

          Secondly, the converted soul is of resolute intelligence, but many branching and multitudinous is the understanding of the irresolute or perverted.8  The latter rejoices in the latter of the Veda, contends that there is nothing else, is intent on heaven, and lays down various specialized rites for the attainment of enjoyment and power.9  In other words, the converted soul owns Sattvika intelligence, while the perverted one possesses Rajasika, the man whose intelligence has become steady due to its internal turning towards the Atman thinks this world as nonbelieveable,10 derives satisfaction from internal fixate in self,12 regards the Atman as the real dwelling places,13  aspires to renounce the attachment


1 Yogasara. 42, 45.    2 Amitagati Samayika Patha. 2.    3 Kartti. 316

4 B. G. II. 13, 22.     5 Ibid. II. 19, 20, 25.    6 Samadhi. 63, 64, 77.

7 Samaya. 247.   8 B. G. II. 41.     9 Ibid. II. 42, 43.

10 Ibid. XVIII. 30, 31, 32.   11 Samadhi. 49.       12 Ibid. 60.


to body and the pleasures as a result of his penances,1 and attains emancipation;2  but, on the contrary, he whose mind is disturbed and not fixed in the self regards this world as believable and beautiful,3 the external objects as satisfying,4 the village and forest as habitations,5 desires a handsome body and pleasures as a reward of his austerities,6 and fails to achieve liberation.7

          Thirdly, in spite of the fact that all actions are born of the modes of Prakrti, the ignoramus believes himself to be their agent.8  The prudent sees contrriwise.9  He witnesses himself to be the non-agent of and untouched by actions.10  He regards the supreme Being as abiding equally in all beings and as never perishing even when they are destroyed;11 he distinguishes, in other words, between Purusa and Prakrti.12  According to Jainism the self from the transcendental point of view is the doer of pure Bhavas and is not affected by the operations of Pudgala Karmas; empirically it is the doer of auspicious and inauspicious Bhavas born of Pudgala karmas.  Yogindu’s Paramatmaprakasa brings out that in the eye of Niscaya-naya bondage and liberation, pleasure and pain, are the consequences of karmas leaving the self intact, but, on the contrary the designation of the self as virtuous and otherwise on account of the Karmic association is warranted from Vyavahara standpoint.13  The statement of the Gita regarding the self as the non-agent of actions, is, according to Jainism, only supermpirically valid.  But the Gita conceives the self established in Prakrti as the enjoyed of joy and sorrow.14  Here the Gita and the Jaina agree with each other.  The wise regards the self as constituted of knowledge and faith, and as being supersensuous, a great objectivity, eternal, stable, independent and pure.  By knowing this he destroys the knot of delusion.15  He is not perturbed by the vicissitudes and destruction of the worldly objects; but, according to Jainism, he never sees the self as dwelling in all things.

          GURU ESSENTIAL FOR SPIRITUAL LIFE; We shall now dwell upon the importance of a Guru for imparting spiritual wisdom and guidance on the path of self-realisation.  The Mundakopanisad point out that in order to seek the knowledge of the Brahman, the aspirant should approach the


1 Samadhi 42.    2 Ibid. 71.     3 Ibid. 49.     4 Ibid. 60.

5 Ibid. 73.    6 Ibid. 42.    7 Ibid. 71.     8 B. G. III. 27; XVIII. 16

9 Ibid. III. 28; XIII. 29.    10 Ibid. XIII. 31, 32.   11 Ibid. XIII. 27.

12 Ibid. XIII. 23.     13 Pp. I. 60, 64, 65

14 B. G. XIII. 20. 21.      15 Prava, II. 100, 101.


Guru who has realised the self.1  The Katha Upanisad opines that the path of realisation is as difficult to traverse as the edge of a razor, consequently one should learn it from those who are on the lofty pedestal of unitive experience.2  It need not be asserted that the Bhagavad-Gita illustrates the significance of the Guru who may lead the aspirant from the state of delusion to that of dispassion.  Jainism also has not blinked the impressiveness of Guru for moving on the path of mystical realisation.  The Acarya is the Guru in the veritable sense.  We have already reckoned with the characteristics of the Acarya, so they need not be repeated here.  The Bhavapahuda says that the Atman should be meditated upon after knowing it from the Guru.3

          INCENTIVIES TO SPIRITUAL LIFE; In the Upanisads and the Bhagavad-Gita we may discern certain incentives which prompt man to strive for immortality.  First, the incentive of being struck by the impermances of worldly opulence may be seen when Naciketas rejects the offer of mundane things and pleasures—cattle and elephants, gold and horses, sons and garrisons with long life, wealth, kingdom and all sorts of pleasures—on being asked by the god of death.  He declares that these transitory things wear away the glory of the senses and even a long life is insufficient to make something out of them with the consequence that dissatisfaction prevails.4  Again, he disapproves the desire for a lengthyduration of life of sensual pleasures when he has come into the presence of ageless immortals.5  In the Brhadaranyakopanisad Maitreyi prefers immortality to the possession of the whole earth full of wealth, since riches are incapable of bestowing eternal life upon her.6 The Maitri Upanisad portrays the mutable nature of the world.  According to it, the gnats and mosquitoes, the grass and the trees grow and decay.  There is the drying up of great oceans, the falling away of mountain peaks, the deviation of the fixed pole-star, the submergence of the earth, the departure of the gods from their station.  In such a world as this, what is the good enjoyment of desires?7  In a similar spirit the Gita tells us that sensual pleasures are the sources of sorrow; they have a beginning and an end and do not last for ever; hence the wise man


1 Mu. Up. I. 2. 12.     2 Ka. Up. I. 3. 14. 

3 Bhava. Pa. 64.    4 Ka. Up. I. 1. 23 to 27.     5 Ibid. I. 1. 28.

6 Br. Up. II. 4. 2.

7 Mai. Up. I. 4. (Translation vide ‘The Principal Upanisads’).


does not take delight in them.1  This incentive may be compared with the incentive of transitoriness of  things as presented by Jainism.  The Uttaradhyaana2 instructs us not to be careless even for a moment, since man’s life is not permanent.  It comes to a close with the passages of time like a dew drop or a leaf of a tree falling to the ground.  Besides, sense pleasures, being impermanent, desert a man just as a bird flies away from a tree void of fruit.3  The Bhagavati Aradhana tells us that all the objects of Bhoga and Upabhoga vanish like a lump of ice and worldly fame and recognition take no time in disapperaring.4  just as water of the flowing river cannot return, so also youth cannot reappear after once it has passed away.5  The Karttikeyanupreksa point out that the body in spite of its due nourishment is sure to decay like an unbaked earthen pot which crumbles when filled with water.6  Friends, beauty, wife, children, wealth, and domestic animals are unstable in character like a newly shaped mass of clouds or like a rain-bow or flash of lighting.7  The Atmanusasana says, what purpose is capable of being served with wealth which, like fuel, inflames the fire of desire ?8  The fortunes of the rulers of the earth vanish in no time like the extinction of a flame of a lamp.9   What gust is there in sense-gratification which are well-known as biter like poison, terrible like serpents, incapable of quenching the thirst like salt water, and fraught with impermances ?10

          Secondly,  the incentive of suffering and transmigration may be exhibited when we are required to realise the self while the body endures, ailing which we will have to wander for a very long duration in different kinds of existence.11  The kenopanisad declares that great is the perdition which comes to the lot of a man who falls short of self-knowledge while this body lasts.12  The Gita accordingly tells us that the cycle of birth and death entangles a man who is not devoted to sovereign knowledge, king-secret, and supreme-sanctity.13   Those great souls who have realised the Atman do not come to this transient and painful birth.14  Hence having entered this impermanent, unhappy


1 B. G. II-14, V-22.                                 2 Uttara. X; 1,2.

3 Ibid. XIII-31.                                        4 Bhaga. Ara. 1727.

5 Ibid 1789.                                             6 Kartti. 9.

7 Kartti. 6,7.                                            8 Atmanu. 61.        9 Ibid. 62.

10 Atmanu 38, 51, 87.                    11 Ka. Up. II. 3. 4.

12 Ke. Up. II. 5, cf. Br. Up. IV-4-14.

13 B. G. IX. 2, 3.                                 14 Ibid. VIII. 15.


world, one should endeavor to capture spiritual truth.1  This incentive may be compared with the incentive of transmigration as already delineated by Jainism.  The Acaranga tells us hat “those who acquiesce and indulge in worldly pleasures are born again and again,”2 and again, “those who,  not freeing themselves from ignorance, talk about final liberation, turn round and round in the whirlpool of births”.3  In the Uttaradhyayana, when the parents of Mrgaputra try to discourage his entrance into ascetic life, by pointing to the difficulties of Scamanic life’,4 Mrgaputra says, “In the Samasara which is a mine of dangers and a wilderness of old age and death, I have undergone dreadful births and deaths.”5  The Paramatmaprakasa point out that he who has not amassed religious metro and practiced austerities will have to descend into hell after being gnawed by the rats of senility.6  Again, it is self-deception if the human birth has not been utilized for performing pennames after having purified the mind.  The self is snared in the millions of births bearing affection and is deluded by sons and wives till the supreme knowledge does not dawn upon it.7

          Thirdly, the Mairti Upanisad presents an incentive of bodily nature and impurity.  It tells us that in this foul smelling, unsubstantial body a conglomerate of bone, skin, muscle, marrow, flesh, semen, blood, mucus, tears, rheum, faeces, urine, wind, bile and phlegm.  What is the good of the enjoyment of desires ?8 The Gita does not speak in terms of bodily impurity.  Gunabhadra in the Atmanusasana urges not to love this body, inasmuch as it is a prison house built of a number of thick bones as stone pillars, fastened by nerves and muscle, covered over with skin, plastered with wet flesh, well protected by its wicked enemies, the karmas, and closed by strong barriers of age-karmas.9  The body is the root cause of the tradition of evils.  After the formation of the body the sense make impetuous movement towards the seizure of their respective object, which in turn engender loss of self-respect, anguish, apprehension, vice, and take us to untoward places of birth.10  The accompaniments of this body are birth, mental and physical


1 B. G. IX. 33.                2 Acara. I. 4. 1. . 36.

3 Ibid. I. 5. 1-p. 43.           4 Uttara. XIX. 24-42.               5 Ibid. 46.

6 Pp. II. 133, 135.           7 Ibid. II. 123.

8 Mai. Up. 1,3.  (Translation vide ‘The Principal Upanisads’.)

9 Atmahnu. 59 (Trans. Vide J.L. Jaini translations).           10 Ibid. 195.


Sufferings and decrepitude, which have been called as the mother, the father, the brothers and the friend of the body respectively.1  The Paramatmaprakasa tells us that this body is replete with foul things, its washing, oiling, decoration and its nourishment with palatable food—all these are of no avail like the favor shown to a Vile.2  The Svayambyhustotra point out that the body is dependent on self for its actions; it is detestable, foul-smelling, perishable and cause of sorrow, hence to set one’s affection for it is of no purpose.3

          IMPORTANCE OF FAITH, KNOWLEDGE AND CONDUC: After dwelling upon certain incentive which actuate a human being to tread on the path of self-realisation, and to ascend the heights ordinarily inaccessible, we shall now passion to the consideration of the way by the pursuance of which the challenge implicit in the incentives may be adequately encountered.  In other words, the question we have is: in what sort of life an aspirant should engage himself, so that the obstacles to the moral and the spiritual betterment may be surmounted.  To start with, faith is the first necessity for any progress in spiritual life.  The Katha Upanisad tells us that Brahman or Purusa is incapable of being attained by mind, speech, and eyes.  He cannot be achieved unless one says “He is”4 Again, when he has been grasped with the certain of His existence, only then the essential nature of god dawns upon a man.5  The Prasna Upanisad says that the Atman is to be discovered through faith, knowledge, austerity and chasity.6  Hence, not only faith, but knowledge and conduct along with it constitute the pathway to emancipation.  The Gita recognise that men who have no faith in the sovereign truth wander in the wheel of birth and death.7  Those who have full faith and are free from cavil are released from the bondage of work, while the Ignorant, the faithless and the septic go to perdition.8 The offerings of gift, the penance, the penance, and any other rite or work when performed without faith is ‘Asat’ and, is nougat here or hereafter.9  Only he who has faith, who is absorbed in wisdom, and who has subdued his senses gains wisdom, and having gained it, he quickly attains the supreme peace.10  In Jainism,


1 Atmanu. 201.    2 Pp. II. 148. 149.     3 Svayambhu. 32.

4 Ka. Up. II. 3. 12.                  5 Ibid. II. 3. 13.

6 Pra. Up. I. 10.                        7 B. G. IX. 3.

8 Ibid. III. 31; IV. 40                9 B. G. XVII. 28.

10 Ibid. IV. 39.


the attainment of liberation is dependent on the acquisition of right faith, right knowledge and right conduct.1  We may point out here that in the Upanisads and the Gita the faith in the supreme Atman, the cosmic principle as identical with the self within, has been advocated; but with Jainism, transcendentally speaking, faith in the super-empirical conscious principle imprisoned in the body constitutes right faith.  Yogindu says that solitarily Atman is Samaygdarsana.2  Notwithstanding this distinction they believe in something divine to be mystically realised.  Transcendental awakening is acceptable to all the three.

          After the faith has been imbibed, knowledge and conduct are to be made the objects of one’s own pursuit.  According to the Mundaka Upanisad, the Atman which is inside the body and which is radiant and pure, is capable of being invariably accomplished by right knowledge, truth, austerity and chastity.3  Besides, it may be seen by those who have destroyed all blemishes, and all desires.4  Mere intellectual knowledge leads nowhere.  The Katha Upanisad recognises that the self can be reached neither by eloquent discourse nor by subtle intellect, nor by much learning.5  He who has not ceased from doing evil, and whose mind is not calm and equipoise cannot hope to attain the self in spite of his being equipped with the intellect of deep penetration.6  The Mundaka Upanisad points out that the self cannot be realised by a man without potency, or with inertia or errors in the seeking, or by improper austerity.7  In accordance with the Gita those who have the eye of wisdom see the indwelling soul.8  Three types of knowledge have been recognised.  The Sattvika knowledge witnesses one immutable being in all existence to distinguish it from the Rajasa one which sees multiplicity of beings and from the Tamasa one which clings to one single effect as if it were the whole.9  The foremost one is right knowledge according to the Gita.  Sublime height cannot be attained by the undisciplined.10  The evil doers who are robbed by illusion, and who partake of the nature of demons, cannot reach the supreme; while tranquillity is realised by


1 Ta. Su. I. 1.              2 PP. I. 96.

3 Mu. Up. III. 1,5.                      4 Mu. Up. III. 1, 5.  Ka. Up. II. 3. 14.

5 Ka. Up. I. 2. 23. Cf. Mu. Up. III. 2. 3.

6 Ka. Up. I. 2. 24.                           7 Mu. Up. III. 2. 4.

8 B. G. XV. 10.                               9 B. G. XVIII. 20 to 22.

10 Ibid. XV. 11.


those who have renounced all desires, and who are free from attachment, pride and selfishness.1  Desire breeds wrath and envelops wisdom; consequently it is the eternal enemy of the soul.2  In contrast to the Gita and the Upanisads, the Moksapahuda pronounces that the cognition of the distinction between sentiency and non-sentiency constitutes right knowledge.3  This divergence is in tun with the metaphysical assertion of the Jaina.  Exclusively neither knowledge nor austerity is fruitful, but the fusion o the two brings about emancipation.4  To explain it clearly, Sila and knowledge are not opposed to each other; rather, right faith, knowledge, austerity, self-control, truth, non-stealing, chastity, contentment and compassion for living beings form the family of the former.5  The Atman can be realised only by the Yogi who is detached from the animal pleasures,6 and has abandoned all conceivable flaws.7  He with the sword of conduct dismembers the pillars of sins.8  It may be pointed out here that Sila has been preferred to the knowledge of grammar, metre and Nyaya.9  Again, without relinquishing the foreign psychical states, the knowledge of the scriptures is of no avail.10  The Mulacara observes that the scriptural knowledge without detachment is unfruitful and acts like a lamp in the hand of a blind man.11  Neither intellectual study, nor the keeping of books and peacock feather, nor dwelling in a religious habitation, nor pulling out the hair can be equated with Dharma.12  He who abandoning attachment and aversion, resides in the Atman moves towards the eternal Gati.13  Again, he who is free from pride, deceit, anger, greed, possession, infatuation, worldly sinful engagements, who has conquered passion's and endured hardships, is established in the ath of liberation, and attains supreme happiness.14  Hence the importance of conduct is evident.

          NEGATIVE SIDE OF CONDUCT—AVOIDANCE OF SINS AND PASSIONS: The negative side of conduct consists in purging away sins, passions, in subduing the senses, and in restraining the mind, while the positive side embraces several virtues along with devotion and meditation.  To proceed with the negative one, the Chandogya Upanisad mentions stealing of gold, drinking of wine, polluting the bed of one’s teacher, killing a


1 B. G VII. 15.; II 71.                                 2 Ibid. III. 37, 38, 39.

3 Mo. Pa. 41.           4 Ibid. 59.         5 Si. Pa. 2, 19.

6 Mo. Pa. 66                7 Bhava. Pa. 85.                     8 Ibid. 159.

9 Si. Pa. 16.                10 Yogasara. 96.                11 Mula. 894, 933.

12 Yogasara. 47.                13 Ibid. 48.                       14 Mo. Pa. 45. 80.


Brahmin, and keeping company with the perpetrators as the five kinds of great sins and therefore considers hem derogatory.1  The Prasna Upanisad opines that pure Brahman is released by those in whom there is neither lying nor deceit nor crookendness.2  Thus the thief, the drunkard, the adulator, the Brahmocide, the liar, the deceitful and the man who associates with them—all go to ruin.  According to Jainism, a pilgrim on the path of self-realisation must avoid wine, meat, honey, violence, falsehood, stealing, incontinence and acquisition.3  He should neither commit these sins nor incite others to commit them nor extol those perpetrating these sins.  According to the Gita, demoniac qualities cause thralldom.  Ostentation, arrogance, excessive pride, anger, harshness, and ignorance—all these are demoniac qualities.4  To refuse to distinguish between action and renunciation, to be possessed of nonparty, non-truth and non-conduct, to give oneself to insatiable desires, to hold wrong views through delusion, to act with impure resolves, and to be hedonistic: all these are Asuri characterstics.5  Again, to be covetous, to be violent, to be snared in hundred of vain hopes, to be entangled in anger and lust, to be engaged in amassing wealth by unjust means for the gratification of desires, to regard oneself as accomplished, as lord and king of man, and as happy and strong, and to be puffed up with riches and birth--all these also come under the sweep of demoniac nature.6  Moreover, persons having such inclination regard the world as unreal, without basis and without God.  They despise the Supreme Being which is hidden in themselves and others.7  The above mentioned base and sordid disposition must needs be relinquished in the interest of higher progress  According to Jainism, all that is responsible for inauspicious Asrava is demoniac in character.  Four kinds of instincts,8 three inauspicious Lesyas, sensual indulgence, Arta and Raudra Dhyanas, improper use of knowledge, delusion9 and thirteen kinds10 of passions


1 Cha. Up. V. 10. 9.             2 Pra. Up. I. 1. 16.              3 Ranta. Srava. 66.

4 B. G. XVI. 4 (Trans. Vide RADHAKRIHNAN: The Bhagavad Gita).

5 B. G. XVI. 7, 10, 11.    6 Ibid. XVI. 12 to 15.      7 Ibid. XVI. 8, 18.

8 Ahara (Food), Bhaya (fear), Maithuna (Sex) and Parigraha (acquisition).

9 Panca. 40.

10 Sarvatha. VII. 9.

Anger (Krodha), Pride (Mana), Deceit (maya), Greed (Lodha) Laughter, (Hasya), Love (Rati), Hatred (Arati), Grie (Soka), Fear (Bhaya), Disgust (Jugupsa), Hankering after woman (Purusaveda), Hankering after man (Striveda) and Hankering after both the sexes (Napumsakaveda).


along with violence, falsehood, stealing, incontinence and acquisition—all these entail inauspicious Asrava.  We shall now dwell upon the characterisations of three Lesyas, inasmuch as they bear great resemblance to the demoniac endowments of the Bhagavad-Gita.  Of the six Lesyas1—Krsna, Nila, Kapota, Tejas, Padma and Sukla—the first three are inauspicious and the last three are auspicious.  One who does not give up enmity and who is wrathful, pugnacious, villain and bereft of piety and compassion is possessed by Krsna Lesya.2  One who is slow, conceited, deceitful, indolent, mysterious, covetous, expert in swindling, extremely sleepy, without commonsense and sagacity, and extremely eager for sense objects is controlled by Nila Lesya.3  To be angry with others, to be full of sorrow and fear, to be envious and slanderous, to belittle and tease others, to be pleased with implores, to be ignorant of one’s own loss and gain, to extol one-self, to give wealth to flatterers, not to trust others and not to recognize duty and non-duty—all these are the characterisations of man possessed by Kapota Lesya.4  Then, there are eight kind of pride to be comprised under Asuri characteristics.   They are pride of knowledge, respect prestige, community, family, wealth, austerity and body.5  All these should be renounced.  In spite of the great concordance, Jainism would not recognise God in the world in the sense of the Bhagavad-Gita, though every soul, according to Jainism, is divine.

          NEGATIVE SIDE OF CONDUCT—CONTROL OF SENSES AND THE MIND: Next comes the controlling of senses and the mind.  He who is without understanding and who is of uncontrolled mind fails to restrain the senses like the civvies horses of a charioteer, says the Kathopanisad.6  The self is the master of the bodily chariot with intelligence as the charioteer, mind as the reins, senses as the horses, objects as the roads to move, and the self, together with the mind and the senses as the enjoyer.7  Now the man equipped with understanding and strong mind charioteer.8  He, therefore, terminates the round of birth, and acquires the immortal state whence there is no return.9  The Brhadaranyaka the Kena, and the Taittiriya Upanisads also prescribe self-restraint and self-conquest.10  According to the Gita, desire resides in the sense, the


1 Gomma. Ji. 493.  2 Ibid. 509.    3 Ibid. 510, 511.   4 Ibid. 512-14.

5 Ratna. Srava. 25.  6 Ka. Up. I. 3. 5.    7 Ibid I. 3. 3, 4.    8 Ka. Up. I. 3.  6, 8, 9.

9 Br. Up. V. 2 1; Ke. Up. IV. 4. 8.; Tai. Up. I. 9.


mind and the intelligence, and by curtailing knowledge through these, it deludes the embodied soul.1  The senses and the attachment and aversion to the objects of the senses are the enemies of the soul.2  The mental dwelling upon the objects of the senses brings about attachment to them which in turn engenders desires producing anger on their being obstructed.3  The consequential effect of anger is infatuation giving rise to the loss of memory by which is not easily controllable like wind, should be curbed by incessant practice and non-attachment;5  the senses are required to be kept under control and the desires need be extirpated.6  Mere withdrawing of the senses from the external performance without subduing the desires will be mere hypocrisy.7  According to Jainism also, control of the mind, along with the sense and the desires is necessary for higher progress.  He who restrains the monkey of mind wandering through the objects of the senses gets the desired fruit.8  In case one fails, the scriptural study, the performance of austerity, and the observance of vows and bodily penance—all these become useless.9  Thus the camels, in the form of the five senses, should not be let loose; after grazing the whole pasture of pleasures they again hunt the soul into the ground of rebirth.10  Hence by capturing the leader, viz., the mind, all others (senses) are captured; the roots being pulled out, the leaves necessarily wither.11  Desire acts like wine in exciting the senses.12  Again, the desire for the objects of the senses produces passions like anger etc.13  These passions which appear in the form of attachment and aversion delude the mind and snatch away its stability.14  The bird of mind fails to fly when the feather of attachment and aversion are cut.15  the seed of attachment and aversion is delusion, which eclipses knowledge, with the consequence that the real nature of things remains hidden.16