POSITIVE SIDE OF CONDUCT—CULTIVATION OF VIRTUES: We now turn to the consideration of the positive side of conduct. According to
1 B. G. III. 4a. 2 Ibid III. 34. 3 Ibid II. 62. 4 Ibid. II. 63.
5 Ibid. VI. 34, 35. 6 Ibid. III. 41. 7 Ibid. III. 6. 8 Jnana. XXII. 23.
9 Ibid. XXII. 28. 10 Pp. II. 136.
11 Ibid. II. 140. (Translation vide UPDHYE Intro. P. 19) 12 Jnana. XXIV. 7.
16 Jnana. XXIII. 30; Istopa. 7.
the Brhaddranyaka Upanisad, charity and compassion are to be practiced,' in addition to self-control. The observance of austerity, charity, simplicity of behaviour, non-violence and truthfulness have been enjoined by the Chandogya.2 Some Upanisads speak of celibacy also.3 The Taittiraya Upanisad enunciates a number of practices but finally decides in favour of the study of the sacred scriptures, as constituting penance and the highest virtue.4 When the pupil takes leave of his teacher after the studies, he is advised to speak the truth, to respect the law, not to be negligent of the study of the sacred scriptures, and not to deflect from welfare, from the means of thriving, and from duties to gods and fathers. He is further advised to offer to the teacher the wealth the latter desires, and then, marry and procreates He should regard his mother, father, teacher and guest as gods, perform faultless actions, and imitate only the noble conduct of his teacher. He is required to show respect to highly disciplined Brahmins, and to offer gifts to them with faith, magnanimity, meekness, awe and proper understanding. Again, if doubt creeps in as to the pursuance of any course of action, the best way is to follow the conduct of those Brahmins who are devout, compassionate, careful thinkers and lovers of virtues.6
The virtues7 or the divine endowments mentioned in the Gita may be put into different categories in order to facilitate comparison with the Jaina enumeration. The first group may comprise the turning away from the objects of the senses, and the controlling of speech, body, mind and understanding. The second may include charity, sacrifice, tranquillity, universal compassion, pure devotion, and the Acarya Upasana. The third may be taken to embrace non-violence, truthfulness, non-acquisition, renunciation and absence of fault-finding. It may also include freedom from lust, anger, pride, greed, fear, enmity and force. The fourth may include forgiveness, gentleness, purity, austerity, modesty, scriptural study, spiritual knowledge, simplicity of behaviour and wise apportionment of knowledge. The fifth may be taken to embrace insight into the evils of birth, death, old age and sickness. It may also involve meditation, resplendence, abstemiousness, endurance, steadfast
1 Br Up. V. 2, 3. 2 Cha. Up. III. 17, 4. 3 Ka. Up. I. 2. 15; Pra. Up. I. 1, 15.
4 Tai. up. I. 9. S Tai. Up. 1, 11. 6Ibid. 1, 11.
7 BG. XIII-7 to 11.; XVII-1, 2, 3.; XVI 11-51 to 53.
(At various places we have followed RADxaxthsxrrAtv's Translation of the Gita.)
ness, non-attachment, spiritual experience, liking for solitude, disliking for crowd, absence of fickleness, purity of mind, freedom from attachment and aversion and equal-mindedness to all happenings, desirable and undesirable.
Further, three types of austerities namely Sattvika, Rajasa and Tamasa, have been recognized by the Ota. 1) The Sattvika austerity isagain of three kinds, namely, the bodily,' the vocal2 and the mental.3
2) The austerity which is performed for the sake of ostentation or with a view to capturing respect, honour and reverence is Rajas.l 3) That which is pursued under delusion, and to torture one's ownself or to harm others is Tamasas Next come three types of charity. 1) That which is given out of duty, with proper consideration of place, time and recipient and without any expectation of return is Sattvika gift.6 2) The Rajasa is that which is given unwillingly or by hurting oneself, with the hope of return or with selfish designs.7 3) The offering which is made with despise, without proper respect and without any regard for time, place and recipient is Tamasa in kind.8 Likewise renunciation admits of a threefold classification. 1) The performance of the acts of sacrifice, charity and austerity, and other prescribed actions after one has renounced attachment to, and yearning for, their fruits has been regarded as Sattvika renunciation.' 2-3) The abandonment of prescribed actions out of ignorance and sheer fear of pain is called the Tamasa and Rajasa types of renunciation respectively.10
Comparing with the Upanisads, we find, that Jainism too recognises scriptural study as the best of the austerities." The householder who observes Brahmacaryanuvrata, Satayanuvrata and Atithisamvibhagamata roughly follows all the duties that the Upanisadic teacher instructs his disciple. To compare with the Gitd, the groups first to four may be compared with the various virtues prescribed in Jainism; namely, the
1 bodily: purity, continence, non-violence, simplicity of behaviour and adoration to the gods, the Brahminas, the wise and the spiritual guide.
Z vocal: scriptural study and the utterance of inoffensive, beneficial and true words.
3 mental: serenity, silence, self-control, evenness of mind, and purity of thoughts. B.G. XV1 1-14 to 17.
4 B.G. 17-18. S Ibid. 17-5, 6, 19. 6Ibid. 17-20.
7 Ibid. 17-21. g Ibid. 17-22.
9 B.G. 18-6. 10Ibid. 18-7. 8. 11 M41a. 409,
three Guptis (control of mind, body and speech), the control of five senses, the causes of the auspicious Asrava, the sixteen kinds of reflections (already discussed elsewhere), freedom from passions, the five vows of Ahimsa, Asteya, Brahmacarya, Aparigraha and Satya along with their various reflections to strengthen them, and the ten Dharmas of forbearance, modesty, simplicity of behaviour, contentment, truth, self-restraint, austerity, renunciation, non-attachment and celibacy. The fifth group may be compared with some of the incentives to spiritual life' and with the importance -of knowledge, conduct, study, meditation and austerity,2 and also with solitude, endurance, observance of evenness in pleasure and pain, and conquest of attachment, aversion and infatuation.3 The Sattvika austerity may be compared roughly with the internal austerity as propounded by Jainism. The extent of austerity in the Gata does not correspond totally to the external and the internal austerity of Jainism. The sole purpose of austerity is to unfold the divinity within. Hence Rajasa and Tamasa austerities have
no meaning in the view of the Jaina. The vow of Atithisamvibhaga Vrata4 answers to the Sattvika charity of the Gita. It is important to note that all the auspicious observances should be made without deceit (mdya), perversity (mithya) and desire for worldly benefits (nidana).5 Though the yearning for worldly fruits has been condemned, the desire for spiritual betterment has been appreciated.6 It is to be borne in mind that in contrast to the Upanisads and the Gita, Jainism regards Ahimsa as the guiding principle from which all the virtues can be derived. The Upanisads speak more in favour of truth than anything else.
POSITIVE SIDE OF CONDUCT-MEDITATION: Next to be considered is Yoga or meditation and devotion. The importance of Dhyana (meditation) is seen when the Mundaka Upanisad pronounces that the immaculate nature of God can be realised neither by sight, nor by speech, nor by any other sense, nor by austerity, nor by any actions, but only through meditation after the purification of inner being.7 The great
1 (1) Incentive of transitoriness of things (Anityanupreksa); (2) Incentive of inescapability from death (Asravnanupreksa). (3) Incentive of transmigration (Sathsaranupreksa); (4) Incentive of bodily impurity (Asuci-anupreksa),
2 Milld. 968. 3 Ibid. 950, 816, 880. 4 Sarvdtha. VII. 21, 38, 39.
5 Ibid. VII. 18. b Amitagati 8rava. 20, 21, 22. 7 Mu. Up. III, 1, 8.
world-illusion passes away only through meditation upon God and by entering into His being, says the Svetas'vatara Upanisad.1 According to the Bhagavad-Gita, in order to ascend the sublime heights the Yogi has to banish all desires and all longing for possessions; he has to curb the mind and the senses, and then in solitude has to meditate on the supreme self by fixing the mind on the Atman without allowing anything to is tract it. 2 The Moksapahuda says that he who is desirous of crossing the formidable ocean of Samsara meditates upon the pure self after renouncing all passions, detaching himself from all worldly engagements, and observing silence.3 The tree of worldly existence cannot be eradicated by the Dravyasramana who is occupied with the pleasures of the senses, but it is capable of being rooted out by the Bhavasramana with the axe of meditation.4 Just as a lamp which is unobstructed by wind continues to glow in a well-surrounded house, so the lamp of meditation in the absence of the wind of attachment keeps illuminating in the heart of the Bhavasramana. 5 The Paramatmaprakas'a tells us that the Atman which is incapable of being known by the Vedas, the astras and the senses is accessible only to pure meditation.6 Notwithstanding the observance of moral discipline, the performance of austere penance's and extensive scriptural study, the success in spiritual life is incapable of being achieved without the pursuance of meditation.7 Then there are certain pre-requisites of Yoga or meditation enunciated. The place is required to be pleasing to the mind and free from sounds; watery resorts should not be aching to the eyes. The ground need be even, clean and free from pebbles, fire and sand. One should select for practice a place in the still recesses of a caved. According to the Gita, the Yogi should set his firm seat in a clean place, neither too' high nor too low, covered with sacred grass, a deer-skin and a cloth, one over the other, for practicing Yoga.9 The Jfiandrnava supplies a long list of places which are to be avoided, and which are to be preferred for the practice of Dhyana.10 For our purpose it will suffice to say that those places which are disturbing, captivating, unpleasant; and those which are noisy on account of crows, owls, asses, dogs, and the like, and those which are vitiated by thorns, uneven stones, bones, blood, etc., as well as those
1 86ve. Up. I, 1, 10. 2 B.G. VI-10, 23, 24,
3 Mo. Pa. 26 to 28.
4 Bhdva. Pa. 122. S Ibid. 123.
6 Pp. I. 23.
7Amita. 9rava. 96. 8 tive. Up. II, 2, 10.
9 BG. VI. 11.
1oJRccna, XXVII 23 to 29; XXVIII 1 to 7.
that might counteract meditational efforts should be rejected; and mountains, caves and other solitary places should be chosen., The Yogi should fix his seat on a wooden plank, Sila, ground or sandy place.2 We may point out here that a deer skin will be used neither by a householder nor by a Muni according to the Jaina tradition. Regarding the posture and the process of meditation, one should keep the three parts of the body in equilibrium and control the senses so as to enable one to concentrate on Brahman.3 The important thing is that the mind should be adequately restrained.4 The supreme Symbol `Om' has been prescribed for meditations. The bow of `Om' and the arrow of soul sharpened by devotion set on it should be directed by concentrated attention to pierce the mark of Brahman.6 As regards posture, the Gita tells us that having practised the vow of celibacy, and attained fearlessness, serenity, and control of the mind, the Yogi should hold the body, head and neck erect and motionless, and by looking fixedly at the tip of his nose without being distracted in any way he should turn to the supreme self. 7 Only those who are moderate in tourings and in taking food, restrained in actions, and regulated in sleep and waking succeed in Yoga. Though the efBcacy9 of `Om' has been recognised, it has not been enjoined as a means of meditation as in the Upanisads. The Jndndrnava tells us that any convenient posture subscribing to mental control should be adopted:l0 After turning away the senses from their objects, casting aside attachment and aversion, and acquiring an equipoised state of mind, the Yogi should fix his mind on the forehead." Besides, the nine other places have been enjoined for practising meditation; viz., the two eyes, the two ears, the tip of the nose, the mouth, the navel, the head, the heart, the palate, and the place between the two eyebrows. 12 Symbols have been suggested for meditational purposes. The Dravyasa mgraha declares that the Namokara Mantra and the other imparted by the Guru should be utilized for the practice of meditation. 13 The Moksapahuda proclaims that meditation should be instituted after restraining food, posture and sleep. 14
1 Jnccnd. XXVII. 21 to 34., Sat. Vol XIII. p. 66.
2 Jndna. XXVIII. 9.
3 ~ve. Up. II. 2, 8. -
4 Ibid. II 2, 9.
5 Mu. Up. II. 2,6.
6lbid. II. 2, 3-4.
7 B.G. VI 13, 14.
g Ibid. VI. 17.
9 Ibid. VIII-13., XVII-24.
lo Jnand. XXVIII. 11.
11 Ibid. XXX 12.
IZ Ibid. XXX. 13.
13 Dravya. 49.
14 Mo. Pa. 63.
POSITIVE SIDE OF CONDUCT-DEVOTION:- As regards devotion, the Svetaswatara Upanisad mentions Upasana and Bhakti to God and the Guru as necessary for realisation. We may summarise Professor RANADE's version regarding devotion in the Upanisads, "It is only in the Bhagavadvitd that the dry intellectualism and speculative construction of the Upanisads disappear."' In the Gita Saguna devotion, as differentiated from Nirguna one which is difficult for the mundane souls, has been envisaged as a means for the realisation of the supreme which is incapable of being attained either by the Vedas or by austerities, or by gifts, or by sacrifices. One-pointed and unswerving devotion is indispensable to the transcending of the three Gunas.3 But of the four types of Bhaktas, namely, the sufferer, the seeker for knowledge, the person who is eager for wealth and the wise, the last is the best of all because of his impersonal and absolute devotion.4 Again, the Gita says that even of the Yogis, as distinguished from those engrossed in mere external asceticism, intellectual knowledge and rituals, the greatest is the devotees Hence, devotion cannot be dispensed with for higher ascension. The recognition of Bhakti as an integral constituent of the sixteen kinds of reflection, its inclusion in the six essentials of the Muni,7 in the daily life of the householder in the form of Jinapnja, Samayika, Vaiyavrttya etc., are the illustrations of the emphasis laid by Jainism on devotion as indispensable to spiritual advancement. The Moksapahuda tells us that divested of the Atman, externalism, extraneous penance's, scriptural learning, observance of the manifold rules of conduct-all ' these are preposterous and' puerile. He who is devoted to the Deva and the Guru, and who is devoted to ascetics following right conduct and pursuing meditation is established in the path of liberation.9 Saguna Bhakti may be equated with the aforementioned types of devotion and Nirguna one, with the supreme meditation, which is not only difficult, but also not possible in the initial stages of Yoga. The distinguished Yogi's devotion will be free from the three Slays, namely, Maya (deceit), Mithya (perversity),- and Nidana (desire for worldly benefits).
1 Constructive Survey of Upanisadic Philosophy, p. 198.
ZBG. XII-2, 5., XI-53, 54. 3Ibid. XIV-26. 4Ibid. VII-16, 17.
5 Ibid. VI-46, 47. 6 We have already enumerated these. 7We have dealt with these in the previous chapter.
8 Mo. Pu. 99, 100. 9Ibid. 52, 82.
The three lower types of devotees of the Gita may be said to possess Nidana Salya according to Jainism.
PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MYSTICAL EFFECTS OF YOGA AND THE ELEMENT OF GRACE: Clear complexion, sweet voice, the emission of good smell, extraordinary decrease in excretions, the possession of light and healthy body and freedom from sensual indulgence-all these are the physiological effects of Yoga or deep meditation., The spiritual effect consists in the disintegration of all sorrows and bonds, which results in the realisation of the Brahman, the universal se1f.2 But before this attainment may ensue, divine grace is essential. The Mundakopanisad tells us that the Atman manifests itself only to him whom it chooses.3 "It implies that man's endeavors after a full-fledged realisation of God may always fall short of the ideal, unless grace comes from above."4 The Gita does not speak of the physiological effects of Yoga. Those who succeed in the practice of Yoga attain to the mystical effect of realising supreme peace. And, those who fail, on account of the imperfect practice of Yoga, are born in heaven, then in the house of prosperous persons or in the family of Yogins, and ultimately seek salvation by means of fresh endeavours and the revival of previous impressionists It is necessary to seek God's grace before one hopes to reach the highest.6 The Moksa pdhuda pronounces that meditation on the Svadravya, i.e., on the unique, eternal and pure Atman, as distinguished from the Paradravya, i.e., from the things other than the Atman, leads to emancipation, the path of the Tirthamkara.7 If deliverance is not attained owing to certain imperfections, heaven is indubitably attained. Then after returning from there and again after pursuing right belief, right knowledge and right conduct, one will attain liberation. Such a person in this world gets endowed with knowledge, endurance, prosperity, health, contentment, strength, and handsome body.9 The theory of grace from Divinity is foreign to Jainism.l0 As there is no God over and above the Tirthamkaras, and they too have gone beyond attachment and aversion, divine grace, in view of the Jaina, is a contradiction in terms. It is only meditational efforts that eventually lead one to Nirvana.
1 9ve. Up. II, 2, 13. Z Ibid. II, 2, 14, 15. 3 Mu. Up. III, 2; 3. Ka. Up. I, 2, 23. 4 Constructive survey of Upanisadic Philosophy. p. 345.
5 BG. VT-15, 41 to 45. 6Ibid. XVIII-56, 58, 62. 7 Mo. Pa. 17 to 19.
8 Ibid. 20, 77., Jnana. LXI 26, 27. 9 Tattvanusasana, 198. 10 Muld. 567.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PERFECTED SAGE: After ortraying the comparison and the contrast between the Jaina view and the views of the Gild and the Upanisads concerning the pursuance of right conduct in its various aspects, we now propose to represent the similarities and dissimilarities in the conception of perfected mystic or the ideal sage as propounded by Jainism, the Gita and the Upanisads. We are concerned with the characteristics which a mystic has evolved in his person by virtue of his strenuous striving after the spiritual path. First, he has banished and brushed aside all the desires from the' texture of his own self because of his exclusive occupation with the accomplishment of the supreme desire, namely, the realisation of the Atman, thus seeking consummate satisfaction in the self by the self., His undertakings exhibit destitution from desire.2 On account of his self-control, renunciation of all Parigraha and desires, and conquest of all the senses, he escapes and eludes the bondage despite his performance of actions,3 for the benefit and guidance of mankind.4 In other words, he remains uncontaminated by the fruits of actions like the leaf of lotus which does not get polluted by water.5 In short, the perfect Yogi sees action in inaction and inaction in action.6 We find concordance on this point when Jainism announces that the consummate mystic has extirpated the inimical passions depriving the self of highest attainments along with the conceptual transformations of the mind and rests satisfied with the Atmanic experience. 7 His mental, vocal and physical actions are neither impelled by desire nor born of ignorance.8 The activities of standing, sitting, walking and preaching, knowing and seeing are not the results of desire, and consequently they are incapable of enmeshing the self in bondage.9 Just as a mother educates her child for its benefit and a kind physician cures diseased orphans, so also the perfected mystic instructs humanity for its upliftment and dispenses spiritual pills. to suffering humanity. l o He is the leader of man-kind. l l Secondly, the crowning experience of the mystic has made possible the termination of all sorrows, since the mystic experiences the self
1 Ka. Up. II. 3. 14.; Mu. Up. III. 2. 2.; B.G. II. 55.
2 B.G. IV. 19. 3lbid. IV. 21; V. 7. 4lbid. III. 25.
= Cha. Up. IV. 14-3. 6 B.G. IV. 18. 7 Svayambhu. 67. Bo. Pd. 40. 8 Svayarrobhic. 74. 9 Svayambhu. 73. Niyarrra. 173 to 175. 10Svayambhu. 11, 35. 11 Ibid. 35.
everywhere. l According to Jainism, he has put an end to a11 sorrows because he has destroyed all attachment to the objects of the world. Thirdly, Jainism, the Gita, and the Upanisads concur with one another regarding the fact that by virtue of self-realisation or establishment in Brahmanic experience, the perfect mystic has transcended the dualities of friends and foes, pleasure and pain, praise and censure, life and death, sand and gold, attachment and aversion.2 Fourthly, in view of the Kathopanisad and the Mundakopanisad the tangles of the heart of the perfected mystic are unravelled.3 In other words, on account of his arriving at the acme of realisation, the mystic is freed from all doubts whatsoever. According to Jainism, the mystic has intuitively known all the objects of the world, owing to the outright removal of all the filth of karman;4 consequently the invasion of any doubt is out of question.5 Fifthly, he who has ascended the mystical heights has necessarily identified himself with evenness and equanimity and kept himself away from the accumulation of the detrimental elements of Punya and Papa.6 The Bodhapahuda opines that the Arahanta has transcended Punya and Papa etc., and equanimity follows from this by implication.7 Sixthly, the Kathopanisad and the Gita recognise that the excellent mystic experiences illimitable bliss.8 The Moksapahuda pronounces that the Yogi after making conceit, deceit, anger and pride extinct, and after attaining pure nature realises happiness par-excellence.9 Seventhly, the state of the saint who has achieved culmination in Yoga, is totally opposed to the persons pursuing ordinary life. What is night for a11 beings is the time of waking for the perfected soul; and what is waking time for all beings is the night for the sage who has attained perfection. U) According to Kundakunda, the true Yogi sleeps in Vyavahara, while he is awake in his own work of self realisation. i i The Acdra"nga tells us that the unwise sleep, the sages always awake.l2 Samantabhadra speaks that being impelled by the desire to live and enjoy, the commonplace persons work hard in the day, and getting
1 B.G. It. 65; V. 26. L Up. 7.; Mu. Up. III. 1. 2.
z Prava. III. 41. ; Svayambhu. 10.; Ka. Up. I. 2. 12.; B.G. VI. 7, 8, 9.; II. 56, 57.
3 Ka. Up. II. 3, 15., My. Up. II. 2, 8. 4 Pra va. I. 15.
`Prava. II-105. 6B.G. II. 50.; V-19.; Mu. Up. III. 1, 3.
7 Bo. Pa. 30. 8 Ka. Up. I. 2, 13.; B. G. VI. 28. 9 Mo. Pa. 45.
IoB.G. II. 69. 11 Mo. Pd. 31. 12Elcara. (. 3, 1, (P 28).
tired, they resort to sleep at night; but the mystic keeps awake day and night in the process of self-purification and self-realisation without being overwhelmed by indolence, inertia and looseness.' In spite of all this happy concurrence, the fundamental difference that remains is that the mystic according to Jainism, though having full experience of the Atman, does not experience it everywhere like the mystic of the Upanisad and the Gita. Eighthly, the saint who has ascended the sublime heights is like an impenetrable rock. Anything dashing itself against it shatters itself. In a similar vein, he who persecutes such a holy personage causes ruin to himself.2 Samantabhadra says that desolation and perdition stare one in the face who calumniate such lofty spirits.3 Ninthly, the Mundakopanisad tells us that a man who wishes to be prosperous should adore the mystic who has realised thC1 self. 4 Jainism affirms that the pious name of the mystic serves as an aid for the accomplishment of auspicious and desired purposes.5 Tenthly, there exists nothing which is required to be achieved by that mystic who takes delight in the self and who is content and satisfied with the self. He does not need any of the things of the world for any interest of his.6 In view of Jainism the saint has done what ought to have been done by resorting to pure meditation.7
LIBERATION IN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS: We now turn to the ethical concepts of the systems like Nyaya-Vaisesika, Samkhya-Yoga, PnrvaMimalhsa, Vedanta of Samkara and lastly early Buddhism. Though these systems except the early Purva-Mimamsa conceive liberation as the Summum Bonum of human life, they differ widely in expounding its nature. Some schools of thought describe it negatively as freedom from sorrows and suffering, as an escape from the trammels of Samsara, while the others . describe it as a positive attainment of hippies or bliss. The champions of the former _view_ are the Vaisesikas, the early Naiyayikas, the Samkhya-Yoga and some among the later Mimamsakas, and the early Buddhists. Of the latter view are the Jainas, the later Naiyayikas, the Wlimamsakas, and the Advaita-Vedantins. Not only these systems differ in the nature of deliverance, but also they show
1 Svayarnbhu. 48. '- Cha. Up. i. 2, 8.
4 Mu. Up. 3, 1, 10. 5 Svayambhu. 7.
6 B. G. III. 17, 18.; qve. Up. II. 2. 14. 7 Svayambhic. 110.
3 Svayambhu. 69.
divergence in the possibility of its attainment here or elsewhere, in this world or hereafter. The former is styled Jivanmukti, while the later is Videhamukti. Jainism, Advaita Vedanta, Samkhya-Yoga and Buddhism subscribe to both the above mentioned views, while the Nyaya-Vaisesika and the Mimamsa recognise the latter view to the exclusion of the former. According to the Nyaya-Vaisesika, the self is an independent principle having for its qualities desire, aversion, volition, pleasure, pain and cognition., These qualities are not the eternal associates of the self but emerge when the self acquires bodily form. Thus consciousness or knowledge etc., are adventitious qualities of the self,2 consequently disappearing when it attains liberation. Since pleasure is incapable of being experienced without being tainted with pain, the emancipated condition implies the absolute cessation of both. Uddyotakara puts forth that for the experience of everlasting pleasure in the redeemed state, everlasting body is requisite, since experience is not possible without bodily mechanism.3 From the enunciation of Uddyotakara it follows that release while living in this body is out of question. But both Uddyotakara, and Vatsyayana give credence to a stage corresponding to Jivanmukti, "such a person will not be divorced from his physical or mental adjuncts; but narrow love and hate will have disappeared from him altogether with the selfish activity that proceeds from them. "4 We may add here that the negative concept of liberation was soon rejected by the later Naiyayikas like Bhasarvajna and others and the positive idea of freedom as blissful state superseded the former one.5 The Purva-Mimamsaka thinkers like Jaimini and Sabara were not concerned with the problem of ultimate release, but regarded heaven as the highest end of man. But the later Mimamsakas like Kumarila and Prabhakara occupied themselves with liberation as the ideal of life. Like the Nyaya-Vaisesika, consciousness and other mental states are not regarded as inherent in the soul by the Mimamsakas. Hence liberation is devoid of pleasure and pain.6 Some other Mimamsakas hold that emancipation is not merely a state free from pain, but it is also one of eternal bliss.7 These conceptions of liberation correspond to the two aforementioned
1 N. Su. [. 1. 10. 2 N. Su. Bhasya. I. 1, 10. 3lbid. 1. 1, 1. IV. 1. 58.
4 Outlines of Indian Philosophy. p. 266.
views advocated b the Naiyatikas. The Samkhya-Yoga represents the negative conception of liberation, but consciousness has been conceived here as the essence of individual self and not a separable quality as in the Nyaya-Vaisesika and the Purva-Mimamsa. Mukti is not the manifestation of bliss, since the Purusa is free from all attributes.1 When discrimination arises, Prakrti does not forth-with free the Purusa, for, on account of the momentum of past habits, its work continues for some little time.2 This is Jivanmukti. Atdeth the jivanmukta attains disembodied liberation which is a state of absolute and complete freedom from suffering.3 According tot he Advaita-Vedanta of Samkara, Moksa consists in the identification of individual self with the Brahman, the universal reality, the essence of the universe. it is not merely the absence of miser, but a positive state of bliss. this state is capable of being achieved even in this world while one is having the body. We shall deal with the Buddhist conception of Nirvana subsequently while dealing with the four noble truths of Buddha. Jainism views the attainment of infinite knowledge, infinite bliss etc., as necessary correlates of emancipation. The concept of Tirthmkara illustrates he possibility attaining diveinsttus even when the physical frame continues. we have already dwelt upon this conception in a previous chapter. the state of Videhamukti is to attain Siddhahood.
AVIDA IN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS: Before dwelling upon the process of ascending the sublime heights, we first propose to reckon with the principle responsible for the ills and maladies of the mundane career. Such a principle s staled Avid recognised b all the stems of Indian philosophy except the materialists. it keeps the self moving in the cycle of ebiths and eclipses the happy aspects of life. though the function of Avidya has been unanimously recognised as casting a veil over the true nature of things, yet the nature has been diversely conceived in conformity with the metaphysical position upheld by them. to being with the Nyaya school, Moha which is not other than Mithajana is the sole cause of worldly career.4 it engenders Raga (attachment) and Dvesa (aversion) which occasion the threefold action of mind, body and speech.5 This Pravrtti (volitional activity) entails merti (Dharma) and demerit
1 Samkhyapravacana Sutra. V. 74. (vide RADHAKISHNAN, I.P. Vol. II. p. 313).
2 S.K. 67 (Trans. RADHAKRISHNAN, I.P. Vol. II p. 313)
3 Ibid. 68. 4 N. Su. Bhasya. IV. 1.3. 5 Ibid. IV. 1.6.
(Adharma) which accumulate in the self to act as the condition for the creation of new body in the next birth out of the material elements.1 This birth is accompanied with suffering. Regarding the nature of Mighya-jnana Vatsyayana says: Delusion (moha) consists in upholding the notself for the self. it is the erroneous knowledge that 'I am the bounder its inference the self identifies itself with the body, the sense organs, the mind the feelings and the congintions.2 The vaisesika has bot developed nay independent theory of nescience and follows the naya school of thought. according tot he Purva-Mimasa, the performance of Nisiddh and kama Karmas and non-performance of Nitya and Naimittika Karmas are the causes of bodnage.3 in view of the Samkhya-Yoga the non-discrimination between Purusa and Prakrti is the root cause of all our anguish and affections. the confusion between the two is due to nescience (Avida) on account of which one apprehends noneternal as eternal, impure as pure, sorrow as pleasure, and non-soul as soul.4 According to the ogadarsana, Avida is a Klesanad is the root of other four Klesas, namely, Asmita (egoism), Raga (attachment), Dvesa (aversion) and Abinivesa (desire for life).5 To identify falsely the Purusa and Budhi is Asmita (egoism),6 o to believe Purusa as the doer and the enjoyer is egoism.7 Raga (attachment) is indulgence in pleasure after the revival of the previous one.8 Devasa ( aversion) is anger in the previous pain.9 The apprehension of losing the body and the objects of pleasure on account of death is Adhinivesa. 10 Thus Klesas perpetuate the world process and its sorrows and sufferings. we ma point out her that these five Klesas correspond to the five Viparasass (perversions) of the Samkhya Karika namely Avida-Tamal Asmita-Mohoa, Raga-Mahamoha, Dvesa-Tamisra, Abhinivesa-Andhatamisra.11 According to Samkara, Avidya implies the super imposition of the objects upon the self-illuminating subject and the superimposition of subject upon the object, as 'I am this' and this is mine. "It is due to this mutual superimposition of the Atman and the un-Atman that there arises all
1 N. Su. Bhasya. III. 2.60.
2 N. Su. IV. 2.1.: N. Su. Bhasya. IV. 2. 1. Introduction. p. 762-763.
3 RADHAKRISHNA, I. P. Vol. II. p. 418.
4 Y. Su. II. 5, 24.
5 Ibid. II. 3, 4.
6 Y. Su. & Bhasya. II. 6.
7 Y. Su. and Bhoja Vrtii. II. 6. 7.
8 Y. Su. II. 7.
9 Y. Su. & Bhasa. II. 8.
10 Y. Su. and Bhoja vrtti. II. 9.
11 S. K. 48.; Y. Su. & Bhasya. I. 8.
the practical distinctions of ordinary and vedic life, pertaining to knowledge and it s objects, prohibitions and injunctions, as also pertaining thoMoksa."1 We postpone the treatment of the Buddhistic conception of Avidya to a late set, while we shall deal with the four noble truths of Buddha. here we may simply point out that Avidya, acquiring to Buddhism, consists in reading suffering as happiness, a series of states of self as an abiding self, momentariness as permanence. in accordance with Jainism, the worldly existence is conditioned b Mithyadarsana, Mithyajnana, and Mithacaritra. these three are responsible for the perpetuation of the worldly career. mithadarsana is wrong attitude or belief, Mithyajnana is wrong knowledge and Mithyacaritra is wrong conduct. it is not Mithyajnana that is at the root of Sasmara but Mithyadarsana, i.e., non-belief in the eternal principle of self as difffern4et from the body etc. Due to this non-belief knowledge and conduct become unauthentic i.e., in the absence of spiritual orientation, even profound knowledge and disciplined conduct are incapable of leading to superb heights. in the systems referred to, Avidya is snonmous with perverted knowledge, hence the latter exclusively causes mundane existence. but this is unacceptable to the Jaina in view of his aforementioned threefold conditions of bondage.
ATTAINMNT OF LIBERATION: We now turn to deal with the process of attainment of Moksa, the veritable end of life. all the stems are one in assuming right knowledge as an authentic condition for the accomplishment of liberation, though the Purva-Mimamsa adds the performance of certain Karmas ( actions) to it. with the Nyaya-Vaisesika the true knowledge of the sixteen Padarthas2 is indispensable for emancipation. this may be reduced to the recognition of the fact that by the employment of the means of knowledge of the self as distinguished form the noon-self precedes the state devoid of pleasures and pain. inteh Samkha-Yoga it is the discrimination between the
1 Vedanta Explained. Vol. I. p. 4.
2 The sixteen padarthas are:-
(1) Pramana (Prataksa, Anumana, Upamana, and Sabda), (2) Prameya (Atmasarira, Indiria, Artha, Buddhi, Manas, Pravrtti, Dosa, pretyabhava, phala Duhkha, and Apavarga), (3) Samsaa, (4) Praojana (5) Drtanta (6) Siddhanta (7) Avayava (8) Tarka (9) Nirnaya (10(\) Vada (11) jalpa (12) Vitanda (13) hetvabhasa (14) Chala (15) jati (16) Nigrahasthana. ?See N. Su. I. 1. 1.; N. su. I. 1. 3.; N. Su. I. 1. 9.
Purusa and the actions of Prakrti that leads one to salvatin.1 Teh Samkhya Karachi as "the Knowledge that "I am not" (naham) leads to release.2 This is simply the expression of the result of discrimination. The School of Purva-Mimamsa lays stress on the abstention from Kamya (optional) and the Pratisiddha (Prohibited ) Karmas and the performance of Nitya (obligatory) and Naimittika (conditional) Karmas to avoid becoming entangled in the miseries of Samsara. but the Prabhadkara school of Mimamsa explicitly gives acceptance to the need for Jnana as a means of relase.3 According to Samkara, deliverance is effected b true knowledge of one's own identity with the Brahman. the self is really brahman, but owing to Avidya it is oblivious of its innate glory and magnificence which can berestored by veritable knowledge of the fact that 'I am Brahman' in the view of the Buddhist the knowledge of the four noble truths propounded by Buddha is essential for achieving Nirvana.4 The right knowledge we have referred to should not be confounded with theoretical knowledge. it should be elevated to the level of intuition by resorting to a certain process called oga. the Nyaya-Vaisesika and the Vedanta prescribed the threefold5 way for securing intuitive knowledge name, 1) Scriptural study and the guidance of a competent Guru (sravana), 2) reflection on what has been read and auhg to attain firm conviction of truth (manana), 3) meditation upon the real nature of self (nididhasana). The nature of truth realised is different in the two systems. in addition to this the Naya-Vaisesika6 refers to the eight-fold path enjoined by the Samkhya-Yoga to know the truth. the Purva-Mimamsa also endorsee theis.7 The Advaita Vedanta prescribes four pre-requisite8 conditions of Brahma-JHnana, namely, 1) the discrimination between what is abiding and what is not abiding, 2) Nonattachemnt to the mundane and extra-mundane objects of pleasure and pain, 3) Possession of tranquility, restraint, dispassion, endurance, alertness and faith, 4) the desire for final liberation. in the words of Dr. Date, "the spark o Caitana in man cannot be kindled into the flame of spiritual life and felt to be continuos with Brahmanic life,
1 Y. Su. & Bhasya & Bhoja Vrtti. II. 25, 26.
2 S. K. 64. (Trans. vide Radhakrishnan I. pp. 309 Vol. II.)
3 Prakarnana Panjika. p. 157. 4 ani-III. 61-6.
4 N. Su. IV. 2. 38.; 47 to 49. 6 N. Su. IV. 2. 46.
7 Prakarana panjika. pp. 154 to 157.
8 Vedanta Explained, Vol. I. p. 8.
unless sincer3e moral efforts and emotional meditations are resorted to".1 Devotion in Samkara, as has been pointed out by Dr. Date, in the newly published volume of he first time in the history of Vedantic interpretations, refers to the living mastic "Who has himself realised the brahman and who, therefore, can be called a concrete, personified, saguna incarnation or Avatara of brahman."2 To compare the above systems with the vies adduced by the jina, it is not right knowledge alone that is responsible for emancipating the self form wooly existence as such, but right belief and right conduct should also be added to the cause of Moksa. Jinism as that the other systems also recoginisse that just after the dawn of enlightenment the sould does not renounce the body on account of the persistence of Prarabdha Karmas.3 hence a separate effort is re3quisite to dispel them and that effort is Caritra in the from of two types of Sukla Dhyana. thus in addition to right knowledge and right belief, right conduct should also be admitted the direct means to salivation. in view of this the recognition of Vidyanandi that the existence of enlightened personages in the world will be inexplicable if right knowledge alone is regarded as the cause of emancipation is justifiable.4 We ma point out here that b Dr. Date's interpretation of Devotion, Samkaa's vie has come very close to Jainism, though not metaphysically yet spiritual. Jainism subscribes to the view of craya Bhakti which is devotion to a living Guru. the Bhavaphauda tells us that the Atman should be meditated upon after knowing it from the Guru.5 The Dravyasamgraha points out that meditation should be conducted not he syllables imparted by the Guru.6 We need not go into the details to the ethics of Nyaya-Yaisesika, Vedanta, purva-Mimamsa, inasmuch as, in the first place, they have not developed an independent the of 4ethics, and secondly, they remained dependent on the Upanisads, the Gita and the Yoga system for ethical process. the ethics of the former two have already been dealt with. we shall now dwell upon the eight-fold path of Yoga and the four noble truths of Buddha, since they are closely comparable with the Jaina Acura.
EIGHT-FOLD PATH OF YOGA: To begin with the Yoga, the term Yoga does not sign if and sort of conjunction or union of the self with the other reality like God or the Absolute, but implies the arrest and
1 Vedanta Explained, Vol. II. p. 535. 2. Ibid. Vol. II. p. 524.
3. T. Slv. p. 66. 4 T. Slv. p. 72.
5. Bhava Pa. 64. 6 Drava. 49.
negation of mental modifications,1 the practical discrimination between the Purusa and prakrti,2 and the attainment of, and establishment in, the original nature of Purusa.3 These three implications are not separate from one another. one leads to the other without being incompatible. another meaning scribed to the word Yoga by patanjali is indicative of the process to achieve the above ideal.4 The equivalent expression in Jainism for the term "Yoga" into he sense of the highest state is Suddhopayoga, Samadhi and Dhana, where in the conceptual ter4ansformatins of the mind occurring in the form of auspicious and inauspicious deliberations are stopped and negated into heir entirely on account of the fat that he self has established itself exclusively in its own intrinsic purity and excellence. The practical discipline to be adopted for this highest ascent is staled Criteria (conduct)as compared with the other meaning attributed to 'Yoga' as has been shown above. The actualisation of such a state is not a bed of roses, as ma perhaps be conceived, but necessities an arduous and persistent effort not he part of the Sadhaka. the most general and fundamental discipline required to ascended the sublime heights consists in developing de4tachment ( vairagya) and in adhering to incessant practice (abhasa).5 Teh former comprises the spirit of denial from indulging in the attractions of the world or the pleasures of the heaven;6 the latter signifies the endeavor to proceed on the logic path for curbing the unstable nature of find and that too for a long time without any break.7 Vairaga is negative in character, while Abhyasa is positive. the former includes wholesle turning form the objects of the transitory world, whereas the latter induces the self to pursue the yogic path. the twelve reflections (anupreksas)8 enunciated by the Jaina Acaryas are potent enough to engender the spirit of detachment from the sordid ways for the world and to give impetus for the constant application of one's won energies to higher life. Thus Vairagya and Abhyasa summarise the whole Yogic movement. patanjali enjoins eight-fold means of Yogic process, the constant and single minded devotedness to which bears the fuit in the form of emancipation after the filth of nescience is wiped out.9 The are 1) yama, 2) Niyama, 3) Asana, 4) Pranaama, 5) pratyahara, 6) Dharana, 7) Dhyanai and 8) Samadhi.10.
1 Y. Su. I. 2. 2 Ibid. II. 25, 26. 3 Ibid. I. 3.; IV. 34.
4 Y. Su. & Vrtti-II. 1. 5 Y. Su. I. 12. 6 . Su. Bhoja Vrtti. I. 15.
7 . Su. I. 13, 14. 8 T. Su. IX. 7. 9 Y. Su. Bhasya & Vrtti. II. 28.
10 Y. Su. II. 28.
1) Yama is of five kinds.1 (a) Ahimsa (non-injuy) (b) Satya (truthfulness) (c) Asteya (non-stealing) (d) Brahmacara (celibacy) (e) Aparigraha (non-acquisition). The pronouncement of patanjali that these yamas may bear the credit of Mahavratas2 when they transcend the limitations of kind, space, time, and purpose indicate the possibility of the limited or partial Vratas. besides, we may derive by implication that Patanjali is inn favour of ascetic life, inasmuch as the life of the householder inevitably presents certain stumbling blocks in the was of observing Mahavratas. hence the life of asceticism constitutes an indispensable discipline of the yogic process. the Vasa-Bhasya pronounces Ahimsa to be at the root of both Yama and Niyama and further tells us that Yama and Niyama are pursued to observe Ahimsa in its pure and unadulterated form.3 These Mahavratas are in perfect agreement with he Mahavratas4 prescribed for a Jaina monk along with Ahimsa as the basis5 which we have already dealt with. the Anuvratas are for the householder. it is not possible to guess the find of Patanjali regarding the limited character of vows from his Sutras, but Vyasi seems to have included the killing of animals etc., for some purpose or the other under partial vows, which spirit is quite repugnant to Jainism. 6 Jainism observes that the householder should refrain form the himsa of mobile beings.7
2) Niama. It is also of five kinds8 (a) Sauca (purit). (b) Samtosa (contentment) (c) Tapa (austerities), (d) Svadhyaya (scriptural study) (e) is varapranidhana ( deveotion to God). The sadhaka who has purged his mind of sins cultivates the above mentioned positive virtues. The Jaina Acaryas prescribe a number of virtues to be assimilated by the aspirant, namely, forbearance, modesty, straightforwardness, puri from greed, truth, self-estuarine, austerity, renunciation, non-attachment, and celibac.9 Svadhyaa has been included in internal austerity, while devotion, in Stuti and Vandana. We have already explained the number of practices observed by a saint, hence they need no reiteration. the statement of patanjali10 that when the aspirant finds himself under the sway of sinful Houghton he should throw them aside by reflecting on their evil consequences in order to regain firmness in the virtues path, may be compared with the pronouncement of the Tattvarthansutra11 that for
1 Y. Su. II. 30. 2 Ibid. II. 31. 3 Y. Su. & Bhasya. II. 30.
4 Ca. Pa. 30, 31.; Acara. II. 15. 5 Sarvartha. VII. 1.
6 Y. Su. & Bhasya. II. 31. 7 Ca. Pa. 24. 8. Y. Su. II. 32.
9 Ta. Su. IX. 6. 10 Y. Su. II. 33, 34. 11 Ta. Su. VII. 9.
the proper maintenance of the vows one should reflect on the afflictions that ma befall here and hereafter as a result of not observing them properly or violating them.
3) Asana and 4) Pranayama. Steady and comfortable posture is Asana.1 Rhythmical and Regulated breathing is Pranayama.2 The importance of posture has also been recognised in Jainism. the Mulacara tells us that the saint engaged in study and meditation is not subjected to sleep and passes his night in some caves after having seated himself in the postures of padmasana, or Virasana and the like.3 The karttikeyanupreksa and the jnanarnava prescribe decoration postures to practise medittion.4 We have already dealt with these. Pranayama has not found favour with Jainism. this recognition may be corroborated by the enunciation of Subhacandra that Pranayama acts as a barricade to the saint aspiring to emancipation, on account of the acquisition of supernormal powers by it,5 though he ecognises its importance for the development of concentration.6
5) Pratyahara. It implies the withdrawal of the senses from their natural objects of attractions.7 this may be compared with the control of five senses as one of the Mulagunas of the Jaina monk8
these five constitute the moral and the intellectual preparation of the saints who move higher on the spiritual path. the external and internal distractions a this stage lose all their potency to seduce the aspirant. nevertheless, certain obstaclesmay intervene and imperil his advancement. the are: 1) Vyadhi (sickness)—disturbance of physical equilibrium, 2) Styana (languor)— the lack of mental disposition for work, 3) Samsaya (Indecision)—thought debating between the two sides of a problem, 4) pramada (heedlessness)—the lack of reflection on the means of samadhi, 5) Alasya (Indolence)—inertia of mind and body owing to heaviness, 6) Avirati (sensuality)—the desire aroused when sensory objects possess the kind, 7) Bhranti darsana (false, invalid notion)—false knowledge, 8) Alabdhabhumikatva (inability to see reality because of psychomental mobility), 9) anavasthititva (Instability which hampers the stability of mind, in spite of achieving Yoga Bhumi).9 This
1 Y. Su. II. 46. 2 Ibid. II. 49. 50. 3 Mula. 794, 795.
4 Kartti. 355; Jnana. XXVIII. 10 5 Jnana. XXX. 6, 11.
6 Ibid. XXIX. 1. 7 Y. Su. II. 54, 55.. 8. Mula. 16.
9 Y. Su. & Bhasya. I. 30. (Trans. partly from 'Yoga, Immortality and Freedom' by Micrcea Eliade. p. 381.)
concept of obstacles may be compared with the twenty two Parishes in Jainism but the details do not correspond to each other. the cultivation of friendship with the prosperous, compassion towards the unhappy, commendation for the meritorious and indifference towards the vicious have been revcoginsed as aids to mental purification.1 The Tattvarthasutra also prescribes universal friendship with the living beings in general, commendation for the virtuous, compassion for the distressed, and indifference towards the immodest, in order to facilitate the proper observance of the vows.2
6) Dharana, 7) Dhyana and 8) Samadhi. These are the "three stages of one and the same process of concentration on an object."3 "the are so much alike that the Yogin who attempts one of them (Dharana) cannot easily remain in it and sometimes finds himself quite against his will slipping over into Dhana or Samadhi. it is for this reason that these last three yogic exercise have a common name—Samyama."4 Dharana is fixation of mind on a particular object.5 Dhyana implies the continuos flow of thought on that object.6 When Dhyana becomes free from the distinctions of subject, object and the process of meditation we have Samadhi.7 this Samadhi admits of two-fold classification, Samprajnata and Asamprajnata, or Sabija and Nirbija or Slambana and Niralambana. Jainism does to distinguish between Dhana and Samadhi rather it included these under Sukla Dhana and Asamprajnata Samadhi, with the consummation of Ekatva Vitarka type of Sukla Dhyana. here The soul, according to janism, attains omniscience; this is embodied liberation. the disembodied liberation is arrived at by the last two types of Sukla Dhyana, Suksmakria Propitiate and Vyuparatakriya-Nivrtti.
In spite of these certain resemblance's, there are fundamental differences without mystical was adopted by the Jaina monk. yoga system has not recognised the impressiveness of mystical conversion, probably confuse amoral with mystical conversation, the impotence of initiation by a Guru, and the necessity of seeking his guidance at every step, the possibility of fall from certain heights, i.e., dark-nights of the soul, the
1 Y. Su. & Bhasya. I. 33. 2 Ta Su. VII. 11. 3 Yoga of he Saints. p. 87. 4 Y. Su. III. 4 (Trans. vide Yoga, Immortality and Freedom. p. 70). 5 Y. Su. III. 1. 6 Ibid. III. 2. 7 Y. Su. & Bhasya. III.3.
significance of Pratikramana, and pratyakhyana. All these factors are of enormous impotence for mystical advancement.
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS OF BUDDHA : We now proceed to early Buddhism. the attitude of Buddha towards life may be judged b the statement; "One who indulges in theoretical speculation on the soul and the world while he is writhing in pain, behaves like the foolish man with a poisonous own plunged into his flank, whiling away time on idle speculation regarding the oaring, the maker and the thrower of the arrow, instead of trying to pull it out immediately. "1 hence Dr. RADHAKRISHNAN rightly remarks: "We find in the early teaching of Buddhism three marked characteristics, an ethical earnestness, an absence of an theological tendency and an aversion to metaphysical speculation2 his promulgation of the four noble3 truths which concerns suffering (duhkha) and its cause (duhkha-samudaya), its removal (duhkha-nirodha) and the way to remove it (duhkhanirodha-marga) sums up his entire ethical outlook." out of the seven Tattvas in jainism the five Tattvas, which are designated as Asrava, banddha, Samvara, Nirjara and Moksa may be compared with these four noble truths proclaimed by Buddha. Bandanna Tattva corresponds to suffering; Asrava to its origin; Moksa answers to its removal, and Samovar and Nirjara, to the way to remove suffering.
The firs noble truth is concerned with the experience of universal suffering. Birth, old age, disease, death, bewailing, association with the unpleasant, an craving that is unsatisfied, separation from the pleasant all are painful and fraught with misery. in short, the five aggregates—Rupa, Vijnana, Vedana, Samjna and Samsakara-are painful.4 According to jainism karmic bondage am be equated with suffering.
Buddh'as Second noble truth, the cause of suffering may be explained taking recourse to his doctrine of dependent origination which signifies that the existence of everything is conditional. the existence of suffering (jara-marana) is on account of birth (jati) which is due to the will-to-be born (bhava) which is gain de to clinging (upadhana) which again is due to craving (trsna) which aging is due to feeling or sense experience (vedana), which again is due to sense-object-contact (sparsa), which again is due to the six-organs-of-conniption (sadayatana) which is
1 Majjhima-Nikaa-Sutta, 63, (WARREN. p. 120. vide An Introduction to Indian Philosoph.)
2 Indian Philosophy. Vol. I. p. 358.
3. Ani. III. 61. 6.; D. Ni. XXII. 4.5.
4. D. Ni. XXII. 4. 5.
due to name and form (ndma and rupa), which is due to consciousness (vijnana) which is due to predisposition's (samskaras) and which are lastly due to ignorance (avidya). Thus the root of the whole world process is beginnings Avidya. "This process of origination is beginnings and Avidya (ignorance) and Trsna (craving) are the parents of this process. Trsna (craving) is the mother, and Avidya (ignorance) is the father.", "One under the sway of Avidya mistakes the impermanent for the permanent because of one's delusion about truth."2 Dr. RADHAKRISHNAN says "To be ignorant of the true nature of "I" and of the four noble truths" constitutes Avidya.3 According to Jainism, Samparayika Asrava which is due to Mithyadarsana (wrong belief) Mithyajnana (wrong knowledge) and Mithyacaritra (wrong conduct) is at the root of the world-process.
The Third noble truth is concerned with the cessation of suffering or the attainment of Nirvana. With the elimination of the cause, the effect must pass away. The word Nirvana literally implies `blowing out' or cooling. The former suggests annihilation, while the latter, only the dying out of hot passion. The recognition of the fact that Buddha got enlightenment and that he preached for the upliftment of humanity goes to prove that Nirvana cannot be extinction. It is simply the destruction of passions. The reason for the uncertainty of the nature of Nirvana in early Buddhism is that the answer to the question was not regarded as ethically important.4 "Buddha's silence might just mean that the state of liberation cannot be described in terms of ordinary experience".5 When not inclined to commit himself to any definite view on the subject Buddha used to say (e.g. in the Brahmajala and Potthapdda Sums) that Nirvana connoted nether existence nor non-existence separately nor did it mean both or neither of them at once. It was indescribable in language."6 "But being opposed to annihilations, he taught also in negative terms, that Nirvana was putting an end to the ills of life and that it was equivalent to escape from a world enveloped in the flame of desire, i.e., the extinction of all desires of attachment, aversion and delu
1 Lankavatara Sutra p. 138. (vide TATiA, Studies in Jaina Philosophy. p. 127). 2 Aladhyarata-Vibhdga. Sntra-$asya. p. 35. (vide Tatia. Op. Cit. p. 127.)
3 RADXAXXRSXNANI. p. val. I. p. 416. 4 Potthapada Sutta. IX. 3.
5 RADHaKRTSxNAN Article "the teaching of Buddha by speech and silence" Hibbert Journal April, 1934 (vide DUTTA &, CXNTTEXJEE An Introduction to Indian Philosophy. p. 128.) 6 History of Philosophy: Eastern and Western p. 166.
sion."1 I It is not only negative but positive also. "It is a ,state of serenity, equanimity and passionless self-possession. It cannot be described in. terms of ordinary experiences; the best way of understanding it in the light of our imperfect experience is to think of it as a relief from all painful experience from which we suffer."2 The later Buddhist teacher Nagasena tried to convey to, the Greek king (Milinda) the idea of the blissful character of Nirvana with 'a series of metaphors.3 According to Jainism, Moksa is the- attainment of infinite knowledge, infinite bliss, infinite power, etc. Jainism definitely describes the nature of Moksa without any ambiguity as the cessation of all mundane misery and the attainment of positive bliss. There is thus little difference between the 3aina and the Buddhist views: The Yogin of Brahmins, the Tirthamkara of Jainism, and the Arhat of Buddhism, all these sail in the same boat. In spite of all these resemblance's the denial of self in Buddhism is the major difference that remains between Jainism and Buddhism.
The Fourth noble truth is concerned with the way to remove suffering. Eight-fold path4 has been prescribed by Buddha namely, 1) Right view (sam3aditihi), 2) Right resolve (sammasamkappa), 3), Right Who (sammavaca), 4) Right -conduct (samrruzkammanta), 5) Right livelihood (samma-ajiva), 6) Right effort (sarnmavayama), 7)' Right mindfulness (sammasati), 8) Right concentration (sammasamadhi). The Right view consists in the acquisition of the knowledge of four noble truths The , Jaina conduct also commences from the cultivation of right belief or right attitude but the content differs. 2) Right resolve embraces renunciation of attachment or ill-feeling towards others and of committing any injury to them.6 3) Right speech is the relinquishment of falsehood, backbiting, harsh-language, and frivolous talk7 4) Right conduct con. silts in renouncing injury, stealing and sensual gratification.8 5) Right livelihood implies the earning by honest means.8 6) Right effort signifies four sorts of endeavor: (a) not to allow fresh evils, (b) to strive to efface existing evils,, (c) to make effort to develop new good ideas, (d) to adhere to the maintenance and the development of existing good ideas or virtues. l o Right mindfulness implies the constant remembrance or contemplation of the nature of body, mind, harmful mental states like sensuality, .doubt,
1 His. of Phil.: E: and IY. p. 167. 2 Introduction to Indian Philosophy. p. 128. 3 Milinda-Panha (vide Introduction- to Indian Philosophy. p. 128.) 4 D: Ni..XXII. 5. Trans. Introduction to Indian Philosophy, pp. 129 to 132. 5 D. Ni. KXII: 4. 3.
6 Ibid. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid.
malice, indolence of mind and body, agitation of mind and body, and sensation of pleasure and pain. This helps the aspirant to remain detached from all the objects of the world and to avoid bondage to the mundane existence. 8) Right concentration: Four stages of concentration have been recognised. In the first stage, the aspirant having detached himself from lust and from evil dispositions, concentrates on reasoning and investigation and experiences joy and peace born of detachment. In the second stage he suppresses all reasoning and investigation and abides in a State of joy and ease born of concentration. In the third stage, he renounces the joy and peace born of concentration and abides in the consciousness of the bliss of equanimity. In the fourth stage he enters into a State of pure self-possession and equanimity without pain and without ease. This is a stage of absolute cessation of all suffering. Besides all these, the Brahniajdla Sutta and Samannaphala Sutta give a number of virtues to be practised by saints. All these may be included under 1) Ahimsa 2) non-stealing; 3) continence; 4) truthfulness with a11 its deaths of avoiding back-biting, harsh speech, useless gossip, and of speaking sweet, faultless, useful, precise and benevolent words; 5) taking meals once a day before noon; 6) abstinence from gold and silver, uncooked corn, cattle, women, servants, decorated bedding, and the like; 7) nondecoration of body; 8) non-engagement in useless fables of kings, thieves etc.; 9) non-indulgence in the mundane science of palmistry, astrology, astronomy, and miraculous feats. 10) complete control of five senses; 11) carefulness in walking, eating evacuating bowels, etc.; 12) contentment in clothing and begging. Adoring himself with these characteristics the saint sits for meditation in a secluded place. These virtues are practically similar to those pursued by Jaina monks. Three stages of right concentration may be compared with the two types of Sukla Dhyana, namely, Prthaktva-Vitarka and Ekatva-Vitarka. The consummation of the second Sukla Dhyana may be compared with the fourth stage of concentration. This is Arhat state or embodied state of liberation. The disembodied state is the result of the other two types of gukla Dhyana.
The Jaina and the Western Types of Ethical Doctrines
SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER: In the previous chapter we have, in the first place, dwelt upon the ethical views as propounded by the Rg-veda and the Brahmanas, and evaluated the Upanisadic contents in the light of the Vedic hymns. Secondly, we have dealt with the nature of the moral ideal as advocated by the Gita and the Upanisads. Thirdly, we have pointed out the nature of the obstacle preventing a man from realising the ideal, and have dealt with the distinctions between the converted and perverted souls, and the importance of Guru for imparting spiritual wisdom. Fourthly, after dealing with the incentives to spiritual life we have explained the importance of faith, knowledge, and conduct for surmounting the obstacles to the moral and the spiritual betterment. Fifthly, the negative side of conduct consisting in sweeping away sins and passions, in subduing the senses, in restraining the mind; and the positive aspect comprising the cultivation of virtues along with devotion and meditation, have been dealt with. Sixthly, the characteristics of the ideal sage have been expounded. Seventhly, the nature of the ethical ideal according to the important schools of Indian philosophy, the nature of the causes responsible for the ills and maladies of the worldly existence, and the process of the attainment of the mystical end have been explained. And lastly, we have dwelt upon the eightfold path of Yoga and the four noble truths of Buddha.
COMMENCEMENT OF THE ETHICAL SPECULATION IN THE WEST: Before the appearance of the Sophists, the Greek philosophers engaged themselves in cosmological enquiries. The pre-sophistic philosophy merely encountered ontological problems. The Sophists who flourished in the fifth century 13.e. diverted their attention towards human conduct. Thereby they shifted the interest from the nature to man. This made the Sophistic teaching exclusively humanistic. But this sort of turn was not abrupt. "The naive and fragmentary utterances of sage precepts for conduct, in which nascent moral reflection everywhere first manifests itself, supply a noteworthy element of Greek literature in the "gnomic" poetry of the 7th and 6th centuries before Christ; their importance in the development of Greek civilization is strikingly characterised by the traditional enumeration of the "seven sages" of the 6th century; and their influence on ethical thought is sufficiently shown in the references that Plato and Aristotle make to the definitions and max-,ms of poets and sages."' But the transition from such utterances to moral philosophy is quite as late as the origination of the Sophistic speculation. Thus the Sophists may be regarded as the pioneers in ethical science. The ethical speculation of the Jainas can be easily traced to a divine personality of the 23rd prophet, Parsvanatha, who is believed to have lived in the 8th century s.c., though the Jaina tradition claims a remote antiquity for the commencement of its philosophy.
THE PROBLEM AND THE APPROACH: The normative science of ethics investigates the ultimate end of human conduct or what is known as the Summum Bonum or the supreme good of human life. In the words of Prof. SIDGmcK, "According to Aristotelian view, the primary subject of ethical investigation is all that is included under the notion of what is ultimately good or desirable for man; all that is reasonably chosen or sought by him, not as a means to some ulterior end, but for itself."2 Thus ethics is required to be distinguished from positive sciences, inasmuch as it does not describe but evaluates. It estimates human conduct in terms of rightness or wrongness, goodness or badness and the like. The term conduct is another name for voluntary and habitual actions. It signifies deliberate actions. These deliberate actions presuppose persons performing them in accordance with some end in view. The actions may be right or wrong, the persons may be virtuous or vicious and lastly the end may be good or bad. "Moral virtue may be defined generally as the habitual tendency to pursue, always and with consciousness, the best attainable ends."; Again, the performance of deliberate actions entails, either directly or indirectly or in the both ways, the satisfaction of one or more human interests. But the science of ethics might lose all significance, if the mere existence of such interests in human nature would yield warrant for their gratification. At the outset, it may appear that ethical inquiry is unnecessary and frivolous, but this view must needs be abandoned in view of the following considerations. 4 First, the satisfaction of all interests of the individual is impossible. Hence preference must be given to some interests by keeping in view some principle of ethical selection. Secondly, the transgression of a
~ Outlines of the History of Ethics, p. 12. 2 Outlines of the History of Ethics, pp. 1-2.
3 Short History of Ethics, p. 18. 4 Short History of Ethics, pp. 5-6.
certain limit in case of some interests not only proves to be subversive of their own satisfaction but also hampers the gratification of other interests. For example, too much indulgence in bodily appetites leads to bodily and mental ill-health and thereby interferes with other interests also. Thirdly, the interests of the different members of a society may be incompatible with one another; hence this necessitates the application of some ethical principle to arrive at practical harmony. The first two causes to lime light the need for an Individual ethics, and the third, for the Social ethics. The problems that present themselves before us are therefore: 1) the problem of the ethical Summum Bonum and 2) the problem of virtues.
Since the dawn of ethical consciousness in the West, diverse approaches have. been made in the field of moral investigation. We shall confine our attention however to the solutions given by the Sophists, Socrates, the Socratic schools, Plato, Aristotle, Utilitarian, and Kant; and then we shall compare their views with the Jaina view.