Acara of the Householder
SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER : In the previous chapter we have discussed the nature of seven Tattvas along with the nature of Samyagdarsana. After dwelling upon the nature of jiva and Ajiva Tattvas, we have, in the first place, explained the nature of 'Yoga' (vibratory activity of soul) and its effect in the mundane and embodied supermundane souls. Secondly, the nature of passions with their multitudinous forms of existence and operations has been made out. Thirdly, we have unfolded some causes of the auspicious and the inauspicious Samparayika Asrava, and have concluded the topic of Asrava and Bandha after dwelling upon the views of Kundakunda regarding them. Fourthly, the nature of Samvara, Nirjara and Moksa has been briefly dealt with, inasmuch as they are exemplified in the ethical development of the soul to be explained in this and the following chapters. Fifthly, we have discussed the nature of Samyagdarsana form the Vyavahara and Niscaya points of view, and have emphasizedits importance for the authenticity of knowledge and conduct. In other words, we have seen how any discipline contributing to the highest spiritual welfare, which is the crowing phase of life, presupposes spiritual conversion, which is itself an evidence for regarding Jaina ethics as spiritual. Thus, in the absence of Samyadarsana all intellectual knowledge and ethical conduct will deprive the as paint of superb attainments, of which he is potentially capable.
RIGHT CONDUCT AS AN INTERNAL NECESSITY OF THE SPIRITUALLY CONVERTED : We now proceed to deal with the nature of right conduct, which transforms the potential excellence of the self into actuality. With the light or right knowledge, which enables the aspirant to look into his infirmities, the pursuit of right conduct sweeps away the elements, which thwart the manifestation of uninterrupted happiness and infinite knowledge. Right knowledge illumines the path, and right knowledge emancipation presupposes right conduct as well. Really speaking, right conduct emanates from the internal necessity, which the right believer has developed in him. Thereby, he then expunges the disharmony existent between his present and future conditions, and between his potential conviction and actual living. Thus, the right believer is ardently desirous of manifesting the natural modification of the soul by pursuing the right course of discipline.
VITARAGA CARITRA AND SARAGA CARITA ; INAUSPICIOUS ACTIVITIES ARE IN NO WAY THE PART OF CONDUCT : So important is the pursuit of right conduct for releasing the transcendental nature of self that Kundakunda calls it Dharma. Such conduct as will conduce to the emergence of a state of self which is devoid of infatuation (moha) and perturbation (ksobha) by virtue of the subversion of all kinds of passions in their most comprehensive extent is called Vitaraga Caritra. This should be distinguished from Sara Caritra, which results in auspicious activities by virtue of auspicious psychical sates, and this amounts to a fall from the pinnacle of truth and normality. In consequence, as the former results in liberation, it is to be pursued ; and as the interest of arriving at the summit of spiritual perfection. In spite of this bondage the virtuous deeds may, in some measure, be considered to be the part of conduct,
1 Prava. 1. 7. 2 Prava. II. 6 and Comm. Amrta.
but the inauspicious activities emanating from inauspicious psychical states can in no way be the part of conduct, hence they are to be completely relinquished. Thus, in order to stamp out the inauspicious psychical states from the texture of self, the aspirant must abstain himself root and branch from violence, falsehood. Theft, unchastely and acquisition. The engrossment of the most intense passions, which can be wiped off by negating to perform the vicious deeds. This affirmation does not imply the nullification of the previously mentioned inauspicious activities, which result in inauspicious Asrava, but it simply signifies the grouping of them under different heads. This negative process of purifying the self by weeding out these villainous actions of necessity requires the pursuance of the positive process of non-violence, truthfulness, non-thieving, chastity and non-acquisition. Both of these processes keep pace together.
DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE SPIRITUALLY CONVERTED AND PERVERTED SOULS REGARDING THE PERFOMANCE OF MORAL AND EVOL ACTIONS: We cannot forbear mentioning in passing that even a right believer may be occupied with the aforementioned evil deeds ; the recognition of which would at the first sight tend to annul the distinction between the wise and the ignorant, or between the spiritually converted and perverted souls. But this assumption is based on a certain misapprehension. Notwithstanding their extrinsic similitude they evince intrinsic disparity; i.e., the wise under some latent constraint unwillingly perpetrate such evil actions, and the ignorant rejoicingly commit them. From this it is obvious that right belief is not incompatible with the most intense forms of inauspicious activities. It will not be inconsistent if it is laid down that both the wise and the wise and the ignorant are capable of extirpating inauspicious psychical states. But the difference is that while in the former case there is spiritual morality, in the latter, there is only dry morality, which is possible without spirituality. Dry morality is socially useful, but spiritually barren ; while spiritual morality is fruitful both socially and spiritually. Being subtle and far reaching, the limited comprehension. We may simply say that, for the spiritually converted, morality is a means ; while for the perverted it is an end in itself. It is to be borne in mind that morality, of whatever type, can in no case be useless ; hence it deserves our respect wherever it is witnessed.
NECESSITY OF PARTIAL CONDUCT : To revert to our point. It is astonishing that in spite of not being the part of conduct in any way, the aforementioned vicious deeds refuse to be completely relinquished at the start on account of their being ingrained in the mind of man. Hence, there arises the concept if limited morality technically called Vikala Caritra (partial conduct) in contrast to absolute morality known as Sakala Caritra (complete conduct) wherein these vicious deeds are completely renounced. He who observes the former, being not able to renounce the vices to the full, claims the title of a 'layman'; while he who observes the latter, being able to hold the spirit of renunciation to the brim, is called a 'Muni'. We shall now confine ourselves to the former, deferring the consideration of the latter to the subsequent chapter.
NECESSITY OF PARTIAL CONDUCT : To revert to our point. It is astonishing that in spite of not being the part of conduct in any way, the aforementioned vicious deeds refuse to be completely relinquished at the start on account of their being ingrained in the mind of man. Hence, there arises the concept of limited morality technically called Vikala Caritra (partial conduct) in contrast to absolutemolarity known as Sakala Caritra ( complete conduct) wherein these vicious deeds are completely renounced. He who observes the former, being not able to renounces the vices to the full, claims the title of a 'layman' ; while he who observes the latter, being able to hold the spirit of renunciation to the brim, is called a 'Muni'. We shall now confine ourselves to the former, deferring the consideration of the latter to the subsequent chapter.
PRIVILEGED POSITON OF MAN : The ethics of the Jaina answer to his metaphysical findings, which point to an infinite number of independent souls and an infinite number of material particles together with the other principles already discussed. Of the infinite number of conscious principles varying from the one-sensed to the five-sensed, man alone is recognised as the terminus of evolution. In other words, only man is capable of unfolding his potential attributes perfectly. To express it differently, though every soul is potentially divine, yet the attainment of freedom is rendered possible only when the soul achieves a human form ; hence the importance of human birth.
PHILOSOPHY OF RENUCIATION : Animate and inanimate objects are not on themselves auspicious and inauspicious. They are called auspicious and inauspicious, when they are considered in relation to the mundane souls. They very often wield influence over, and react upon, the mundane souls to the extent of engendering either mild passions or intense passions in the structure of self. In other words, the mild or intense passions, which arise owing to the karmic accompaniment, gratify their subtle persuasion in hankering after particular types of objects. Intense passions are vice, and mild passion is virtue, To illustrate, Bhakti is a mild passion, but lustful thought and voluptuousness is an intense passion. Because of this parallelism between the outward objects and the inward psychical states, the inward psychical states, the renunciation of extraneous objects assists in destroying corresponding intense passions. If the
1 Ratna. Srava. 50. 2 Kartti. 90.
giving up of certain external things does not, for some reason or another, result in the destruction of the internal intense passions and in the development of Bhakti, study and meditation, the discipline so observed would amount to futility. Hence, the giving up of intense passions is of great significance, although, in common parlance, Vairagya is understood to convey the withdrawal from the external world of wife, children etc., yet the underlying hidden meaning consists in removing the filth of intense passions, which will necessarily lead to the turning of selves from them.
Intense passions manifest themselves in violence, falsehood, theft, unchastity and acquisition, which have been represented to be vices. As we have said, the elimination of these vices requires the cultivation of virtues of non-violence, truthfulness, non-thieving, chastity and non-acquisition. Of these virtues, non-violence is the fundamental. All the rest should be regarded as the means for its proper sustenance, just as the field of corn requires adequate fencing for its protection. The householder can partially acquire these virtues which are than called partial non-violence (ahimsanuvrata), partial truthfulness (satyanuvrata), Partial non- thieving ( acauryanuvratai), partial chastity (bramahacaryanuvrata) and partial non-acquisition (parigraha- parimananuvrata). We shall now dwell upon the aforementioned vices one by one, and shall derive from them the scope of partial vows of the householder .
COMPREHENSIVE MEANING OF HIMSA : We begin with Himsa. Speaking from the transcendental point of view, we may say that even the slightest fall from complete self-realization is to be regarded as Himsa. In other words, Himsa commences with the appearance of passions, whether mild or intense , on the surface of self. Considered from this perspective, the concept of Himsa includes both virtue and vice. But here we are concerned with the meaning of Himsa as vice or intense passion only. From this point of view, therefore, falsehood, theft, unchastely and acquisition are the illustrations of Himsa. Thus Himsa summarises all these vices. In its popular meaning, which shall be dealt with presently, Himsa distinguishes itself from falsehood, theft, uncastity and acquisition. In the former, the Dravya-pranas and the Bhava-pranas are directly injured ; whereas in the latter cases, the Pranas are indirectly afflicted.
1 Sarvartha. VII. 1. 2 Puru. 44.
POPULAR MEANING OF HIMSA: The term Himsa may be defined as the committing of injury to the Dravya-Pranas and the Bhava-pranas through the operation of intense-passion-infected Yoga (activity of mind, body, and speech). Suicide, homicide and killing of any other life whatsoever aptly sum up the nature of Himsa, inasmuch as these villainous actions are rendered conceivable only when the Dravya-Pranas and the Bhava-pranas pertaining to oneself and to others are injured. The minimum number of Dravya-Pranas has been considered to be four, and the maximum has been known to be ten; and the Bhava-pranas are the very attributes of Jiva. The amount of injury will thus be commensurate with the member of Pranas injured at a Pranas injured at a particular time and occasion. If the bodily movements etc,. are performed with circumspection, nevertheless if any living being is oppressed, it cannot be called Himsa, for the infection element of intense passion is missing. On the contrary, even if, by careless bodily movements no animate body is oppressed, the actions are not free from Himsa. Here though the soul has not injured others, yet it has injured itself by defiling its own natural constitution. We may thus say that both the indulgence in Himsa and the negation of abstinence from Himsa constitute Himsa. In other words, he who has not abandoned Himsa, though he is not factually indulging in it, commits himsa on account of having the subconscious frame of mind for its perpetration. Again, he who employs his mind, body and speech in injuring others also commits Himsa on account of actually indulging in it. Thus, wherever there is inadvertence of mind, body or speech, Himsa is inevitable.
PURITY OF EXTERNAL BEHAVIOU TOO IS NECESSARY : It will be the height of folly and impertinence if any man conceitedly argues that it is no use renouncing the performance of certain actions, but that the internal mind alone ought to be uncontaminated. But it is to be borne in mind that in lower stages, which exceedingly fall short of self realisation, the external performance of a man ahs no meaning without his being internally disposed to do so. Hence the external and the internal influence each other; and in most cases the internal precedes the external. Thus, in no case, the outward commission of Himsa, without the presence of internal corruption can be vindicated. He who exclusively emphasizes the internal at the expense of the external forgets.
1. Puru.43; Tasu. VII.13. 2. Puru.45. 3. Puru.46,47.4Ibid.48. 5Puru.48.
the significance of outward behavior. He loses sight of the fact that the impiousness of external actions necessarily leads to the pollution of the internal mind, thus disfigure in both the aspects, namely, the internal and external. In consequence, both the Niscaya and Vyavahara Nayas, i.e. both the internal and external aspects should occupy their due places.
JUDGEMENT OF THE ACTS OF HIMSA AND AHIMSA: We may point out here that the Jaina philosophers do not blink the possibility of the disparity between the exterior behavior and the interior state of mind; and consequently they do not get perplexed in judging the acts of Himsa and Ahimsa, i. e., which act will bear the fruit of Himsa, and which act will be judged as Ahimsa? Aneminet Jaina author Amrtacandra, in his celebrated book, Purusarthasiddhyupaya, dwells with great clarity upon the above facts. First, he preaches that he who does not explicitly commit Himsa may also reap the fruits of Himsa because of his continual mental inclination towards indulging in Himsa; and he who apparently employs himself in the acts of Himsa may not be liable to fruits of Himsa. Secondly, owing to one's intense passion one may be subjected to grave consequences even by committing trifling Himsa, while, owing to mild passion, the other escapes the sad and serious consequences in spite of preparation gross acts of Himsa. Thirdly, it is amazing that, in spite of the two persons following the same course of Himsa, divergence at the time of fruition may be exhibited on account of the differences in their states of mind and intensity of passions. Fourthly, though Himsa may be committed by one, yet consequences may be suffered by many. Similarly, though it may be committed by many, the consequences may be suffered by one. From all these we may conclude that the point of reference in judging the acts of Himsa and Ahimsa is the internal state of mind.
KINDS OF HIMSA : Having explained the philosophy of Himsa, we now proceed to Enquirer into the kinds of Himsa. It is of two kinds, namely, intentional and non-intentional. The letter has been again subdivided into Udyami, Aramhi, and Virodhl. The intentional perpetrator of Himsa engages himself in the commitment of the acts of Himsa by his own mind, speech and action; provokes others to
1.puru.50 2. Puru.51 3.Ibid.52. 4.Ibid.53. 5.Puru.55. 6. Jainadarsanasara, p. 63. 7. Ibid.p.63.
commit them; and endorses such acts of others. Besides, himsa which is unavoidably committed 1) by reason of one's own profession, 2) by the performance of domestic activities, and 3) by defending oneself, one's neighbor, one's belongings and the like from one's foes is denominated: 1) Udyami, 2) Arambhi and 3) Virodhi respectively.
AHIMSANUVRATA : Now the householder, being snared in the meshes of infirmities, is incapable of turning away completely from Himsa; hence of the two-sensed to five sensed beings.1 The commitment of Himsa in being engaged in a certain profession, in performing domestic activities and in adopting defensive contrivances. Cannot be counteracted by him. Thus he commits intentional injury to one-sensed J1vas, namely, the vegetable-bodied, the air-bodied, the fore-bodied etc.; and non-intentional injury in performing Arambha (domestic activities), Udyoga (profession) and Virodha (defense). He can therefore observe the gross form of Ahimsa, which is known as Ahimsanurata. Even in the realm of one-sensed Jivas and in the realm of non-intentional injury he should so manage to confine his operations as may affect the life and existence of a very limited number of J1vas.2 In these two provinces the point to note is that of alleviating the amount of injury that is apt to be caused and not is that of total relinquishment which is not possible without jeopardizing the survival of man. Nevertheless, Himsa, even in the realm of one-sensed J1vas and in the realm of non-intentional injury, is unjustifiable. If we reflect a little, we shall find that man is subject to Himsa by the very condition of his existence. Yet intrespsravsating the matura; weight of Himsa by falling foul upon one another and by our cruel treatment with the annual and vegetable kingdoms, we should endeavor to alleviate this general curse, to the extent which we are capable of doing, by conforming ourselves to the sacred injunctions enjoined by Jaina spiritual teachers.
1 Puru. 75.; Caritra Pahuda. 24;
Ratna. Srava. 53; Kartti. 332;
Saga. Dharma. IV. 7,;
Amita. Srava. VI. 4.
2 Puru. 77; Vasu. Srava. 209. Yo . Sa. II.21.
For the observance of Ahimsanuvrata, the householder should avoid the use of 1) wine, 2) meat, 3) honey and five kinds of fruits known as Umbra, Katsumura, Pakara, Bada, and Papilla. 1) Drinking, first, breeds certain unhealthy and base passion like pride, anger sex passion and the like which are nothing but the different aspects of Himsa.2 secondly, it stupefies the intellect, which sinks virtue and piety, and results in the commitment of the mean and morally depraved deeds of Himsa.3 Thirdly, being the repository of abundant lives, wine necessarily entails injury to them. 2) As regards meat-eating, first, the procurement of flesh is inconceivable in the absence of the infliction of injury on the sentient beings, and even though it is obtained as a consequence of the natural death of living beings, Himsa is inevitable owing to the crushing of creatures spontaneously born therein, Secondly, the pieces of flesh which are raw, or cooked, or are in the process of being cooked, are found unceasingly to generate creatures in them, so that he who indulges in meat-eating is incapable of avoiding hurt to them. A plausible argument is sometimes adduced in support of meat-eating: beans and pulses too are to equated with flesh as these are endowed with life like the bodies of camels, sheep and animals. However shrewd the argument may be, it contains the fallacy of undistributed middle. Somadeva observe, 'no doubt flesh may constitute the body of an animate object, but the body of any animate object is not necessarily composed of flesh, just as the Neem is a tree, but any tree is to Neem. In a similar vein, Asahara cogently points out that though flesh and vegetables indubiously possess lives, the latter are proper to be used as food to the exclusion of the former, inasmuch as though both mother and wife possess womanhood, wife alone is justified in gratifying our sex-passion, and not the mother. 3) The use of honey is objected to on the ground that it is procured by injuring the lives of bees and of the young eggs in the womb of bees : and even if it is gathered when the honey naturally drops down, it causes destruction to the live spontaneously born therein. The
1 Puru. 61, 72.; Saga. Dharma. II. 2.; Amita. Srava. V. 1.; Puru. 64.
3 Puru. 62; Vasu. Srava. 70, 77,; Amita. Srava. V.2.
4 Puru. 63; Amita. Srava. V. 6; Saga. Dharma. II. 4, 5; Yas and Ie. p. 262.
5 Puru. 65, 66; Amita. Srava V. 14; Saga. Dharma. II. 78. 6 Puru. 67, 68.
7 Yas and Ic. p. 263. 8 Saga. Dharma. II. 10. 9 Puru. 69, 70.
five kinds of fruits known as Umara, Kathumara, Pakara, Bada and Pipala are the breeding grounds of various living organisms, and their use for deistic and other purposes is also forbidden owing to the injury caused to them. Again their use after they get dry on account of the passage of time causes himsa, because it is due to our excessive attachment to such odious things.
Again, the following points should be noted for the observance of Ahimsanuvrata. First, one should not sacrifice animals for the adoration of gods, being dominated by the perverted notion of receiving benediction in return. It is inconceivable how the gods seek satisfaction and serenity from such inhuman deeds which cause unbearable pain to the animals. Secondly, it must to be obligatory to kill the animals for the entertainment of guests, a pious design by impious means. Thirdly, to harbor the nation that the vegetable food necessitates the killing of innumerable lives abiding in it as compared with the slaughter of one living being may be fascinating at the inception, but it is imprudent in view of the facts that the body of an animal possesses countless microscopic lives which will be inevitably injured in its killing; and that the five-sensed Jiva would entail more inauspicious Asrava, i.e., vice owing to the occupation and consequential loss of more Dravya and Bhava Pranas than those of one-sensed Jivas belonging to the vegetable kingdom. Fourthly, (snakes, scorpions, lions and the like should not be killed on the ground that by so doing large number of lives will be saved, and that they (snakes, scorpions etc.) will get the opportunity of avoiding the accumulation of more sin by their continued violence. Fifthly, under the weight of misconception that those who are in distress and calamity on being killed will soon obtain relief from anguish and agony, the living beings should never be obtain relief from anguish and agony, the living beings should never be killed. Lastly, moved by the pangs of other beings should not provide one with the flesh of one's own body to appease one's appetite.
STAGES OF DEFILEMENT OF A VOW AND THE TRANSGRESSIONS OF THE HOUSEHOLDER'S VOW OF AHIMSA : We have dwelt upon the nature of Ahimsanuvrata, which is obligatory for every householder to pursue. The vow should be followed with proper understanding and comprehen-
1 Puru. 72. 2 Puru. 73. 3 Puru. 79, 80. 4 Ibid. 81. 5 Ibid. 82, 83.
6 Puru. 84. 7 Ibid. 85. 8 Ibid. 89.
sion. Sometimes it so happens that on account of the short understanding or on account of the irresistible force of passion, the purity and enthusiasm diminish and the result is the defilement of a vow. This must at once be avoided in order to maintain its sanctity. When such corruption rises in the mind, it is called atikrama; when further development occurs towards its defilement, say, collection of means to overthrow it, vyatikramai is the name given to it; when we have indulged in it, it is said to be aticara; and lastly, when excessive indulgence in it, it is said to be aticara; and lastly, when excessive indulgences is witnessed, anacara results. These four are the stages of defilement of a vow. To illustrate, to simply think to enter another man's field is Aticara; and to move, sit and lie down in the field is Anacara. Accordion to Amrtacandra that which hampers the purity of the vow is called Aticara. Every vow should be observed with great purity, care and zeal, since only such vows can bear desired fruits, and serve as a means to the moral and the spiritual up liftment. In spite of every care the mind may, under the influence of society, ill-health, fear and passion, deviate from the prescribed path. Hence, defects origination in the observance of vows may be of many types, but the Jaina Acaryas have mentioned only five for each vow, so that we may direct our mind towards them and shun them. Now the five transgressions of the householder's vow of Ahimsa are: 1) Tying up living beings, 2) Mutilating them, 3) beating them, 4) overloading them, and 5) withholding their food and drink.
NATURE OF ASATYS (FALSEHOOD): We now turn to the exposition of the nature of falsehood and Satyanuvrata. To begin with falsehood, it concerns itself with the expression of intense passion through the outlet of speech, which expresses itself in language and gestures. Dispassionate speech is synonymous with the mystical realization which is the height of truth man is capable of achieving. Intense-passion-infected speech is complete falsehood. Mild-passion-infected speech, is, to coin a new word, semi-truth, i.e., truth descended in the mundane and embellished form, for example, to speak noble, beneficial and benevolent words; this certainly amounts to the gliding and lapse from the superb
1 Bhavanaviveka, 192, 193. 2. Puru. 181
3 Puru. 183,; Ratna. Srava., 54 Ta. su. VII. 25. Uvasagadasao, 1.45,; Saga. Dharma. IV. 15, Amita. Srava. VII. 3.
heights of mystical truth. The perfect souls of Tirthamkaras who preach for the upliftment of human and other beings should not be regarded as being moved by the mild passions of compassion and benevolence, inasmuch as they speak for the god of all without any selfish desire and without constraint of mild-passion. It follows from what has been described that falsehood, bin the expression of intense passions, is a double fall from the loftiest heights of truth. It defiles both the internal soul and the external demeanor, the social living and the spiritual upliftment, hence it should be forsaken in the interest of advancement.
We now define falsehood. It implies the making of wrong statement by one who is overwhelmed by intense passions, such as anger, greed, conceit, deceit and the like. We may point out here that it does not mean merely the pronouncement of the existent as non-existent, nor can it be said to embrace merely the proclamation of the non-existent as existent, but it involves also the misrepresentation of the true nature of the existents and the use of speech which arouses intense-passion and causes pain to others. Accordingly, truth must not mean merely the announcement of the existent as existent, but it must mean also the use of words which are soothing, gentle and ennobling. It should be borne in mind that, even if by our most vigilant and gentle speaking, others are somehow perversely and painfully affected, we shall not be considered as transgression and setting at naught the vow of truth. Ontologically speaking, no word is pleasant or unpleasant in isolation and in itself. It is the spirit that counts. A word, being the modification f Pudgala, has infinite characteristics. Therefore it possesses the potency of affection others in infinite ways, all of which are incapable of being known by imperfect human beings. In calling a word pleasant or unpleasant, the circumstances, the place and time, the character of the man, the mental and physical effects on himself and others that surround him should all be counted. Thus, according to Amrtacandra, the first kind of falsehood refers to the affirmation of the existent as non-existent; the second refers to the declaration of the non-existent as existent; the third refers to the representation of the existing nature of things as different from what they really are; and the fourth is indicative of the speech which is 1) condemnable (garhita),
1 Puru. 91. 2 Puru. 92. 3 Ibid. 93. 4 Ibid. 94.
2) sinful (savadya), and 3) disagreeable (apriya). To explain the fourth form of falsehood, 1) back-biting, ridiculous speech, harsh language and violent words are comprised under condemnable speech. Besides, useless gossiping, language inciting unfounded beliefs, and superstitions should also be grouped under it. 2) Sinful speech comprises the use of language for defense, for running the household and for professional purposes. 3) Disagreeable words are those which arouse uneasiness, engender fear, excite repugnance, inflame dollar, and intoxicate brawl.
SATYANUVRATA : Of these forms of falsehood, it is beyond the power of the householder to shun totally the use of words concerning his household affairs, the affairs relating to his profession and safety; and these necessarily entail Himsa. The avoidance of sinful (savadya) speech is not possible without imperiling his life, and that of his dependents, just as it is not possible for him to abandon the Himsa of one- sensed Jivas. Thus the householder should abandon all other forms of falsehood except sinful speech. This is the gross form of the vow of truth or Satyanuvrata. It should be noted that Samantabhadra allows not telling the truth, if it endangers the life of any one in Satyanuvrata. The truthful man should denounce exaggeration, fault-finding and indecent speech; and speak words that are noble, beneficial and balanced. He should be grave, equanimous, noble- characterized personality, philanthropist, kind and sweet-tongued. He should not extol himself, and calumniate others. Nor should he hide the merits of others that are existent, and describe those of himself that are non- existent. In order to maintain the purity of the vow, one should steer clear of the following Aticaras, which are; 1) false preaching. 2) divulging the secrets of a couple, 3) forgery, 4) not to return the deposited articles of a man in full, if he has forgotten the actual number, and 5) disclosing one's secret purposes.
Nature of STEYA ( STEALING) : We now proceed to deal with the nature of stealing (steya) and Acauryanurata. Stealing means the
1 Puru. 95. 2 Ibid. 96. 3 Puru. 96. 4 Ibid. 97. 5 Ibid. 98.
6 Ibid. 101. 7 Ratna. Srava. 55 ; Vasu. Srava. 210.
8 Kartti. 334,; Yas. and Ic. p. 266. 9 Yas. and Ic. p. 266.
10 Yas. and Ic. p. 266. 11 Puru. 184; Tasu. VII-26., Uvasagdasao I. 46., Saga. Dharma. IV. 45;. The Aticaras of this vow show wide divergence. We have followed the Tattvarthasutra and its commentary, the Saravarthasiddhi.
taking of things without their being given by the owner. This necessarily implies the presence of internal intense passions in one's own mind. In this world, transient the external Pranas, of a man, and he who thieves or plunders them is said to commit theft, inasmuch as this is tantamount to depriving a man of his Pranas. This, then, is not other than Himsa.
ASTEYANUVRATA OR ACACURYANUVRATA : Not to take anything without the permission of others is a discipline par-excellence; but it lies beyond the power of the house- holder ; so he is required to use such things freely as are of common use without their being given, such as well-water, sand and the like. This is Acauryanuvrata or gross from of the vow of non-stealing. According to Samantabhadra the observer of the householder's vow of non-stealing neither takes himself those things which are unfired, placed, dropped, and forgotten by others nor gives them to anyone else. Karttikeya includes even the purchasing of costly things at reduced prices under stealing, which is probably due to the fact that one may sell a thing after getting it by improper methods. Somadeva holds that the underground property belongs to the king or the state; so also the property of unknown ownership. To take the possession of property at the death of one's own kinsman is justified, but, when he is alive, his sanction is required to sustain the householder's vow of non-stealing. The householder who gives himself to this vow must abstain himself from the following Aticaras.
adulteration, 2) abatement of theft, 3) receiving stolen property, 4) violating sates rules, and 5) the use of false weights and measures.
NATURE OF ABRAHMA (UNCHASTITY) : We now pass on to dwell upon the nature of unchastely and Brahmacaryanuvrata. The copulation arising from sexual passion is Abraham. This is Himsa in two ways. In the first place, many living beings are deprived of their vitalities in the vagina in the sexual act, just as a hot rod of iron, when it is introduced in a tube filled with sesames seeds, burns them up. Secondly, psychical life is affected because of the emergence of sexual
1 Puru. 102. 2 Ibid. 3 Puru. 103. 4 Puru. 104. 5 Puru. 106.
6 Yo. Sa., II. 66; Ratna. Srava. 57; Vasu. Srava. 211 ; Amita. Srava. VI. 59.
7 Kartti. 335. 8 Yas. and Ic . p. 265; Saga. Dharma. IV. 48.
9 Yas. and Ic. p. 265. 10 Puru. 185, Ratna. Srava. 58; Tasu. VII. 27.; Saga.
Dharma. IV. 50.; Amita Srava. VII. 5.; Uvasagadasao. I. 47; Carittrasara. P.
11 Puru. 107. 12 Ibid. 108.
Passion and so also the material Pranas are affected owing to the lethargic condition consequent upon coition.1
BRAHMACARYANUVRATA: The householder cannot relinquish copulation as such. Hence he should abstain himself from the sexual and lustful contacts with all other woman except his nuptial partner. This is Brahmacaryanuvrata or gross form of the vow of chastity. According to Vasunandi, the householder following this vow should not succumb to the unnatural ways of sexual satisfaction like masturbation, sodomy and the like and should not copulate even with his own wife on the pious days (Asthma and Caturdasi) of each fortnight. Samantabhadra defines Brahmacaryanuvrata as renouncing lustful contacts with another man's wife, and as seeking contentment in one's own wife. Such an observer of vow neither enjoys another man's wife, nor instigates another person to do so. Somadeva enunciates the vow of gross chastity as chastity all women or concubines as one's mother, sister or daughter with the exception of one's own wife. " Wine. Meat, gambling, music with song and dance, personal decoration, intoxication, libertines and aimless wanderings - these ten are the concomitants of sexual passion." Besides, "One should be careful not to excite oneself by erotic acts, aphrodisiac potions and erotic literature. The breaches of the vow of gross chastity are: 1) taking interest in match- making, 2) sexual association with married woman, 3) sexual association with unmarried woman, 4) unnatural methods of sexual enjoyment, and 5) inordinate sexual desire.
NATURE OF PARIGRAHA ( ACQUISITION): We now proceed to dwell upon the nature of acquisition and parigraha- parimananuvrata. The most comprehensive characteristic of parigraha is attachment, which follow as the modification and operation of Mohakarma. The definition of Parigraha as attachment is scientific, since it embodies the entire connotation signified by the term. It believes, in the first place, that those who have the least vestige of a feeling of attachment, notwithstanding the external renunciation of all worldly acquisitions,
1. Puru. 109. 2. Ibid. 110. 3. Vasu.Srava.212.
4. Ratna. Srava. 59. 5. Ibid. 59. 6. Yas. And Ic.p.267;
Amita. Srava. VI. 64, 65. 7. Yas. and Ic.p.267. 8. Yas. and Ic.p. 267.
9. puru. 186; Dharma Bi. 159; Tasu. VII. 28; Uvasagadasao. I. 48;
Srava. Prajna. 273; amita. Srava. VII.6. We have followed Pujyapada's meaning of the Aticaras. 10. Puru. 111.
are far from non- acquisition. Secondly, it expresses that the possession of external things is not possible without internal attachment. Thus both the internal attachment and the possession of external things come within the sweep of Parigraha. We may now say that if one is disposed to remove the internal attachment, one should correspondingly throw aside external possession also. In the presence of external possession, if non- attachment is claimed, it will be self- deception possession cannot be perforce with us. It may happen that, despite insignificant external possession, one may have conspicuous internal inclination for possession, just as a poor man may have. But this must not brush aside the difference in internal attachment corresponding to the kind of external possession. In other words, there occurs internal variation in attachment by virtue of the longing one possesses for the kind of external objects. For example, attachment is feeble in a young deer which continues to live on green blades of grass in comparison to a cat which kills a host of mice for procuring its food. Thus, the external and the internal influence each other.
KINDS OF PARIGRAHA: Parigraha is of two kinds: the external, and the internal. The former again admits of two kinds: the living and the non- living; and the latter is recognised to be of fourteen kinds, namely, perverted belief, laughter, indulgence, ennui, sorrow, fear, disgust, anger, pride, deceit, greed and desire for sexual enjoyment with man, with woman and with both.
PARIGRAHA and HIMSA: Parigraha as such can never preclude Himsa; and those who wish to practice Ahimsa should avoid the internal and the external attachment. So Ahimsa will be commensurate with the degree of avoidance. Perfect non- attachment, and consequently perfect Ahimsa is rendered possible only in the life of Arahantas, and, below this, only degrees of Aparigraha are possible.
PARIGRAHA- PARIMANANUVRATA: The householder is incapable of renouncing all Parigraha. Hence he should shun perverted belief and Anantanubandhi and Apratyakhyanavarna kinds of passion; and should accordingly limit the Parigraha of wealth, cattle, corn, servants, buildings, etc. inasmuch as the spirit of renunciation is the right
1. Puru. 112 2. Puru.113. 3. Puru. 121. 4. Puru.115 to 117. 5. We have already dealt with these kinds of passion in the previous chapter.
Principal. This is Parigraha- parimananuvrata or the gross form of the vow of Aparigraha. We may say in passing that the householder's vow of Aparigraha would tend to annul the economic inequality rampant in society and thereby everybody will be able to get things of daily necessities at least. To- day, men nations are striving for the enhancement of their wealth and territory at the cost of others with the consequence that the individual and national tensions are increasing. Parigraha is detrimental, when it engenders inordinate clinging. An attitude of a philanthropist is essential to the observance of the vow of Parigraha- Parimananuvrata. In order to sustain the purity of the vow the violations of the limits regarding 1) house and land, 2) gold and silver, 3) cattle and corn, 4) male and female servants, and 5) clothes and utensils, should be avoided. Samantabhadra has spoken of the other breaches of the vow, namely. 1)the keeping of a larger number of vehicles than required, 2) accumulating necessary articles in large number, and 5) the over- loading of animals.
Householder's LIFE AS MIXTURE OF VIRTUE AND VICE: We have so far dealt with the nature of the five Anuvratas. Violence, falsehood, stealing, unchastely, and acquisition are the different vices. They amount to a fall from the heights of mystical experience. The middle way is to lead the life of virtue. It is to be borne in mind that the three types of non- intentional Himsa, the Himsa of one- sensed Jivas, the use of Savadya or sinful language, the act of sexual intercourse with one's own wife, the use of common things without permission, and the keeping of limited Parigraha- all these are householder's vices, which may be socially justifiable, but cannot be justified spiritually. In other words, looked at with the social eye, they are not regarded as vices, but the eye of spirituality considers them to be so. Thus, in the life of the householder pure virtue in the sense of mid passion is an impossibility; his life is always a mixture of virtue and vice. The condition of that householder who does not strictly follow the partial vows is pitiable. Virtue, in his life,
puru. 124 to 128; Ratna. Srava.61; Vasu. Srava. 213 Amita Srava. VI. 73;
Kartti. 340; Saga. Dharma. IV. 61.
puru. 187; Ta. Su. VII. 29; Uvasagadasao.I-49; Saga. Dharma. IV.64; Amita. Srava. VII. 7.
Ratna. Srava. 62.
will be a mere accident, and sometimes a social compulsion. This, then, will be a pseudo- virtue as distinguished from genuine virtue springing from the inner consciousness of sin. It is only in the latter case that the vows are trustful and conducive to the moral, social and spiritual ennoblement.
REELECTION ON AND THE REPETION OF CERTAIN IDEAS FOR THE PROPER OBSERVANCE OF THE VOWS: Now, in order that the vows may be fixed in mind and pursued with great zeal, the author of the Tattvarthasutra has advised us to reflect on the following ideas and to repeat them in mind very often. First, one should ponder over the troubles that may be faced in one's own life in this world, and over the afflictions that may fall to one's lot in the life hereafter, as a result of indulging in the five types of sins. To illustrate, it should be thought that any one never believes an untruthful man. Confinement and disrespect and other inconceivable mental and physical pains are the punishments he has to bear in this life. Besides, he will have to take birth at odious places and in disgraceful forms as a result of falsehood. Similarly for other sins. Secondly, one is required to think that by cultivating the four noble habits, namely, universal friendship with the living beings in general, appreciation for those who are virtuous, active compassion for the distressed, and indifference towards the arrogant and the incorrigible, one is facilitated in the observance of the vows. Thirdly, one should think over the transitoriness of the worldly objects and sensual pleasures, and over the impermanence, the unsubstantantiality, and the foulness of the body.
CONCEPT OF MULAGUNAS: The five vows together with the total abandonment of wine, meat and honey have been called Mulagunas (Primary moral characters) by the ethics- logical philosopher, Samantabhadra. The conception of Mulagunas has been for the first time proclaimed by this eminent saint- philosopher. The content and the number of the Mulagunas are dynamic, which is evidenced but the fact that the later Acaryas have modified them in accordance with the time, place and the nature of disciples. In this ever transforming world, new conditions emerge, and consequently new sedatives become indispensable. There can be no sovereign remedy for all times and persons of different age. The Mulagunas which are the steeping stones to higher progress
1. Ta. Su.VII.9. 2. Ta.Su.VII.11. 3.Ta.Su.VII.12. 4.Ratna. Srava.66.
are, therefore, to be changed in the light of the conduct and character of persons. Thus the forms may change but not be criterion, i.e., not the fundamental principle of Ahimsa in its comprehensive sense. After Samantabhadra Jinasena substitutes gambling for honey and does not disturb the other Mulagunas. A tremendous change which has been effected in the content is due to Somadeva. He substituted five Udambara fruits for five Anuvratas, and keeps the remaining three, namely, to abstain oneself from wine, meat and honey, as Samantabhadra has done. Amitagati increases the number of Mulagunas by appending the avoidance of eating at night to the renunciation of wine, meat, honey and five Udambara fruits. Though this eminent Acarya has mentioned neither the name, ' Mulaguna,' nor their number, a little reflection would suffice to witness both. In the end of the chapter he has mentioned that at the start these puru Gunas should be practiced; and regarding number, if five Udambara fruits are considered as one we have five Mulagunas, and if as five, we have nine Mulagunas. The mentioning of the fact by Amratacandra that even the worthiness of Jaina discipline is acquired by virtue of outright relinquishing the eight kinds of things, namely, meat, wine, honey and five Udamabara fruits, is suggestive of eight Mulagunas. It is apparent from Vasunadi's view of the first stage of householder's conduct that he is regarding the abandonment of meat, wine, honey, five Udamber fruits, gambling, hunting, prostitution, adultery, and stealing as the Mulagunas. Asadhara mentioned the view of other Acarya who has prescribed somewhat different Mulagunas, namely, the abandonment of meat, wine, honey, five Udambara fruits and night, as also the devotion to the adorable five (Arahanta, Siddha, Acarya, Upadhyaya and Sadhu), the use of water strained though a cloth, and the compassionate attitude towards the sentient beings.
1.Vasu. Srava. Intro.p.35 2.Yas. and Ic.p.262. 3. Amita Srava.v.1. 4. Amita Srava. V.73. 5. Puru.74. 6.Vasu.Srava.57 to 59.
7. Saga. Dharma.II.18. 8. Kinds of food- (Amita. Srava.VI.96, 97):
Asana:- "All that is swallowed: grains, and pulses of all kinds, particularly the staple, boiled rice." (Jaina Yoga, p. 39);
2. Pana:- "All that is drunk: Water, milk, the juice of fruits." (ibid.p.39);
Khadima:- " All that is chewed or nibbled: fruits and nuts" (Ibid.);
Svadima:- "All that is tasted or severs as a relish, pepper, cumin seeds' etc,.
in saying that the eating of any kind of food at night occasions more Himsa than the eating by day in sunlight. The controversy centers round the question of its avoidance in the life of the householder at a particular stage. Of the eleven stages of the householder, to be dealt with in the sequel, kundakunda,1 Karttikeya 2 and Samantabhadra 3 enjoin the total avoidance of eating at night at the sixth stage of advancement. Somadeva 4 and Asadhara 5 include this in Ahimsanuvrata, though the latter has prescribed its partial avoidance in the preparatory stage, i. e., Paksika stage, to be dealt with afterwards.6 Amitagati 7 enumerates the total avoidance of eating at night in the Mulagunas, thus necessitating its observance at the inception of householder's life. Vasunandi prescribes its total abandonment even before commencing the observance of the rules of conduct formulated for the 1st stage of householder's conduct.8 Thus he is in harmony with Amitagati. Hemachandra 9 prescribed the avoidance of eating at night in the Bhogopabhoga parimanavrata.
AVODIDANCE OF EATING AT NIGHT AS THE SIXTH ANUVRATA: Viranandi and camundaraya 10 regard the avoidance of eating at night as the sixth Anuvrata. They count it is as a separate Anuvrata in addition to the five Anuvratas already dealt with. The corroboration of the fact of regarding the avoidance of eating at night as the sixth Anuvrata may be made from Pujyapada's 11 commentary on the Tattvarthasutra where in reference has been made to the prevalence of the view that it is the sixth Anuvrata. That Amratacandra has enunciated the importance of total abstinence from eating at night just after propounding the nature and extent of the five vows of the householder is significant of the view that he implicitly regards it as the sixth Anuvrata. 12 Neither has he comprised it in Ahimsanuvrata, nor has he included it in the eight requisites which make a man worthy of Jaina discipline, nor has he mentioned its abstinence at any particular stage of householder's Dharma. All these considerations oblige us to infer that he was implicitly in favour of recognizing this as the sixth Anuvrata. Why has he not explicitly described it to be so may, on the one hand, owing
1. Caritra Pahuda; 22. 2. Kartti. 382. 3. Ratna. Srava. 142.
4. Yas. and Ic.p. 264. 5.Saga. Dharma.IV.24. 6. Saga.Dharma.II.76.
7. Amita Srava.V.1. 8.Vasu.Srava.314. 9.Yo.Sa,II.48.
10. Acarasara.V.70;Caritrasara.p.13. 11 Sarvartha. VII.1.
to his unreserved faithfulness to the old tradition of recognising Anuvratas as five in number, and on the other, owing to his desire to avoid the aforementioned controversy centered round it.
DIFFERENT CONCEPTIONS OF THE GUNAVRATAS AND THE SIKSAVRATAS: After dealing with the five vices, the five Anuvratas, the various conceptions of Mulagunas, and the avoidance of eating at night, we now propose to dwell upon the nature of Gunavratas and Siksavratas, which are recognised as the seven Silavratas.1 These Silavratas serve the useful purpose of guarding the Anuvratas. 2 To be more clear, they effect a positive improvement in the observance of the Anuvratas. The Sravaka Prajnapti distinguishes between the Gunavratas and the Sikksavratas by saying that the former are observed for the whole life, but that the latter, for a limited time.3 Asadhara also draws a distinction between the two by pointing out that, by the observance of the Gunavratas, the Anuvratas are observed in a better way, and that, by the observance of the Sikksavratas, the individual gets inspiration and training for the life of renunciation.4 The two seemingly different views do not exclude each other, but the one implies the other. The former view emphasis's the time element, whereas the latter one lays stress on the functions performed by the Gunavratas and the Siksavraatas. There is perfect unanimity among the Jaina Acaryas regarding the number of Silavratas. All of them agree that there are three Gunavratas and four Siksavratas. Of the three Gunavratas, the Digvrata and the Anarthadandavrata have been recognised by all the Acaryas as the Gunavratas; and of the four Siksavratas, the Atithisamvibhagavrata has been unanimously regarded as the Sikkksavrata; and all the Acaryas except Vasunandi include the Samayikavrata and the Prosadhopavasavrata in the Siksavratas. Vasunandi has not recognised them at all as any of the Vratas. Different schools of Vratas have emerged owing to the controversial nature of Desavrata, Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata and Sallekhana. Kundakunda5 regards Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata as the Gunavrata and Sallekhana as the Siksavrata Sikasvrata without any mention of Desavrata in the scheme of Silavratas. Karttikeya6 enumerates Desavrata in the Siksavratas, and regards Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata as the Gunavrata. Umasvati 7 seems to consider Desavrata to be the
1. Dharma.Bi.155; puru.136. Caritrasara,p.13. 2.Puru.136
3.Srava.Prajna. 328 4.Saga.Dharma.VI.24 5.Caritra Pahuda.25,26. 6.Kartti. 367, 7. Ta.Su.VII.21.
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Gunavrata and Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata to be the Siksavrata. Samantabhadra1 and Kattikeya agree in respect of the names of Vratas, but the former slightly varies the order by putting Desavrata first in the order of Siksavrata. Karttikeya, Umasvati and Samantabhadra discuss the nature of Sallekhana after the Silavratas. Vasunandi 2 regards Desavrata as the Gunavrata and bifurcates Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata into Bhogavirati and Paribhoganiviitti and includes them in the Siksavratas along with Sallekhana. Thus, in the Digmbara sect of Jainism five tradition are witnessed concerning the Silavratas, namely, the tradition of Kundakunda, Karttikeya, Umasvati, Samantabhadra, and Vasunandi. In the Svetambara sect of Jainism two traditions are witnessed, first, the tradition of Umasvati and secondly, the tradition of the Upasakadadas and the Sravaka Prajnapti which is followed by Haribhadra, Hemachndra, Yasovijaya etc. The second tradition agrees with Karttikeys and Samantabhadra with slight variation in the order of Vratas. The different traditions, we may point out, are due to the differences of interpretations caused by differences in time, place and trends of though, and not due to the non- conformity with the fundamental principles of Jainism.
We shall now dwell upon the nature of each of the Silavraras. Kundakunda in the Caritra Pahuda 3 has simply enumerated their names without explaining their nature according to his own interpretation. So it is very difficult to guess his mind by means of mere names. Though Umasvati has not mentioned the names, Gunavrata and Siksavrata, the great commentators like Pujyapada4 and Vidyananda 5 have mentioned the first there as the Gunavratas, and the last four as the Siksavratas.
NATURE OF DIGVRATA: We now proceed to deal with the nature of Digvrata. All the traditions recognise this as the Gunavrata. It consists in fixing the limits of one's own movements in the ten directions.6 For the purpose of demarcation are utilized the well known signs, such as oceans, rivers, forest, mountains, countries and Yojana stones.7 As regards the time limit, Samantabhadra8 and Akalalanka 9
1. Ratna. Srava. 67.91. 2. Vasu. Srava. 217, 218. 271, 272.
3.Carita Pahuda. 25,26. 4. Sarvartha.VII.21. 5 Slolavarttika.p.467.
6.Srava.Prajna. 280; Kartti.342; Ratna.Sravaa.68; Subhasita.
792;Ta.Su.Bha, VII.21; Ya.Sa.II.1. 7. Ratna.Srava.69; Puru.137; Caritrsara.p.14; Vasu. Srava.214; Sarvartha. VII.21; Saga.Dharma.V.2; Raja.VII.21. 8. Ranta.Srava.68.
explicitly prescribe its life- long observance, while the other Acaryas implicitly state so. The Sravaka Prajnapti 1 tells is that since the householder is like a heated iron ball, his movements, wherever they are made, entail Himsa. If the area of his movements is circumscribed, he will thereby save himself from committing Himsa as such outside tat area. Thus by the avoidance of even the subtle sins beyond the determined limits, the Anuvrati (householder) becomes like a Mahavrati (ascetic) in respect of the regions lying beyond those limis.2 Besides, the Karttikeyanupreksa3 tells us that by fixing the limits in all the ten directions the passion of greed is controlled. This may be explained by saying that the Digerati has automatically renounced the getting of wealth, even if it can be easily got, from the area outside the limits.4 It will not be idle to point out here that the limitation of movements in the external world tends to reduce the internal passions, thereby fulfilling the purpose for which the Digvrata is enjoined.
The five transgression of the Digvrata are: Going beyond the fixed limits of space 1) in upward direction, 2) in downward direction, 3) in other directions, 4) extending the filed of one's activity by increasing boundaries, and 5) forgetting the limits.5
NATURE OF Desavrata: We now turn to the Desavrata. We shall first explain the nature of Desavrata according to those who have regarded it as one of the Siksavratas. Kundakunda has not recognised this vow, but speaks of Sallekhana in its place. Karttikeya and Samantabhadra have included Desavrata in the Siksavratas, but the latter considers it to be the first and the former, the fourth of the Siksavratas. The Sravaka Prajnapti,6 Haribhadra,7 Hemacandra 8 etc., have regarded Desavrata as the second of the Siksavratas. It may be pointed out here that Karttikeya, Samantabhadra and Hemacandra have not considered Sallekhana to be useless, but have delineated it after the Silavratas. The other tinkers 9 have subscribed to this
1. Srava. Prajna. 281, cf. Yo. Sa. III.2.
2. Ratna Srava. 70; Puru. 138; Sarvartha. VII.21; Amita.Srava.VI.77; Saga.
Dharma.V.3. Raja.VII. 21/19.
3. Kartti.341. 4. Sarvartha. VII,21; Raja.VII.21/18;Yosa.III.3.
5 Ta.Su.I.30; Ratna.Srava.73;Puru. 188; Uvasaga.I.50;Amita.Srava.VII.8.;
Saga.Dharma.v.5; Srava.Prajna.283. Dharma. Bi.161.
6 Srava.Prajna.318. 7.Dharma. Bi.151. 8. Yo.Sa.III.84.
9. Ta.Su.VII.22; Amita. Srava.Vi.98;Puru. 175 to 179; Subhasita. 822-
View of describing Sallekhana after the delineation of Silavratas. Of the extensive range of Space demarcated in the Digvrata, when further curtailment is made each day with reference to a house, a garden, a village, a field. A river, a forest and a Yojana stone, it is called Desavrata.1 As regards the time limit, Samantabhadra says that it may consist of a year, half a year, four months, two months, one month, and fifteen days.2 but according to Hemacandra, the time limit consists of a day or a night .3 It is to be borne in mind that, beyond the fixed limit of space, for the determined time the gross and subtle sins are absolutely renounced to such an extent that the observer of Desavrata may be credited with the designation of Mahavrati for the time- limit of Desavrata.4 In addition to the above view of the Desavrata, Karttikeya expounds that sense objects should also be limited like the limitation in the extensive range prescribed by the Digvrata.5 Perhaps this alludes to the further limitation of the objects of Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata which is regarded by him as the Gunavrata. In other words, the Desavrata in the light of Karttikeya equally narrows the extent of Digvrata and Bhogopabhoparimanavrata, whereas Samantabhadra and the Sravaka Prajnapti subscribe to the limitation of mere Digvrata. This is the exposition of Desavrata in conformity with those who have recognised this among the Siksavratas.
We now turn to those who have regarded this as one of the Gunavratas. According to Umasvati6 and Vasunandi, the Desavrata is a Gunavrata. The Tattvarthasutra Bhasya 7 and the Sarvarthasiddhi 8 expound the nature of Desavrata as limiting one's own movements to the region determined by certain village and as renouncing the rest of the places. Amitagati subscribes to this defintion.9 If this interpretation of Desavrata which implies its life- long observance is accepted, it cannot be distinguished from the Digvrata. Probably keeping this in view, Akalanka and Camundaraya specifically mention that the Digvrata
1. Ratna.Srava.92,93; Sga.Dharma.V.25,26;Kartti.368;Srava,prajana.318.
The Sravaka- Prajnapti and the Karttikeyanupreksa do not speak of the signs to be used for curtailments.
2. Ratna. Srava. 34. Kartti. Comm. 368.
3. Yo. Sa. III.84. 4. Ratna.Srava,95.; 5. Kartti.367.
6.Umasvati's interpreter Pujyapada regards Desavrta as Gunavrata (Sarvartha. VII.21.)
7. TA.Su.Bha. 8. Sarvartha.VII.21. 9.Amita.Srava.Vi.78.
is observed for the full life, but that the Desavrata is observed for a limited time. Amrtacandra also prescribes limited time in the Desavrata. If Akalanka's and Amrtacandra's view is kept in mind, we shall have no distinction between Desavrata as Gunavrata and Desavrata as Sikksavrata. Thus according to one interpretation it is superfluous, since it can be absorbed into the Digvrata, while according to the other it should be regard as Siksavrata, since it prescribes its observance for a limited time. It is true that Akalanka and Amrtacandra avoid this controversy of Gunavrara and Siksavrata by not dividing the seven Vratas in Gunavratas and Siksavratas as Pujyapada has done. But still the tradition of Desavrata as Siksavrata cannot over- look the interpretation of Akalanka and Amrtacandra as favoring its case. It is likely that after pondering over this confusing nature of the Desavrata Vasunandi has explained it by affirming that it implies the abandonment of the habitation of those countries or places where the observance of vows is threatened or rendered difficult.1 This way of elucidating the Desavrata is capable of justifying it as one of the Gunavraras. It is very interesting to note that Srutasagara, the 16th century commentator of the Tattvarthasutra has, in addition to the definition of Digvrata, given by the Sarvathasiddhi, subscribed to the view of Vasunandi by saying that the Desavrata consists in discarding those places which obstruct the due observance of Vratas and which occasion insularity of mind.2
Though the tradition of Umasvati and Samantabhadra differ in respect of the classification of the Devastates, they coalesce in point of the indication of its Aticaras. Transgressing the limits by 1) sending an agent, 2) drawing attention by making sounds, 3) ordering for things beyond limits, 4) making gestures and signs, and 5) throwing certain articles, has been announced to constitute the five breaches of the Desavrata.3
NATURE OF ANARTHADANDVRATA: We now propose to deal with the nature of Anarthadandavrata. All the traditions unanimously acknowledge this as the Gunavrata. Kartikeya defines Anarthadandavrata as renouncing the commitment of such acts as are not subservient to any useful purpose.4 Being frivolous, they simply engender
1. Vasu.srava.215. 2.Tattvartha-Vrtti.21/10-14.
3. Ratna.Srava.96;Uvasaga.I.54;Ta.Su.III.31;Pueu.189;Amita.Srava.VII.9; Saga.Dharma.V.27.
4. Kartti. 343.
instability of mind, which results in depravity. Samantabhadra defines Anarthadandavrata as refraining from wanton activity, even within determined directional limits, caused by inauspicious physical, mental and vocal operations, Akalanka in his commentary on the Tattvarthasutra explicitly points out that the purport of placing Anarthadandavrata in between Digvrata-Desavrata and Upabhogaparibhogaparibhogaparimanavrata contributes towards the comprehension of the fact that, even within the limits prescribed by the Dasavrata, the Digvrata and the Upabhogaparibhogaparimanavrata, one should neither make purposeless movements, nor enjoy such sensual pleasures as are of no account. The Sravaka Prajnapti affirms that actions without any purpose bring about more Karmic bondage than the actions with some end in view, inasmuch as the former may be committed at any time even without any necessity, while that latter are performed at some specific time out of some necessity. Thus there is manifest concordance among the Jaina philosophers regarding the nature of Anarthadanvrata.
FORMS OF ANARTHADANDAS: We now dwell upon the forms of Anarthdandas. The perpetration of barren and inane actions admits of multitudinous forms, but for the sake of comprehension either four or five forms have been recorded. The Upasakadasa and the Sravaka Prajnapti recognise four forms of Anarthadandas, whereas Karttikeys, Samantabhadra, and the commentators of Tattvarthasutra like Pujyapada and Akalanka recognise four forms of Anarthadandas. The four are: 1) Apadhyana, 2) Papopadesa, 3) Pramadacarita, and 4) Himsadana; and if Duhsruti is added to this list we get five forms of Anarthadandas. The treatment of these Anarthadandas is varied in nature, which is quite convincing in view of the extensive field embraced by the Anarthadandas. Though Karttikeya and Amratcandra have not mentioned the names of the five forms of Anarthadandas, the above mentioned four denominations very aptly suit the fivefold forms presented by both the Araya's. Though the life of the householder is at every step a mixture of virtue and vice-since he is pursuing the Anuvratas-yet these Anarthadandas unnecessarily entrap the perpetrator in such a way as to cause the influx of inauspicious Karmas which bring about unimaginable suffering in this life and the life hereafter.
1 Ratna. Srava. 74 2. Raja. VII. 21/22 3. Srava. Prajna. 290
4. uvasaga. 43. 5. Srava. Prajna. 289
Let us come to the meaning of the five forms of the Anarthadandas. First, Apadhyana implies inauspicious reflections which procreate nothing except a vicious trend of thought. This involves the fact of peeping into another man's wife with an evil eye, witnessing the dissension among persons, mutilating, imprisoning and killing others and getting interested in hunting, victory, defeat, war, adultery, theft, gambling, and the like. Hemacandra and Asadhara summarily include Arta Dhyana and Raudra Dhyana in Apadhyana. Secondly, Papopadesa means the giving of evil instructions to persons earning livelihood by service, business, writing documents, cultivating land, and working in the field of art. Samantabhadra, Pujyapada, Akalanka and Camundaraya include in Papopadesa the following things: the talk of selling slaves and beasts profitably and the giving of direction to hunters, fowlers and the like. Thus the provocation of vicious tendencies, on account of which an individual may indulge in corrupted, passionate, and life-injuring ways may briefly sum up the meaning of Papoadesa. Thirdly, Pramadacarita consists in doing such actions purposelessly as digging the ground, uprooting trees, trampling lawns, sprinkling water, burning and quenching fire, plucking leaves, fruits and flowers, wandering etc. Fourthly, Himsadana implies the giving of the instruments of Himsa like knife, poison, fire, sword, bow, chain etc. According to Karttikeya the rearing of violent animals like cat's etc., and the business of weapons like iron, Lac etc., come under Himsadana. Lastly, Duhsruti, listening to and teaching such stories as are passionexciting. Besides, the study of literature aggravating worldly attachment describing erotic things, and dealing with other intense-passion exciting things has also been included in Duhsruti. Vasunandi does
1 Kartti. 344; 2 Ratna. Srava. 78; Sarvarthsa. VII. 21; Caritrasara. p. 16.
3. Puru. 141, 146. 4Yo. sa. 5 Saga. Dharma. V. 9. 6. Puru. 142.
7 Ratna. Srava. IV. 76 ; Sarvartha. VII. 21; Puru. 143; Saga. Dharma. VI. 11. Caritra Sara. p. 17.
1. Kartti. 346; Ratna. Srava. 80; Sarvartha. VII. 21 ; Puru. 143; Saga. Dharma. VI. 11. Caritra Sara. p. 17.
9 Rathna. Srava. 77 ; Sravaka. Prajna. Comm. 289. puru. 144; Saga. Dharma. V. 8; Sarvartha. VII. 21 ; Cartitrasara. p. 17.
10 Kartti. 347. 11 Sarvartha. VII. 21.; Puru. 145.; Caritrasara. p. 17
12 Ratna. Srava. 79; Kartti. 348; Saga. Dharma. V. 9.
not describe the five forms of Anarthadandas, but simply announces that he who is observing Anarthadandavrata should avoid the business of iron, nets etc., the use of false weights and measures, and the rearing of dogs, of violent animals like cats etc.
The five transgressions that elate to define this vow are: 1) indulging in licentious speech, 2) ridiculously gesticulating and uttering obscene words, 3) prattling in a senseless manner, 4) becoming engrossed in actions without any consideration of purpose, and 5) unnecessarily accumulating articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga.
NATURE OF BHOGOPABHOGAPARIMANAVRATA: We now proceed to deal with the nature of Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata. The word 'Bhoga' pertains to those objects which are capable of being used only once, for instance, betel-leaf, garland etc., and the word 'Upabhoga' covers those objects which are capable of being used again and again, for instance, clothes, ornaments, cots etc. Thus the Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata implies the limitation in the use of the objects of Bhoga and Upabhoga in order to reduce attachment to the objects. Only Vasunadi bifurcates it into Bhogavirati and Paribhoganivrtti by keeping in view the aforementioned nature of Bhoga and Upabhoga. It ma be pointed out here that this Varity includes not only the positive process of limitaion, but also the negative prowess of renunciation. Karttikeya tells us that the renunciation of those things that are within one's won reach is more commendable than the renunciation of those things that are neither possessed, nor likely to be possessed in future. Samantabhadra points out that Vrata does not consist in giving up things unsuitable to oneself along with those which are not worthy to be used by the exalted persons, but that it consists in
1 Vasu. Sruva. 216.
2 Ratna. Srava. 81; Tasu. VII. 32; Puru. 190.; Caritrasara. p. 17. Dharma. Bi. 163; Amita. Srava. VII. 10; Saga. Dharma. V. 12.
3 The Upasakadasa and the Sravaka-prajnapti put 'bringing together the parts of implements' in place of the fouth as mentioned above.
4 The other name for his used by the Upasakadasa, th Tattvarthasutra, the Sravaka Prajnapti, etc. is Upabhga-Paribhoga-Parimanavrata. Here Upabhoga is equivalent to Bhoga' and Partibhoga is equal to ' Upabhoga'.
5 Ratna. Srava. 83; Amita. Srava. VI. 93; Yo. Sa III. 5. Saga. Dharma. V. 14; Yas. and Ic. p. 283.
6 Kartti. 350; Ratna, Srava. 82; Sarvartha. VII. 21. Saga. Dharma. V. 13.
7 Vasu. Sravva. 217, 218.
the deliberate renouncement of the suitable objects of senses, since the above two types of things are not even used by commonplace persons. Amrtancandra tells us that the layman should renounce, according to his capacity, the use of objects which are not prohibited.
TWO KINDS OF ABNEGATION IN BHOGOPABHOGAPARIMANAVRATA: In the Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata abnegation is of two kinds: Yama and Niyama; the former is for the whole duration of life, while the latter is for a limited period. Three types of things, namely, 1) objects causing injury to living beings processing more than oneness, like meat and honey; 2) objects developing spiritual laziness like wine, opium, seeds of thorn-apple, the intoxicating hemp and the like; and 3) objets causing injury to infinite one-sensed Jivas forming one body like ginger, radish, carrot etc., along with butter, flowers of Ketaki etc., should be forsaken for life. Besides, the use of objects like ornaments, conveyance etc., which have been considered as not necessary and the use of objects detested by the exalted personages like variegated colored clothes, odd dress and the like, should be forsaken either for life or for a limited period of time. The renouncement for life or for a limited period of time. The denouncement for a limited time, i.e., for an hour, a day, a night, a fortnight, a month, a season or half a year, should be made concerning food, conveyance, couch, bathing unguents, betel-leaf, clothes , ornaments, copulation, music and singing, since the householder cannot dispense with these things altogether. By virtue of pursuing such discipline, Animas is observed owing to not incurring Himsa arising from the use of the articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga, that have been renounced.
After dealing with the Digambara view of Bhogopabhogavrata, we now proceed to point out the Svetambara view. The Upasakadsa and the Sravaka Prajnapti tell us the Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata concerns itself with the purity of food and that of occupation. 9
1 Ratna. Srava. 86 . 2. Puru. 164. 3. Ratna. Srava. 87 ; Saga. Dharma. V. 14.
4 Sarvartha. VII. 21. 5 Raja VII. 21/27; Caritrasara. p. 25.
6 Ratna. Srava. 88, 89.
7 Puru. 166.
8 The puit of food means the avoidance of such food as causes Himsa of mobile beeings, for iinstance, meat, honey etc.
9 The purit of occupation signifies the abandonment of such evil trades as cause a good deal of Himsa for instance, livelighood from charcoal, trade in animal by-products etc.
"Other topics included at least by the Svetambaras under the Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata are the renouncement of the Ananta-kaya, the Abhaksyas and Ratribhojana." Here we observe that the Gigambara version of the Vrata includes both the elements of Yama and Niyama under its scope, but that the Svetambara version seems to comprised only the element of Yama.
BHOGOPOABHOGAPARIMANAVRATA AS GUNAVRATA AND SIKSAVRATA: Notwithstanding the delineation of the nature of Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata by the indifferent traditions of the Gigambaras without any marked difference, Vasunandi and the commentators of the Tattvarthsutra, namely, pujyapada and Vidyanandi enumerate this in the Siksavratas, while Samantabhadra and karttikeya count this as Gunavrata. This difference of opinion is on account of the dual nature of the vow itself. It possesses both the elements of Yama and Niyama characteristics of Gunavrata and Siksavrata respectively. So it can be interpreted both ways. The difference is of emphasis and not of nature.
The five transgressions of this vow according to Umasvati are: eating 1) articles having life, 2) articles in contact with those having life, 3) articles mixed with those having life, 4) articles not well-cooked and 5) fermented and aphoradisiacal articles. These Aticaras are too narrow to include the comprehensive extend of the Bhogopabhoga, so, it seems Samantabhadra has framed different Aticaras. The five Aticaras according to Samantbhadra are: 1) eating 1) articles having life, 2) articles in contact with those having life, 3) articles mixed with those having life, 4) articles not well-cooked and 5) fermented and aphrodisiac articles. These Aticaras. The five Aticaras according to Samantabhadra are: 1) constant craving for the venom of sensual enjoyment, 2) dwelling upon bygone pleasurable experiences, 3) too much indulgence even after enjoyment, 4) having acute craning for the gratification of senses in future, and 5) too much indulgence during enjoyment.
After dealing with the nature of Digvrata, Anarthadandavrata, Devastate and Bhogopabhogaparimanavrata, we now turn to the
1 Srava. prajna. Comm. 287, 288.
2 Plants having infinite one sensed Jivas, such as ginger, radish, carot etc.
3 Things not fit to e eates such as ice, ocurds kept for more than two days, tainted food etc.
4 Jaina Yoga. p\. 102. ( For the detailed traeatement of Anantakayas and Abhaksyas, see jaina Yoga. 110-116). We have already discussed this separately.
5 Tasu. VII. 35; Raja. VII. 35. Puru. 193; Caritrasara. p. 25; Dharma. Bi. 162;
6 Ratna. Srava. 90.
remaining three Vratas, namely, Samayika, Prosadhopavasa and Atithisamvibhaga which are unanimously pronounced as Siksavratas.
NATURE OF SAMAYIKA: Samayika is the positive way of submerging the activities of mind, body and speech in the Atman. Amrtacandra tell us that the purpose of Samayika is to attain the Atman after espousing the economies state of mind produced by renouncing attachment and aversion to the objects of the world. Samantabhadra defines Samayika as relinquishing the five types sins to the farthest extreme during the time fixed for the act of Samayaika. The Sravaka Prajnati tell us that Samayika negatively implies the abandonment of snuffle actions and positively, the practice of non-sinful actions. The economies state of mind, in the as of the householder, is equivalent should be distinguished from Sddhopayaoga, the ideal to be achieved through strenuous self-denial. Jus as Samyagdarsana is at the root of liberation (Moksa ), so Samayika is at the root of the conduct for Moksa. Reflection on the nature of the would as inauspicious, transitory, and full of pain, and reflection on the nature of salvation as auspicious, permanent and blissful-both these constitute what is allied the content of auspicious deliberations.5
The consideration of seven requisites, namely, 1) place, 2) time, 3) posture, 4) meditation, and threefold purifies, namely, 5) mental, 6) bodily, and 7) voal, is necessary for the successful performance of Samayika. 10 That place which is free from disturbing noise, gathering of persons, and insects like mosquitoes, flies, etc., is the solitude, whether it is a forest, a house, a temple or any other place, should be chosen to perform Samayika. 2) Samayika should be performed three time as a day, i.e., in the morning, noon and evening. The great Acarya Amrtacandra says that the householder should consider the act of Samayika as obligatory and perform it at least twice a day, i.e., in the morning and evening. He further remarks that its performance at other times will conduce towards the enhancement of the spiritual and moral characteristics, hence it is not
1 Raja. VII. 21/7; Caritrasara. p 19. 2 Puru. 148
3 Ratna. Srava. 97. 4 Srave. Prajna. 292.
5 Ratna. Srava. 104. 6 Kartti. 352/
7 Kartti. 353. 8 Ratna. Srava. 99. 9 Kartti. 354
10 Puru. 149.
improper, but beneficial. Samantabhadra says that one should perform Samayika till the time one fixes for it according to one's own mental states. After with drawing oneself from all kinds of worldly activities, and after subduing all mental disturbances, one should increase the duration of Samayika on the fasting and half-fasting days. It should also be gradually enchanted daily, since Samayika serves as a great cause for fulfilling the five vows. 3) Sitting and standing postures are generally recommended for the performance of Samayika. 4-7) The aspirant should purge the mind of sensual pleasures by concentrating on the sermons of the Jina, adopt submissive and surrendering gestures, and finally, either repeat the devotional hymns mentally or absorb himself in self-meditation. He should bear hardships caused by cold, heat, insect-biting as well as troubles created by enemy without breaking silence, and without disturbing the purity of physical, mental and vocal activities. By the performance of Samayika he who keeps in view the aforementioned requisites is naturally led to abandon even all the subtle vices which entangle the householder. And for the time one fixes for the act of Samayika, one approaches asceticism.
The five transgressions which should be avoided are: Losing one's control over 1) mind, 2) body and 3) Speech, 4) Lacking interest in Samayika, and 5) forgetfulness of Samayika.
NATURE OF PROSADHOPAVASAVRATA: Samantabhadra and others enunciate the Prosadhopavasavrata as renouncing the four kinds of food on the eighth and fourteenth lunar days in each fortnight. Probably keeping in view the infirmness of disciples, Karttikeya also includes the eating of unseasoned food once a day in the Prosadhopavasavrata, and Amitagati and Asadhara also comprise the taking of
1 Puru. 149. 2 Ratna. Srava. 98. 3 Ratna. Srava. 100
4 Ratna. Srava. 101. 5 Kartti. 35. 6 Kartti. 355, 356.
7 Ratna. Srava. 103, Caritrasara. p. 19.
8 Ratna. Srava. 102; Kartti. 357 ; Puru. 150
9 Ratna Srava. 102 ; Kartti 357 ; Puru. 150.
10 Ratna. Srava. 105. puru. 191 ; Ta su. VII. 33; Dharma. Bi. 164; Srava. prajna. 312-317.
11 Ratna. Srava. 106.
12 Puru. 151 ; Saga. Dharma. V. 34 ; Amita. Srava. VI 88 ; Tattvarthavrtti. VII. 21 Kartti. 359 Yas. & Ic. p. 282.
13 Kartti. 359. 14 Amita. Srava. VI. 90
1 Saga. Dharma. V. 35.
only water in this Vrata. The observance of this Vrata requires the performance of meditation, the study of spiritual literature, and the avoidance of batch, perfumes, bodily embellishment, ornaments, cohabitation and household affairs. The Sravaka Prajnapti prescribes that the relinquishment of food, bodily embellishment, cohabitation, household affairs should be effected either partially or completely in the Prosadhopavasavrata. Here we observe that though the Digambara Acaryas allow the partial renunciation of food, they prescribe complete relinquishment of cohabitation, bodily embellishment and household affairs in observing the Prasadhoopavasavrata, as we have said above. As regards the place for the performance of this Vrata, a temple, the abode of Sadhus, a Prosadhasala, or any holy place should be chosen for one's stay.
PROCEDURE OF PRASADHOPAVASAVRATA: Amrtacandra notably lays down the procedure for observing the Prosadhopavasavrata. After renouncing all household affairs and all worldly attachment, one should undertake the vow at the middle of the day previous to the Prosadha day. After this, one should repair to a sequestered place, forsake all sinful activities, renounce all sensual pleasures, and observe due restraint of body, speech and mind. After passing the rest of the day in auspicious deliberations, the evening should be occupied with the performance of Samayika. The night should be passed on a pure mat after getting over sleep by being engrossed in the study of spiritual literature. On the next morning, after performing Samayika, one should engage oneself in the worship of Jina with Prasuka objects. In the same prescribed manner, the day, the second night, and half of the third day should be spent with circumspection. Thus, sixteen Yamas (48 hours) constitute the time of Prosadhopavasavrata. "The Svetambara writers mention a period of twenty-four hours" and lays down the procedure of the Vrata fundamentally in the same way as above. The difference consists of moron details.
PROSADHOPAVASAVRATA AND THE FIVE SINS: On account of being free from all sinful activities the observer of Prosadhopavasavrata approaches the complete vows only pursuable by the saints. He
1 Kartti. 358. Ratna. Srava. 107, 108; Amita. Srava. VI. 89. yas Ic. p. 282.
2 Srava. Prjna, Comm. 322l /sarvartha. VII. 21 ; Caritrasara. p. 22.
3 Puru. 152 to 157.
4 jaina Yoga, p. 142. 5 Ibid. p. 145.
eschews the Himsa of all kinds of Jivas because of the renunciation of the articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga. He shuns falsehood, stealing, acquisition and unchastely on account of the control of speech, the abstinence from all misappropriation, the absence of the feeling of attachment, and the avoidance of sexual intercourse respectively.
NATURE OF ATITHISAMVIBHAGAVRTA: We now proceed to represent the nature of Atithisamvibhagavrata. According to Karttikeya, he who after acquiring certain qualifications, offers four kinds of gifts in conformity with the nine fold ways of entertaining the three kinds of deserving recipients is announced to be legitimately pursuing the Atithisamvibhagavrata. The offering should be made for mutual ennoblement without expecting any return. It will not be amiss to point out that Samantabhadra denominates this vow as Vaiyavratya, probably to extend the scope of the vow. It also includes the fact of removing the ailments of those pursuing the path of renunciation, of massaging their feet, as well as of serving them in various other ways. Besides, it is to the credit of Samantabhadra that he renders devotion to Arahantas obligatory for those who follow this vow. According to the Sravaka Prajnapti, this vow consists in offering pure food to the saint by keeping in view the following things: Place (desa), time (kala), faith (sraddha), respect (satkara), and due order (karma), Haribhadra explains these terms in the following way: place signifies the area producing wheat or rice etc.; time means famine or otherwise; purity of mind is faith; the formalities of standing up, offering seat, worshipping, following the saint when he is returning etc., come under
1 Puru. 158, 159.
2 Ratna. Srava. 110 ; Puru. 192; Raja. VII. 34; Dharma. Bi. 166. Caritrasara. pp. 22-23. Saga. Dharma. V. 40.
3 We shall presently deal with them.
4 Kartti. 360, 361.
5 Puru. 167; ratna. Srava. 111. 6 Ratna. Srava. 112.
7 Ibid. 118
8 Srava Prajna. 325, 326.
respect; due order points to the articles of food to be offered one after there other.
CONSIDERATION OF FIVE OBJETIVES FOR THE ADEQUATE OBSERVANCE OF THIS VOW: This vow comprises the consideration of the five objectives for its adequate observance, namely, 1) classes of deserving recipients, 2) qualifications of a donor, 3) things worthy of gift, 4) method of giving and 5) yield of gift. 1) Merit develops with respect to the degree of conduct along with Samyagdarsana. Hence three kinds of deserving recipients have been recgonised. a) The saint who has consecrated his life for the achievement of liberation, and consequently, who has absolutely forsaken all the sins stands at the highest rung of the ladder of merit. b) The householder who pursues the twelve vows or observes the discipline prescribed by he eleven stages of advancement (eleven Pratimas) stands at the middle of the ladder of merit. c) He who is endowed with the characteristic of Samyagdarsana but who does not observe the right course of ethical discipline stands at the last rung of the ladder of merit. We shall now describe the nature of I) Kupatras, ii) Aparas, and iii) Karunapatras in order to distinguish them form the aforementioned three kinds of Part's (deserving recipients). I) In the absence of Samyaggdarsana he who is adhering to vows, performing austerities, and striving for the betterment of living beings is designated as Kupatra (not entitled to the gift to be offered with religious devotion). In other words, sheer moral purity in the absence of spiritual or religious conversion cannot be the objet of devoted offering. We may point out in passing that this aspect of Dana thrown light upon the spieitualisation of Jaina ethical living. Ii) He who possesses neither moral conduct nor Samyagdarsana should be regarded as Apatra (not entitled to the gift as such). Apatra is a curse to society, iii) children and such persons as are very old, dumb, blind, deaf, foreigner, diseased, and indigent should be given suitable things out of compassion.8 We cannot
1 Srava. Prajna. Comm. 325.
2 Vasu. Srava. 220
3 Vasu. Srava. 221 ; Puru. 171 ; Amita. Srava. X. 4; Saga. Dharma. V. 44.
4 Vasu. Srava. 222 ; Puru. 171 ; Amita. Srava. X. 27 to 30; Saga. Dharma. V. 44.
5 Vasu. Srava. 222. amita. Srava. X. 32. Puru. 171; Saga. Dharma. V. 44.
6 Amita. Srava. X. 34, 35. Vasu. Srava. 223.
7 Amita. Srava. X. 36, 37, 38. Vasu. Srava. 223.
8 Vasu. Srava. 235.
forbear mentioning that Bhakti Dana should be distinguished from social charity (Dana) inclusive of Karuna Dana. The three Patras (deserving recipients) receive gifts out of devotion but Kupatas and Karunapatras should be given from moral or social point of view. It is to the credit of the Jainas that they have not ignored the social aspect of Dana in emphasizing Bhakti Dana or Patra Dana. 2) As regards the qualifications of a donor concerning the Patra Dana, the donor must possess the seven virtues; namely, belief in the result of Dana given to the Patras, affection for the merits of Patras, pleasure at the time of giving and after giving, knowledge of the suitable gifts proper to the different Patras, absence of longing for worldly benefits, control over anger even at a critical juncture, showing real enthusiasm in such a manner as may astound even the wealthy persons. All these are respectively called: faith (sraddha), devotion (bhakti), joy(samtosa or taste), wisdom (Vienna), unattachment (alubdhata, or alaulya), forbearance (ksama), and enthusiasm (sakti or sativa). The Tattvarthabhasya enumerates eight characteristics, namely, absence of jealousy towards the recipient (anasuya), absence of sorrow in giving avisada), absence of condescension towards the recipient (aparibhavita), joy in giving (pritiyaga), auspicious frame of mind (kusalabhisamdhita), absence of desire for worldly benefit (drstaphalanapeksita), straightforwardness (nirupdhatva), and lastly, freedom from desire for other-worldly benefits (anidanatva). 3) To consider the things worthy of gifts, generally four kinds of gifts have been recgonised; namely, food, medicine, books and fearlessness. Food, medicine, Upakarana (religious accessories) and the place of shelter is the other list of four objects. All these things should be worthy of the Patras. Only such things should be given as are useful for the pursuance of studies and for practicing austerities of a very high quality, and as do not bring about attachment, aversion, incontinence, pride, sorrow, fear and the
1 Amita. Srava. IX. 3-10. Vasu. Srava. 224. Caritrasara. p. 26. Saga. Dharma. V. 47.
2 Ta. su. Bha. VII. 34. (I have practically followed the transaltion given in the Jaina yoga. pp. 13-154) Amrtacandra enumerates almost the same characteristics. (Puru. 169)
3 Kartti. 362. Amita. Srava. IX. 83, 106, 107. Vasu. Srava. 233.
4 Ratna. Srava. 117. Caritrasara. p. 26. yas. and Ic. p. 283.
5 Upakaranas differ for a Svetambara nd a Digambara monk. We need not mention them here.
like. 4) The gifts should be given according to the nine fold ways of entertaining a Patra. This process consist of reception, offering a high seat, washing the feet, adoration, salutation, purity of mind, purity of body, purity of speech and purity of food. The saints should be entertained with the above formalities but the other Pates according to their merits. 5) As regards the yield of gift, greed is overcome by Dana and consequently Atithidana amounts to the renunciation of Himsa. Besides, just as water washes away bloods, so proper gifts to saints would for certain wipe off the sins accumulated on account of the unavoidable household affairs. The paying of obeisance to the holy saints causes noble birth; the giving of Dana to them entails prosperous living; their servitude promotes high respect; their devotion determines gracious look; and the extolling of their virtues brings about celebrity. Vasunandi tells us that the gift to Patras is just like a seed sown in a fertile land; and the gift to Apertures is just like a seed sown in a barren land.
The five Aticaras of this vow are; 1) placing food on things having life, 2) covering food with things having life, 3) offering food at an improper time, 4) offering some other person's food, and 5) lack of interest or jealousy towards the other giver.
TWO WAYS OF DESCRIBING THE HOUSEHOLDER'S ETHICAL DISCIPLINE: VRATAS, AND PRATIMAS: We have so far endeavored to expound the characteristic nature of Anuvratas, Gunavratas bad Siksavratas. The last two types of Vratas, which are called Salivates, are capable of educating the individual for the exalted life of renunciation. They deepen his consciousness of sin, thereby encouraging him to shun totally the causes of subtle Himsa, which prevent the full-fledged performance of the auspicious Dhyanas (Dharma and Sukla). It is evident that
1 Puru. 170.
2 Puru. 168. Vasu. Srava. 225. Kartti. 360. yas. and Ic. p. 284. haribhadra includeds these processes in Satkara, while commenting on the definition of the vow given by the Sravaka prajnapti. ( Srava. prajna. Comm. 325).
3 puru. 172. 4 Ratna. Srava. 114. 5 Ratna. Srava. 115.
6 Vasu. Srava. 240, 241, 242.
7 Sarvartha. VII. 36. Raja. VII. 36. The names of these Aicaras are the smae in Digambara and Svetambara works, but the meaning differs slightly. we have followe dPujapada's meaning.
We shall deal with these two Dhyanas in the subsequent chapter.
whatever sour of Himsa remains in the life of the householder, who pursues the partial vows, is consequent upon the employment of the materials of Bhoga and Upabhoga. Now he whose heart has been illumined, who has developed in him the capacity of discharging the obligations which result from the arduous life of asceticism proceeds towards the gradual and the systematic renunciation of the articles of Bhoga and Upabhoga, till he arrives at the full life of a saint. To express it differently, the elevated outlook of life negatively depends upon narrowing down the compass of Bhoga and Upabhoga to the irreducible extent, and positively, upon steadily deepening the meditational aspect of life. The negative aspect deserves to be extolled only when it is accompanied by the positive phase of meditational development or auspicious female and disposition of mind. In our study of the Jaina ethical works, we find the exposition of the Acura of the householder on the ground of Anuvratas, Gunavartas and Siksavratas as only one of the ways of its presentation. This method of Approach to the conduct of the householder is itself capable of effecting moral and spiritual advancement by systematically prescribing the renouncement of the objects of Bhoga and Upbhoga. The outstanding advocates of this sort of presentation are Umasvati, Samantabhadra, Someday, Amitagati, Amrtacandra and Hemacandra. Of these religio-thical saints, Umasvati, Amrtacandra and Hemacandra have to all intents and purposes subscribed to this view, whereas the rest, in spite of their having represented the householder's ethical discipline on the aforementioned pattern, have also referred to another way which shall be henceforth discussed. The notable champions of another way, i.e. of the way which seeks to represent that Aara of the householder on the basis of eleven stages, which are technically called eleven Pratimas, are Kundakunda, Karttikeya, Camundaraya and Vasunandi.
RECONCILONCILIATION OF THE TWO WAYS: These two ways may, at the first sight, appear to present two divergent outlooks of Jaina ethical discipline, but a little reflection would convince us that the divergence is only superficial. The two are so closely related that is the former way fo representation is pushed ahead for spiritual development we are capable of having systematic stages of advancement. To be more clear,
1 Caritra pahuda. 22 Kartti. 305, 306.
3 Caritra sara, p. 3. 4 Vasu. Srava. 4.
the vows of Samayika, Prosadhopavasa, and Bhogopabhogaparimana give us the nine stages of advancement towards the life of asceticism. Thus there is no unbridgeable gulf between the two ways of delineation. There is continuity and not a chasm between them. Besides, the latter way of exposition on the basis of eleven stages is chronologically prior, the credit of logical priority comes to the former.
THE ELEVEN PRATIMAS: The eleven Pratimas which have been mentioned by Kundakunda, Samantabhadra, Camundaraya, and Vasunandi are denominated 1) Darsana, 2) Vrata, 3) Samayika, 4) Prosadha, 5) Sacittatyaga, 6) Ratribuktityaga, 7) Brahamacarya, 8) Arambhatyaga, 9) Parigrahatyaga, 10) Anumatityaga, and 11) Uddistatyaga. The usagadhasao also speaks of eleven Pratimalas, but does not mention their names. Karttikeya enumerates twelve Pratimas but it should not be considered as the violation of the traditional number which is eleven since the first stage enumerated by Karttikeya is indicative of Samyagadarasana, i.e., of spiritual conversion which has not been separately enumerated by other Acaryas but has been included in the 1st stage mentioned by them. The remaining are the names of the eleven Primates. Hence, there is no divergence from traditional enumeration. Somadeva, in the first place, effects variation in the order of certain stages and secondly substitutes 'Diva-Maithuna-virati' for 'Ratri-Bhukti-virati. The former deviation from the traditional presentation has received no support at the hands of subsequent thinkers, while the latter one has been assimilated in their ethical discussions. We shall presently dwell upon each of the eleven Pratimas and shall swell as endeavor to point out that the aforementioned three
1 Sat. Vol. I-p. Kasaya Pahuda. Vol. I. p. 130.
2 Caritra Pahuda. 22. 3. Ratna. Srava. 137 to 147.
4. Vasu. Srava. 4.
5 uvasaga. 70. Abhayadeva, the commentator of the Uvasagadasao, mentions the names of eleven Pratimas in the following way : 1) Darsana, 2)Vrata, 3) Samayika, 4) prosadha, 5) Kayotasarga, 6) Abrahma-varjana, 7) Sacitta-tyaga, 8) Arambhatyaga, 9) Presyatyaga, 10) Uddistatyaga and 11) Sramanabhuta. (Uvasaga. Comm. pp. 74-77) we observe that the names of Pratimas given by the Svetambaras are somewhat different from those given by teh Digambaras. But we shall point out afterwards that the contents do not differ much.
6 Kartti. 305, 306. 7 Vasu. Srava. Intro. p. 50.
Vratas (Smayaika, Prosadhopavasa, and Bhogopabhogaparimana) are capable of explaining the nine stages of ethical headway.
DARSANA PRATIMA : The fist stage is Darsanapratima. After the attainment of Samyadarsana the aspirant who should be styled Darsanika Sravaka resolutely forsakes the use of odious things such as meat wine and the like, and becomes indifferent to worldly and heavenly pleasures, and nourishes the spirit of detachment. In conformity with the views of Vasunandi, he who has acquired Samyagdarsana and has relinquished the use of five Udamabara fruits and refrained himself from gambling, meat, wine, honey, hunting, prostitution, adultery and stealing, should be designated as Darsanika Sravaka. In addition to the relinquished of the above indulgences, Vasunandi very emphatically cries down the practice of taking food at night, and argues that he who indulges in eating at night cannot claim to be practicing even the observances of the first stage. If we pause a little to ponder over these decline actions of the observances of the first stage, we can very easily conceive that this stage comprises the Mulagunas in addition to Samyagdarsana. Hence, the various conceptions of Mulagunas may give us various enunciation's of the first stage. It is in all probability due to the recognition of this fact that Somadeva calls the first stage 'Mulavrata'. It will not be out place to point out that the characterization of this stage in accordance with Vasunandi is so comprehensive as to comprise under it all the preceding formulations concerning Milagunas. It has not the stringency of Samantabhadra's and Jinasena's conceptions of Mulagunas wherein five partial vows have been included and not the excessive mildness of Somadeva's view. The pronouncement of the seven kinds of additions to calamitous habits (saptavyasana) tends towards the inclusion of the four types of sins to some extent, namely, Himsa, falsehood, stealing and unchastity. Hence it is that in some measure the view of Samantabhadra and Jinasena is included in it. We need not mention how the Mulagunas prescribed by Amitagati, Somadeva are completely comprehended in it.
1 Karti. 328, 329. 2 Ratna. Srava. 137; Caritrasara. P. 3.
3 Vasu. Srava. 57 to 59. 4 Ibid. 314.
5 Abhayadeva mentions under this stage only the attainment of Samyagdarsana.
6 Vasu. Srava. 59; Vasu. Srava. Intro. P. 50.
7 Gambling, meat, wine, hunting, prostitution, adultery and stealing.
Thus Mulagunas and Samyagdarsana may depict the 1st stage. Just as the conception of Mulagunas is dynamic, so the portrayal of the first stage will also be dynamic character. In other words, this stage is capable of involving the abandonment of newly evolved evil tendencies that may mar the spiritual and the moral advancement owing to Samyagdarsana. It is of capital importance to note that the first stage is the stage of mental preparation accompanied be the initial training of the will by following the short course of ethical discipline. We regard the separate treatment of Mulguna as more correct, than the one along with Samyagdarsana, since they are capable of being observed even by the great majority of commonplace persons, by virtue of which the social structure may be morally defended.
VRATA PRATIMA : The second stage is called Vrata pratima. This second rung of the ladder of the householder's evolution of conduct comprises the scrupulous observance of Anuvratas, Gunavratas and Siksavratas.2 We have already dwelt upon the nature of these vratas, so need not turn to them again.
SAMAYIKA AND VRATA PRATIMA : The third and fourth stages bear the designations of Samayika and Prosadha Pratimas respectively. A question may be asked : when Samayika and Prosadhopavasa have been treated as Siksavratas, why have they been regarded as constituting the third and fourth Pratimas respectively ? It is really a question and this becomes all the more puzzling when we find that Samantabhadra and Karttikeya who recognise Samayika and Prosadha as both Vratas and Pratimas have practically prescribed the same course of discipline to be observed. In Samayika Pratima, Karttikeya has prescribed the resoluteness of mind, body and speech despite all perils to life, while Samantabhadra has represented this characteristic in Samayika as Vrata, but has distinguished Samayika as Pratima by prescribing the
1 Abhayadeva prescribes only the observance of the Anuvratas in this stage. (Uvasaga. comm. p. 76)
2 Ratna. Srava. 3178/ Vasi/ Srava/ 207.
3 Abhayadeva also recognises the performance of Samayika and the observance of Prosadhopavasa in these two Pratimas ( See uvasaga. Comm. p. 76)
4 Kartti. 371, 372. 5 Ratna. Srava. 103.
necessity of performing Samayika thrice a day, which characteristic has been included in Samayika as Vrata according to Karttikeya. In Prosadha as Pratima and Prosada as Vrata no significant distinction has been made by Karttikeya and Samantabhandra. We may now say that the distinction which has been made is quite insignificant for being calculated as supplying the adequate warrant for recognising these Vratas as indecent Pratimas. The argument of Asadhara that these Silas, which were subserving the purpose of guarding the Anuvratas, become in Pratimas independent Vratas, bears little cogency, since though these Silas, no doubt serve the purpose of custodian, yet it is unintelligible how they cancel the designation of being called Vratas. The word 'Sills' prefixed to Vratas evinces simply particularisation and not the cancellation of their being understood as Vratas. May be, on account of this overt duplication, Vasunandi has totally set aside these Vratas from Salivates, and his simply represented them as the two Pratimas. If Kundakunda and Karttikeya have wedded with this mode of delineation, i.e., have recognised Samayika and Prosadha as both Vratas and Pratimas, it is to point out their paramount importance for marching towards deep spiritual life. As a matter of fact, these sum up the entire spiritual life of the householder. Besides, Samayika and Prosadhopavasa are closely interrelated and so influence each other. Prosadhopavasa assists in the due performance of Samayika and sometimes Samayika encourages the performance of the other with purity and zeal. Thus if Vasunandi is theoretically justifiable, Kundakunda and Karttikeya are practically so. In the science of spirituality theory cannot countervail practice. So, if these two Vratas are elevated to the rank of Pratimas, it is to favor the deepening of spiritual consciousness, and hence it is justifiable.
THE REMAINING PRATIMAS : Having vindicated the claims of Samayika and Prosadhopavsa as Pratimas notwithstanding their recognition in Vratas, we now proceed to enquire into the nature of the remaining Pratimas. All the subsequent stages rest on the relinquishment of Bhoga and Upabhoga. Sacittaga Pratima consists in renouncing the use of articles having life, namely, roots, fruits, leaves, barks, seeds
1 Ratna. Srav. 139.
2 Kartti. 354.
3 Saga. Dhama. VII. 6.
and the like. The observer of the discipline prescribed by this stage does not also feed others with those things which he himself has renounced. The next stage is recognised to be either 'Ratri Bhuktivirati' or 'Divamaithunvirati.' Kundakunda, Karttikeya and Samantabhadra subscribe to the former view while the other authors like Amitagati, Chmundaraya, Vasunandi , Somadeva and Asadhana recognise 'Divamaithunavirati', i.e., abstinence from sexual intercourse in the day. According to Karttikeya he who has ascended this stage neither eats food nor feeds others at night nor suggest others to do so. We may now say that this stage refers to the limitations of both Bhoga and Upabhoga. The next stage known as Brahmacarya Pratima prescribes absolute continence. This is indicative of the further limitation in the objects of Upabhoga. The eighth stages of householder's advancement which is known as Arambhatyaga signifies the discontinuance of service, cultivation, business, in short, the means of live hood. Besides, he neither suggests others to do business etc., nor commends those who are doing so. The next stage, namely, Parigrahatyaga Pratima enjoins the abandonment of all kinds of accusations except clothes, and in those too the observer is not attached. The statement of Samantabhadra and Karttikeya that the observer of this stage should renounce all kinds
1 Kartti. 380; Ratna. Srava. 141; Saga Dharma. VI. 8; Vasu. Srava. 295. Abhayadeva, regards this Pratima as the seventh in order and prescribes the same course of discipline as above (Uvasaga. Comm. p. 76)
2 kartti. 380. Abhayadeva calls this pratima by the name of Kayotsaga and regards this as the fifth in order and includes in it the avoidance of cohabitation in the da. he also prescribes the observance of the Gunavratas and the Siksavratas in addition to the Anuvratas in this Pratima. (uvasaga. Comm. p. 76)
3 Caritra pahuda. 22. 4 kartti. 382. 5. Ratna. Srava. 142.
6 Amita. Srava. VII. 72 7 Caritrasara. p. 38. 8 Vasu. Srava. 296.
9 Vasu. Srava. Intro. p. 50. 10. Saga. Dharma. VII. 12.
11 Jarttu, 384. Vasu. Srava. 297. Ratna. Srava. 1432. saga. Dhrma. VII. 16. Abhayadeva defines it in the same way, though the order of the pratima is the sixth.
12 Ratna. Srava. 144. Vasun. Srava. 298. Abhayadeva holds that the aspirant himself should not indulge in any activity for livelihood.
13 Kartti. 385. 14. Vasu. Srava. 299
of Parigraha internal as well as external should mean the renouncement of all Parigraha except clothes. In the tenth stage, the aspirant refuses to give advice or suggestion regarding mattes concerning the householder, hence it is called Anumatityaga Pratima. Here all the objects of Bhoga and Upabhoga have been renounced except clothes, and proper food cooked for him. The highest point of householder's discipline is arrived at in the eleventh stage when the aspirant renounces home and goes to the forest where ascetics dwell and accepts vows in the presence of a Guru. He performs austerities, lives on food obtained by begging, and wears a piece of lion-cloth. Thus he is designed as excellent Sravaka and the stages is called Uddistatyaga Pratima. Vasunandi gives a twofold classification of this stage, first, the excellent Sravaka with one cloth, and secondly the same with the one lion-cloth. The former applies instruments for cutting of his hair. Keeps broom to avoid injury to small living beings, takes meals once a day either in the palm of his hand or in some pot in a sitting posture, and observes fast by renouncing all kinds of food on the four pious days (Astami and Caturdasi ) of the month. This distinguishes him from the latter who pulls out his hairs, and takes his meals in the palm of his hand, other things being common to both. In both the cases, food is begged either from one house after the monks have taken their meals and fast is observed if food is not obtained from there, or from different houses in case food is not received at one house.
THE THIRD WAY AS THE SYSTEMATIC AND ALL-INCLUSIVE EXPOSITON OF THE HOUSEHOLDERS ETHICAL DISCIPLINE : We witness a third way of
1. Kartti. 386. Ratna. Srava. 145. Abhayadeva recognises neirther the Parigrahatyaga Pratima nor the Anumatityaga Pratime. He speak of Presytyaga Pratima, which implies the esfusal to make use of other for livelihood.
2. Kartti. 388. Ratna.Srava. 146. Vasu.Srava.300.
3. Ranta. Srava.147. According to Abhayadeva, in the Uddistatyaga Pratima the aspirant does not take food prepared for himself; he either shaves his head or keeps a top- knot. In the Sramanabhuta Pratima he either shaves his head or pulls out his hair. Besides he keeps a broom and a begging bowl (Uvasga comm.pp.76-77) These two stage almost correspond to the two-fold division made by Vaunandi as mentioned above.
5. Vasu.Srava.302,303,311; Saga. Dharma.VII.39,40.
6.Vasu.Srava.304 to 309, Saga.Dharma. VII. 41 to 44, 46.
representing the house-holder's ethical discipline. This has emerged on account of the tendency of comprehensive systematisation. Sallekhana (to be henceforth discussed) which is included by Kundakunda in Vratas is taken out by other Acaeyas from the extent of the Vratas and is given a separate place. Besides, the Mulagunas, the Vratas, and the Pratimas appear to be somewhat detached from one another. Though the conception of Pratimas is capable of including Mulagunas and Vratas, yet it mingles Mulagunas with Samyagdarsana. Thus it detaches Mulagunas from their original function for which they have been designed, namely, for preparing commonplace persons morally and for deciding the minimum of morality. Again, though Mulagunas and Vratas along with Samayagdarsana are capable of giving rise to Pratimas, yet Sallekhana remains isolated. Thus the conception of Pratimas suffers from two defects; first, of curbing the freedom of Mulagunas to embrace wide extent, and secondly, of not including Sallekhana within them; and the conception of Mulagunas and Vratas along with Samyagdarsana, from one defect of not comprising Sallekhana with their purview. Probably keeping this in view, Jinasena has devised an all-comprehen-sive way for describing the Acara into Paksa, Carya and Sadhana. The follower of this discipline is called Paksika, Naisthika, and Sadhana respectively. Asadhara has adopted this way as the basis of his Sagaradharmamrta. He who has set his face against the intentional injury to all mobile living beings, and who observes Mulagunas is called Paksika. He is to abstain himself from wine, meat, honey, five kinds of Udambara fruits and seven kinds of bad habits already mentioned, and from eating corn-food at night. He is further to devote himself to worship Arahantas, revere Gurus, offer gifts to the Patras and try to earn fame by meritorious deeds of charity and the like. Besides, he should practice universal friendship, appreciate meritorious personages, be compassionate towards the miserable and be indifferent towards the perverted. The aspirant who devotes himself to the observance of Pratimas which also include Vratas in styled Naisthika. And lastly, he who practises Sallekhana is called Sadhaka. Thus we see that all the previous ways of describing the householder's discipline have been properly harmonised.
1 Adipurana. 145. 2 Saga. Dharma. I-19, II-2.
3 Saga. Dharma. II. 17, 76. 4 Ibid. I. 19.
NATURE OF SALLEKHANA AS DISTINGUISHED FROM SUICIDE : After reconciling the threefold ways of describing the householder's ethical discipline, we now proceed to explain the conception of Sallekhana as recognised in Jainism. It implies the enervation of external body and internal passions in a legitimate way by the gradual removal of the causes of their nourishment so that one may renounce the present body with a view to having a new bodily modification. To be more clear, the abandonment of the bodily frame on being confronted with the uneschewable calamity, famine, senility, and disease for the sustenance of spiritual practices has been regarded as Sallekhana. This signifies that the process of Sallekhana is to be adopted either in special circumstances when the religious observances are being endangered on account of unavoidable bodily infirmities and the like, or on the occasion when the time of natural death has been in all probability. No doubt, the body which is the medium of the upliftment of the soul is to be properly nourished and cared for and the diseases are to be seriously met with any retreat. But if the body refuse to respond to our earnest endeavors, we should not falter to forsake it like a villain in the interest of saving the peace of mind. Thus if one is encountered with the causes of the termination of duration of the present life one should resort to the performance of the process of Sallekhana, which is not other than the spiritual welcome to death. This is not yielding to death, but a way of meeting the challenge of death undauntedly and adequately. This happy embracement of death has been calculated to carry the spiritual dispositions to the next birth, but it is not very easy to practice. Those who have submitted themselves to vicious deeds throughout their lives cannot easily think to adopt the process of Sallekhana. Thus it requires an earnest endeavour from the start. Samantabhadra declares that austerities, if they have been truly, deeply, and successfully performed, must bear the fruits of noble death. "Self-restraint, study, austerities, worship, and charity, all become useless if the mind is not pure at the last hour of life. Just as the training of a king who has learnt the use of weapons for twelve years, becomes useless if he faints on the battle field." It is to be remembered that the mere loss of the strength of the body is of no
1 Sarvartha. VII. 22. 2. Ratna. Srava. 122.
3. Saga. Dharma. VIII. 20; Amita. Srava. VI. 98, yo sa. III. 148.
4 Saga. Dharma. VIII. 5, 6,7. 5 Puru. 175. 6 ratna. Srava. 123. 7 yas. and Ic. p. 287.
consequence if it does not lead to the conquest of passions. The flagellation of the body must issue in the denial of passions. The resignation of body to death has not been considered to be as difficult as the observing of self-control, and the fixing of one's mind in the Atman, when the vital forces depart from the body. Thus the emphasis is on thee rejection of passion, and consequently this noble death serves for the fulfillment of Ahimsa. It is on account of this insistence on the abnegation of passion that the process of Sallekhana must needs be distinguished from suicide which is perpetrated by the cruel dominance of passions through the mal-agency of water, fire, poison, inhibition of breath and the like. Suicide is easy when compared with the adequate performance of Sallekhana. The latter is undertaken only when the body fails to answer to the spiritual needs of the individual and when the inevitability of death is a matter of undisputed certainty; while suicide may be committed at any time in the life time under the spell of emotional disturbance or passionate attitude of mind.
PROCESS OF SALLEKHANA : To deal with the process of Sallekhana, the aspirant must attain the purity of mind by renouncing attachment, aversion and infatuation. Afterwards in modest and sweet words he should make his earnest request to the members of his family and others around him to pardon him for the vicious deeds committed by him to afflict them wittingly and unwittingly. He should also forgive them from the bottom of his heart for being troubled by them on certain occasions. He should then practice the five Mahavratas and engage himself in the study of scriptures with adequate zeal without allowing himself to be seduced by grief, fear, hatred, and the like. Nourishment is to be renounced gradually so that mental disturbance may be avoided. The persistence of equanimous mental state is the prime necessity. The physical renunciation of food to enervate the body must needs be balanced by the enhancement of the strength of the spirit. In other words, the gradual renunciation of the causes of physical nourishment. In the first place, only milk and whey should be continued after having abandoned the solid food, then
1 Saga. Dharma VIII. 22. 2. Ibid. VIII. 24.
3. Puu. 179. 4. Puru. 178
5 Ratana. Srava. 124 to 128.
after giving up even the former, only hot water should be taken. Subsequently fasting should be observed. Then after entirely devoting himself to the meditation on the fivefold holy names of Arahanta, Siddha, Acarya, Upadhyaya and Sadhuy, the aspirant should bid fare well it his body.
While practising Sallekhana, the Sadhaka should avoid the following faults : 1) desire to live, 2) desire to die, 3) remembrance of friends, 4) revival of past pleasures, and 5) expectations for future prosperity. Samantabhandra takes out 'revival of past pleasure' and puts 'fear' in its place. According to the Uvasagadasao the defects are 1) longing for this world, 2) longing for the next world, 3) longing for life, 4) longing for death, and 5) longing for sensual pleasures.