GENERAL NATURE AND TYPES OF DHYANA: Having discussed the nature of five kinds of internal tapas, we now proceed to dwell upon the nature of Dhyana.  It will not be amiss to point out that all the disciplinary practices form an essential background for the performance of Dhyana.  Just as the storage of water which is meant for irrigating the corn-field, may also be utilised for drinking and other purposes, so the disciplinary practices like Gupti, Samiti etc., which are meant for the cessation of the inflow of the fresh Karman may also be esteemed as forming the background of Dhyana.  In other words, all the disciplinary observances find their culmination in Dhyana.  Thus Dhyana is the indispensable, integral constituent of right conduct, and consequently, it is directly related to the actualisation of the divine potentialities.  It is the clear and single road by which the aspirant can move straight to the supreme

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1 Mula. 373 to 375, 382,: bhaga. Ara. 119 to 122.

2 Mula. 377, 378, 383,; Bhaga. Ara. 123, 124.

3 Mula. 379, 383; Bhaga. Ara./ 125.              4 Mula. 384,; Bhaga. Ara. 127.

5 MKula. 391, 392, ; Sarvartha. IX. 24.         6 Sarvartha. IX-24.

7 Mula. 406,; Saruartha. IX. 26.                    8 Mula. 407.

9 Savartha. IX. 26. Uttara. 30/35.

10 Sarvartha. IX. 26.                                    11 Rajava. IX-27/26

 

 good.  To define Dhyana, it represents the concentration of mind on a particular object, which concentration is possible only for an Antarmuhurta (time below forty-eight minutes) to the maximum and that too in the case of such souls as are possessing bodies of the best order.  The stability of thoughts on one object is recognised as Dhyana and the passing of mind from one object is recognised as Dhyana and the passing of mind from one object to another is deemed to be either Bhavana or Anupreksa, or Cinta.  Now, the object of concentration may be profane or holy in character.  The mind may concentrate either on the debasing and degrading object, or on the object concentration may be profane or holy in character.  The mind may concentrate either on the debasing and degrading object, or on the object which is uplifting and elevating.  The former which causes the inflow of inauspicious Karman is designated as inauspicious concentration (aprasasta), while the latter which is associated with the potency of Karmic annulment is called auspicious concentration (prasasta).  To be brief, Dhyana is capable of endowing us with resplendent jewel, or with the pieces of glass.  When both the things can be had which of these will a man of discrimination choose?  Subhacandra distinguishes three categories of Dhyana, three categories of Dhyana, good, evil and pure in conformity with the three types of purposes, viz., the auspicious, the inauspicious and the transcendental, which may be owned by a self.  At another place he classifies Dhyana into Prasasta and Aprasasta.  These two mode of classification are not incompatible, but evince difference of perspectives; the former represents the psychical or psychological view, the latter, the practical or ethical view. In a different way, the Prasasta type of Dhyana may be considered as including good and pure types of Dhyana may be considered as including good and pure types of Dhyana within it; and this will again give us the two types of Dhyana, namely, Arta-dhyana and Raudradhyana.  The Prasasta category of Dhyana has been deemed to be potent enough to make the aspirant realise the emancipated status.  On the contrary, the Aprasasta one forces the mundane being to experience worldly sufferings.  Thus those who yearn for liberation should abjure Arta and Raudra Dhyanas and embrace Dharma and Sukla ones.  In dealing with Dhyana as Tapa, we are completely concerned with the

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1 Rajava. IX. 27/10          2 Sat. Vol. XIII. p. 64.

3 Kartti. 468.                   4 sarvartha. IX-28.

5 Istopa. 20.                    6 Jnana. II. 27, 28.

7 Ibid. XXV. 17.             8 Kartti. 469,; Ta. su. IX-28.

9 Ta. su. IX-29-              10 sarvartha. IX-29.

11. Tattvanusasana. 34, 220.

 

 

Prasasta types of Dhyana, since they are singularly relevant to the auspicious and the transcendental living.  But in the previous pages we have frequently referred to the avoidance of Aprasasta types of Dhyana without revealing their nature.  At this stage, we propose, in the first instance, to discuss the nature of Aparasasta types of Dhyana, the exposition of which would help us to understand clearly the sharp distinction between the two categories of Dhyana.  To speak in a different way, if Prasasta Dhyana is the positive aspect of Tapa, Aparasasta one represents the negative one.

          APRASASTA DHYANA: (A) ARTA-DHYANA: The word Arta implies anguish and affliction; and the dwelling of the mind on the thoughts resulting from such a distressed state of mind is to be regarded as Artadhyana. In this world of storm and stress, though there are illimitable things which may occasion pain and suffering to the  empirical soul, yet all of them cannot be expressed by the limited human understanding.  Four kinds of Arta-dhyana have been recognised.  The first concerns itself with the fact of one's being constantly occupied with the anxiety of overthrowing the associated undesirable objects of varied nature.  In a different way, when the discomposure of mind results on account of the baneful association of disagreeable objects which are either heard or perceived or which occur in mind owing to previous impressions, we have the first type of Arta-dhyana, namely, Ista-viyogaja.  The constant occupation of mind to remove the distressing state of mind resulting form the diseased condition of the body, is called the third type of Arta-dhyana, namely, Vedana-janita.  To yearn for agreeable pleasures and to contrive to defeat and slander the enemy constitute what is called the fourth type of Arta-dhyana, namely, Nidana-janita.  Again, to make up one's mind for and to dwell upon the way of getting the objects of sensual pleasures are termed the fourth type of Arta-dhyana, namely, Nidana-janita.  It may be noted here that the Arta-dhyana in general is natural to the

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1 Sarvartha. IX. 28.       2. Jnana XXV. 37, Ta. su. IX. 30 to 3.

3 Ta.su. IX-30; Kartti. 471; Jana. XXV. 28.

4 janana. XXV. 27,; Kartti. 471.

5 Ta. su. IX. 31; XXV. 31; Kartti. 472.

6 Ta.su. IX. 32; jnana. XXV. 32.

7 Jnana. XXV. 36.

8 Sarvartha. IX. 33.

 

 

 empirical souls on account of the evil dispositions existing from an infinite past.  It discovers itself owing to the presence of inauspicious Lesyas like Krsna, Nila, and Kapota in the texture of the worldly self, and brings about sub-human birth where innumerable pain-provoking things inevitably arise.  The Arta-dhyana with its four-fold classification occurs in the perverted, the spiritually converted, and the partially disciplined personalities.  Even the saint associated with Pramada sometimes gets influenced by the above types except the fourth.  It will not be amiss to point out that just as the householder cannot escape the Himsa of one-sensed Jivas, so he cannot avoid Arta-dhyana.  No doubt, he can reduce it to an irreducible extent, but cannot remove it altogether unlike the saint of a high order. 

          (B) RAUDRA-DYNANA: We now proceed to explain the Raudra-dhyana, which also admits of four kinds.  To take delight in killing living beings, to be felicitous in hearing, seeing and reviving the oppression caused to sentient beings, to seek ill of others, to be envious of other man's prosperity and merits, to collect the implements of Himsa, to show kindness to cruel persons, to be revengeful, to wish defeat and victory in war-all these come within the purview of the first kind of Raudra-dhyana, namely, Himsanandi Raudra-dhyana.  The individual whose mind is permeated by falsehood, who desires to entangle the world in troubles by dint of propagating vicious doctrines, and writing unhealthy literature for the sake of his own pleasure, who amasses wealth by taking recourse to deceit and trickery, who contrives to show faults fraudulently in faultless persons in cheating the simple and the ignorant through the fraudulent language, may be considered to be indulging in the second type of Raudra-dhyana namely, Mrasanandi Raudra-dhyana.  Dexterity in theft, zeal in the act of thieving, and the education for theft should be regarded as the third type of Raudra-dhyana, namely, Cauryanandi Raudra-dhyana.  The endeavor a man does not guard paraphernalia and pleasures of the senses is called the fourth type of Raudradhyana, namely, Visayanandi Raudra-dhyana.  It deserves our notice

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1 Jnana. XXV. 41.                   2 Jnana. XXV. 40, 42, ; Rajava. IX. 33.

3 Jnana. XXV-39; Ta.su. Ix. 34.

4 Jnana. XXVI. 4, 9, 10, 11, 13, 15, ; Kartti. 473.

5 Jnana. XXVI. 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, ; Kartti. 473.

6 Jnana. XXVI. 24,; Kartti. 474.

7 jnana. XXI. 29,; Kartti. 474.

 

that the undisciplined and partially disciplined persons are the subjects of Raudra-dhyana.  Though the partially disciplined persons are the victims of this Dhyana on account of their observing partial conduct, i.e., partial Ahimsa, partial truth, partial non-stealing, partial nonacquisition and partial chastity, yet Raudra-dhyana in their case is incapable of leading them to experience miseries of hellish beings.  The life of the saint is exclusive of this Dhyana, since in its presence conduct degenerates.  This Dhyana also occurs in the self without any education and is the result of the interests passions, or of the Krsna, Nila and Kapota Lesyas.

          PRE-REQUISITES OF PRASASTA DHYANA: Next in order comes the Prasasta  type of Dhyana which may be called Dhyana proper.  This type of Dhyana is conducive to Moksa or final release.  Before we directly embark upon the study of the types of Prasasta Dhyana, it is of primary and redial importance to delineate their pre-requisites, which will enforce banishment of all the inimical elements robbing the soul of the legitimate disposition and proper conduct for spiritual advancement.  In consequence the self will gain strength to dive deep into the ordinarily unfathomable depths of the mysterious self.  Indubiously, in the initial stages the purity of empirical and psychical background is the indispensable condition of Dhyana.  The necessary pre-requisites of Dhyana, in  general, may be enumerated by saying that the subject must have the ardent desire for final liberation, be non-attached to worldly objects, possess unruffled and tranquil mind, and be self-controlled, stable, sense controlled, patient and enduring.  Besides, one should steer clear of 1) the worldly, 2) the philosophic-ethical, and 3) the mental distractions, and look to the suitability of 4) time, 5) place, 6) posture and 7) to the attainment of mental equilibrium, before one aspires to Dhyana conducive to liberation.  We now deal with them in succession.  1) The life of the householder is fraught with numberless disturbances, which impede the development of his meditational disposition.  Subhacandra hold an antagonistic attitude towards the successful performance of Dhyana in the life of the householder.  He says that we may hope for the presence of the flower of the sky, and horn of the donkey at some time and place,

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1 Ta.su. IX. 35.              2 Sarvartha. IX. 35.

3 Ibid.                            4 Kartti. 469. kmama/ XXVO/ 43,; Rajava. IX. 3/4.

5 Jnana. IV. 6. XXVII-3.

 

but the adornment of the householder's life with Dhyana is never possible.  All this must not imply that the householder is outright incapable of performing Dhyana, but it should mean that he cannot perform Dhyana of the best order, which is possible only in the life of the saint.  2) If the aspirant, despite his saintly garb suffers from the philosophical and ethical delusions, he will likewise lose the opportunity of performing Dhyana.  In other words, right belief and right conduct cannot be dispensed with, if Dhyana is to be performed.  3) The control of mind which is turn leads to the control of passions and senses is also the essential condition of Dhyana.  Mental distraction like mental perversion hinders meditational progress, and to achieve liberation without mental purity is to drink water from there where it is not, i.e., from the river of mirage. That is Dhyana, that is supreme knowledge, that is the object of Dhyana by virtue of which the mind after transcending ignorance submerges in the self's own nature.  A man who talks of Dhyana without the conquest of mind is ignorant of the nature of Dhyana.  On the reflective plane, the recognition of the potential divinity of the empirical self and the transcendental self will unequivocally function as the mental pre-requisite condition of Dhyana.  The practice of the fourfold virtues of martini (friendship with all creates), pramoda (appreciation of the merits of others), Karuna (compassion and sympathy) and madhyastha (indifference to the unruly) has also been represented as the mental pre-requisite conditions of Dhyana.  These quadruple virtues, when practiced in an earnest spirit, cause to disappear the slumber of perversion, and to set in eternal tranquillity.  4-6) The selection of proper place, posture and time is of no less importance for the performance of Dhyana.  The aspirant should avoid those places which are inhabited by the vicious, hypocrites, and the acutely perverted persons, and by gamblers, drunkards, harlots etc., and should choose those places which are associated with the names of holy Tirthamkaras and saints.  A bank of a river, a summit of a mountain, an island, and a cave and other places of seclusion and inspiration, should be chosen for practising spiritual concentration.  As regards the posture for Dhyana, for the people of this age who

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1 Jnana. IV. 17.               2 Ibid. XXII. 19.             3 Ibid. XXII. 20.

4 Ibid. XXII. 24.             5 Ibid. XXVII. 4.             6 Ibid. XXVII. 18.

7 Ibid. XXVII-23 TO 33.          8 Ibid. XXVIII. 1.

9 Ibid. XXVIII. 2 to 7.

 

are generally deficient in energy, Paryanka or Padma and Kayotsarga postures are especially recommended.  For him, whose mind is immaculate, stable, enduring, controlled and detached, every posture, every place and every time is fit for meditation.  A place may be secluded or crowded, the saint may be properly or improperly seated, the stability of saint's mind is the proper time for meditation.  Subhacandra very beautifully portrays the mental and the saint should be purified by the waves of the ocean of discriminatory enlightenment, be destitute of passions, be like an unfathomable ocean, be undeviating like a mountain, and should be without all sorts of doubts and delusions.  Besides, the posture of the saint should be such as to arouse suspicion in the mind of a wise man regarding his being a stone-statue or a painted figure.  The Yogi who attains sturdiness and steadfastness in posture does not get perturbed by being confronted with the extremes of cold and heat and by being harassed by furious animals.  7) The saint who has controlled his mind and purged it of perversion and passions is said to have attained initial mental equipoise by viruted of which he is not seduced by the sentient and nonsentient, the pleasant and unpleasant objects.  The consequence of this is that his desires vanish, ignorance disappears, and his mind is calmed.  And above all he can sweep away the filth of Karman within a twinkle of an eye.  The great Acarya Subacandra is so much overwhelmed by the importance of this sort of mental poise that he esteems this as the Dhyana of the best order.  Thus mental equanimity precedes Dhyana.

          PROCESS OF DHYANA: After dealing with the pre-requisites of Dhyana, we now propose to discuss the process of Dhyana.  For the control of the mind, and for the successful performance of Dhyana the process of breath-control (pranayama) may be necessary, but it being painful engenders Arta-dhyana which consequently deflects the saint from his desired path.  Besides, the process of breath-control develops diverse supernormal powers which cause hindrance to the healthiest developments of the spirit.  Hence the better method is to withdraw the senses

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1 Jnana. XXVII. 12.                  2. Ibid. XXVII. 21.

3 Ibid. XXVII. 22.                    4 Ibid. XXVIII. 38 to 40.

5 Ibid. XXVIII. 32.                   6 Ibid. XXIV. 2.

7 Ibid. XXIV. 11, 12.                8 Ibid. XXIV. 13.

9 Ibid. XXX-9.                         10 Ibid. XXX-6.

 

from the sensual objects and the mind from the senses, and to concentrate the mind on the forehead (lalata).  This process is called Pratyahara.  Ten places in the body have been enumerated for mental concentration, namely, the two eyes, the two ears, the foremost point of the nose, the forehead, the mouth, the navel, the head, the heart, the palate, the place between the two eye-brows.  The Yogi should think over his original underived potency of the self, and compare his present state with the non-manifested nature of the self.  He should regard ignorance and sensual indulgence as the causes of the fall.  Then, he should be determined to end the obstructions to the manifestation of the transcendental self by dint of the sword of meditation.  He should express his resolution by affirming that he is neither a hellish being, nor an animal, nor a man, nor a celestial being, but a transcendental being devoid of these mundane transformations, which result form the Karmic association.  And again, being possessed of infinite power, knowledge, intuition and bliss, he must not go away from his original nature.  Having determined in this manner, the patient, enduring, steadfast, and crystal pure Yogi should meditate upon the material and non-material objects as possessing the triple nature of origination, destruction and continuance, as also upon the omniscient souls, embodied and disembodied.  Having meditated upon the six kinds of Dravyas in their true nature, the Yogi should either acquire the spirit of non-attachment or enrapture his mind in the ocean of Paramatman who is associated with the number of original and unique characteristics.  The Yogi gets engrossed with these characteristics, and endeavors to enlighten his own self with spiritual illumination.  He gets immersed in the nature of Paramatman to such an extent that the consciousness of the distinctions of subject, object, and the process vanishes.  This is the state of equality (samarasibhava) and identification (ekikarana) where the self submerges in the transcendental self, and becomes non-different from it.  This sort of meditation is called Savirya-dhyana.

          There is another way of speaking about the process of Dhyana.  Of the three states of self, namely, the external, the internal and the transcendental, the Yogi should renounce the external self, and meditate upon

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1 Jnana. XXX. 3.             2 Ibid. XXX. 13.             3 Ibid. XXX. 12.

4 Ibid. XXX. 13, 14.        5 Ibid. XXX. 17.             6 Ibid. XXX. 18, 19.

7 Ibid. XXX. 20 to 34.     8 Ibid. XXX. 37.             9. Ibid. XXX. 38.

10 Ibid. XXX. 42.

 

the transcendental self by means of the internal self.  In other words, after abandoning the spirit of false selfhood and after attaining spiritual conversion, the Yogi should ascend higher through the ladder of the latter with the steps of meditation.  The ignorant are occupied with the renunciation and possession of external objects, while the wise are occupied with the renunciation and possession of internal ones; but the supervise transcend the thoughts of the external and the internal.  Hence, in order to attain this last state, the Yogi after isolating the self from speech and body should fix his mind on his own self, and perform other actions by means of speech and body without mental inclination.  The constant meditation upon the fact, "I am that", "I am that" results in the steadfastness of Atmanic experience.

          The author of the Jnanarnava, in addition, elaborately expounds the process of Dhyana by classifying Dhyana into 1) Pindastha, 2) Padastha, 3) Rupastha and 4) Rupatita.  Though the credit of their lucid exposition devolves upon Subhacandra, yet the credit of suggestion and enumeration in the history of Jaina literature goes to Yogindu who is believed to have lived in the 6th century A.D. much earlier than Subhacandra.  We shall now dwell upon this fourfold classification.  1) The Pindasthadhyana comprises the five forms of contemplation (Dharmas) which have been explained in the following way.  (a) The yogi should imagine a motionless, noiseless and ice-white ocean in Madhyaloka.  In the center of the ocean he should imagine a finely-constructed, resplendent and enchanting lotus of thousand petals as extensive as Jambudvipa.  The center of the lotus of thousand petals as extensive as Jambudvipa.  The center of the lotus should then be imagined as having a periapt the Yogi should imagine a raised throne resembling the resplendence of the moon.  And therein the should imagine himself seated in a serene frame of mind.  He should then firmly believe that his self is potent enough to sweep away all the filth of passions and to demolish all the Karmas.  This type of contemplation is called Parthivi-dharana.  (b) Afterwards the Yogi is required to imagine a beautiful, well-shaped lotus of sixteen petals in the region of his own naval.  He should then imagine that each

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1 Jnana. XXX. 10.           2 Ibid. XXXII. 60.           3 Ibid. XXXII. 61.

4 Ibid. XXXII. 42.           5 Ibid. XXXVII. 1.          6 Yogasara.  98.

7 Jnana.  XXXVII. 2.       8 Ibid. XXXVII. 4 to 9.

 

 petal is inscribed with one of the sixteen vowels, †, †Ö, ‡, ‡Ô, ˆ, ‰ú, Šú. »Öé, ‹, ‹ê, †Öê, †Öî, †ÓÓ, †: and that the pericarp of this lotus in inscribed with a holy syllable,. Afterwards he should imagine that the smoke is slowly coming out of the upper stroke of the holy syllable ÆÕü. and that after some-time the smoke turns itself into a flame of fire which this lotus, which represents the eight petals situated in the region of the heart.  After this lotus, which represents the eight kinds of Karmas, has been reduced to ashes, the Yogi should imagine a fire surrounding the body.  After the body is reduced to ashes, the fire, in the absence of anything  to burn, is automatically extinguished.  This type of contemplation is called Agneyi-dharana.  (c) The yogi should then imagine the powerful winds which are capable of blowing away the ashes of the body.  After the ashes are imagined to be blown away, the should imagine the steadiness and calmness of the wind.  This type of contemplation is called Svasanadharana.  (d) The yogi should then imagine heavily clouded sky along with lightning, thundering and rainbow.  Such imagination should culminate in the constant downpour of big and bright rain drops like pearls.  These rain drops are required to be imagined as serving the holy function of washing away the remnants of the ashes of the body.  This type of contemplation is called Varuni-dharana.  (e) Afterwards the Yogi should think over his own soul as great as an omniscient, as bereft of seven constituent elements of the body, as possessed of radiance which is as immaculate as the full-orbed moon.  He should, then, consider his soul as associated with supernormal features, as seated on the throne, as adored and worshipped by Devas, Devils and the men.  After this he should regard his soul as free from all kinds Karmas, as possessed of all the divine attributes and qualities.  This is called Tattvarupavati-dharana.  With this finishes the practising of the Pindastha-dhyana which leads to the blissful life, enduring and everlasting.5

          2-4) The Padastha-dhyana means contemplation by means of certain Mantric syllables, such as 'Om', 'Arahanta' etc.6 Subhacandra draws attention to the number of such syllables, which need not be dealt with here.  The Rupastha-dhyana consists in meditating on the divine qualities and the extraordinary powers of the Arahantas.  The Yogi by virtue

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1 Jnana. XXXVII. 10 TO 19.              2 Ibid XXXVII. 20 TO 23.

3. Ibid. XXXVII. 24 to 27.                  4. Ibid. XXXVII. 28 to 30.

5. Ibid. XXXVII. 31.                          6. Ibid. XXXVIII. 1.

7. Ibid. XXXIX. 1 to 8.

 

of meditating on the divine qualities imagines his own self as the transcendental self and believe that “I am that omniscient soul and not any thing else.” 1 The Rupatita-dhyana implies the meditation on the attributes of Siddhatman. In other words, the Rupatita-dhyana is that where in the Yogi meditates upon the self as blissful consciousness, pure and formless.

 

          We have thus dwelt upon the various processes of Dhayana. These different processes, which may be brought under Prasasta-dhyana, are capable of leading us to the supreme state of transcendental existence. All this was a digression from the traditional enumeration which recognises four kinds of Dharma-dhyana and four kinds of Sulka-dhyana. We shall now deal with these kinds of Dhyana.

 

          DHARMA-DHYANA : The word ‘Dharma’ implies the veritable nature of things, the ten kinds of Dharma, the triple jewels and the protection of living beings. Four types of Dharma,-dhyana have been recognised, namely, 1) Ajna-vicaya, 2) Apaya-vicaya, 3) Vipaka-vicaya, and lastly 4) Samsthana-vicaya. 1) When the aspirant finds no one to preach, lacks subtle wit, is obstructed by the rise of Karmas, is encountered with the subtleties of objects and experiences the deficiency of evidence and illustration in upholding and vindicating any doctrine, he adheres, to the exposition of the Arahanta after believing that the Arahanta does not misrepresent things. The aspirant is said to have performed Ajna-vicaya Dharma-dhyana. Or he who has understood the nature of objects and who therefore makes use of Naya and Pramana for justifying certain doctrine is believed to have performed Ajna-vicaya Dharma-dhyana. We may here say that the purpose of this Dhayna is to maintain intellectual clarity regarding the metaphysical nature of objects propounded by the Arahanta. 2) To ponder over the adequate ways and means of emancipating the souls from the worldly suffering caused by the perverted belief, knowledge and conduct, and to meditate on the means of ascending the ladder of spiritual welfare, are designated as Apaya-vicaya Dharma-dhyana. Besides, the aspirant should give himself to serious contemplation : ‘who am I ?’ Why there are inflow and bondage of Karmas? How

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1 Jnana. XXXIX.42, 43.                    2 Ibid XL. 16.

3. Kartti. 476                                     4. Ta.su. IX.36.

5. Sarvatha. IX. 36.                           6. Sarvartha. IX. 36.

7.Sarvartha. IX. 36.

8. Mula. 400.

 

Karmas can be overthrown? What is liberation ? and what is the manifested nature of soul on being liberated? If Ajna-vicaya establishes oneself in truth, Apaya-vicaya lays stress on the means of releasing the essential nature of truth. 3) Vipaka-vicaya Dharma-dhyana implies the reflection on the effects which Karmas produce on the diverse empirical souls. 4) The reflection on the nature and form of this universe constitutes what is called Samathana-vicaya Dharma-dhyana. This kind of Dhyana impresses upon the mind the vastness of the universe and the diversity of its constituents. By this Dhyana the aspirant realises his own position in the universe. These four types of Dhyana serve twofold purposes, of auspicious reflection and self-meditation; i.e., they supply the material for the intellect and offer inspiration to the self for meditation as well as reflection, the latter may pass into the four kinds of Dhyana are reflective when intellectual thinking is witnessed, and they are meditative when the mind attains stability in respect of them. The best kind of Dharma-dhyana is to meditate upon the self by fixing one’s mind in it after renouncing all other thoughts.4

 

          SUKLA-DHYANA : Dharma-dhyana which has so far been expounded prepares a suitable ground and atmosphere for ascending the loftiest spiritual heights. It claims to have swept away every iota of inauspicious dispositions from the mind of the aspirant. The Yogi has achieved self-mastery to the full, and has developed a unique taste for the accomplishment of that something which unique. The Yogi, having brushed aside the unsteadiness of his mind, now resorts to Sukla Dhyana (pure Dhyana), which is so called because of its origination after the destruction or subsidence of the filth of passions. Not all Yogi are capable of performing this type of Dhyana. Only those who are possessing bodies of the best order (Vajra Vrsabha Naraca, etc.), can have all the four types of Sukladhyana. Of the four types of Sukla-dhyana, namely, Prthaktva-vitarka-vicara, Ekatva-vitarka-avicara, Suksmakriy apratipation, and Vyuparata-kriyanivartin, the first two occur up to the twelfth Gunasthana with the

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1. Jnana. XXXIV. 34/11.           2. Sarvartha. Ix. 36; Mula. 401.

3 Sarvartha. IX. 36.                   4 Kartti. 480.

5 Jnana. XLII. 3, 6.                   6 Jnana. XLII. 5.

7 Ta.su. IX. 39.                        8 We shall deal with the Gunashanas in the next chapter.

 

help of conceptual thinking based on scriptural knowledge, and the last two crown the omniscient where conceptual activity of the mind abates to the last. To dwell upon these types, the first type (Prthaktvavitarka-vicara) is associated with Prthaktva from one aspect of entity to another, for example, substance to modifications and vice versa, from one verbal symbol to another, and from one kind of Yoga (activity) to another. In second type (Ekatva-vitarka-avivara) Vicara is absent, and consequently oneness displace many-ness. The mind shortens its field of concentration to the effect that the Yogi meditates upon one substance, an atom, or a modification of substance with the assistance of only one kind of Yoga. Hence the second type of Dhyana is associated with Viktarka and Ekatva, i.e., with scriptural knowledge and oneness. With the performance of this second type of Dhyana the Yogi reduces the ashes the four types of obscuring (ghatin) Karmas. In consequence the Yogi experiences infinite intuition, knowledge, bliss and energy. Thus the state of Jivanmukti is attained. The omniscient occupies himself with the third type of Sukla-dhyana (Suksmarkriyapratipatin) when an Antarmuhurta remains in final emancipation. After establishing himself in gross bodily activity, he makes the activities of mind and speech subtle. Then after renouncing the bodily activity, he fixes himself in the activities of mind and speech, and makes the gross bodily activity subtle. Afterwards mental and vocal activities are stopped and only subtle activity of body is left. In the last type of Sukla-dhyana

(Vyuparatakriyanivartion) even the subtle activity of body is stopped. The soul now becomes devoid of mental, vocal and physical vibrations, and immediately after the time taken to pronounces five syllables it attains disembodied liberation.

 

          TYPES OF SPIRITUAL DEATH PURSUED BY THE SAINT : We shall end this chapter after dwelling upon the types of spiritual death pursued by the saint. Of the five types of death already discussed the saint is qualified for Pandita-marana, 2) Ingini-marana, 3) Prayopagramana-marana, Only that saint who is confronted with incurable disease, intolerable old age, formidable famine, great weakness of hearing and sight, infirmity of legs,

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1 Jnana. XLII. 7,8.           2. Jnana. XLII. 13, 15 TO 17.

3 Jnana. XLII. 27.            4. Ibid. XLII. 29.

5 Ibid. XLII. 41.              6 Ibid. 48.

7 Ibid. 49.                       8 Ibid. 50.

9 Ibid. 58, 59.                 10 Bhaga. Ara. 29.

 

 

 and certain inevitable troubles, and others like these has permitted to adopt any of the above Maranas. He who is quite capable of pursuing his course of conduct well need not turn towards such deaths. According to the Acaranga Sutra when the saint feels that his body does not respond properly to his spiritual practices, he is allowed to put an end to it by reducing the quantity of food gradually. We shall now deal with the Bhaktapratijna-marana. In the circumstances expressed above or when the occurring of natural death has been conceived to be a matter of certainty after a short duration of time (maximum twelve years) (and minimum six months), the saint takes the guidance of some efficient Acarya, and resorts to the process of internal and external renunciation. The internal renunciation refers to the emasculation of the passions of anger and the like, while the external one, to the enervation of body. The saint renounces all Parigrahas except broom, and pot for water, attains all sorts of external, and internal purity , and gives himself to the constant reflection on austerity, knowledge, fearlessness, loneliness and endurance. By abandoning all strengthening juices and accepting only unseasoned and simple meals and practising the six kinds of external austerities, the saint gradually weakens his body, though he takes care that his internal peace is not disturbed. Of all these methods of depriving the body of strength, the practice of two days fast, three days to five days fast and then light meals have been appreciated. Along with this it is imperative for the saint to remove anger by forbearance, pride by modesty, deceit by simplicity, and greed by contentment. Similarly minor passions of laughter, indulgences, sorrow, ennui, disgust, fear, and sex inclinations; instinct of food, of acquisition, of fear, and of sex; three inauspicious Lesyas, namely, Krsna, Nila and Kapota; and attachment to supernatural power : all these should be brushed aside. This whole process continues till the spiritual atmosphere created by the Acarya, so that at the time of death the toughts may not get polluted. Next comes Ingini-marana. It is more difficult to practise. It is capable of being pursued by the saints who possess bodies of the best order. The saint who prepares himself for this type of death resorts to a place devoid of living

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1 Bhaga. Ara. 71 to 74.             2 Ibid. 75.             3 Aca. pp. 71-2.

4 Bhaga. Ara. 252; Uttara. 36/250                 5 Ibid. 159, 205.

6 Ibid. 206.            7 Ibid. 162 to 167, 187.             8 Bhaga. Ara. 207, 208, 246 to 248.              9 Ibid. 250, 251.              10 Ibid. 260. 260

11 Ibid. 268.

 

beings, lighted by sunlight, and not perforated by holes. There he lies down, or sits, or remains standing on the bed of straw properly made bereft of living beings. He then, Purges his mind of inimical thoughts, establishes himself in Dharsana, Jnana and Caritra, and sets his face against all sorts of food and Parigraha. He educes all Parishes, undauntedly resists all temptations, and does not get disturbed even if his body is thrown at untoward places by furious animals. He engages himself in meditation, avoids sleep, and does not neglects his essential duties. In short, his whole time is devoted to meditation, study, auspicious reflection and the like. He does not requires the services of other saints and of the Acarya. In the Bhaktapratijna-marana the saint serves himself and is served by others, in the Ingini-marana the saint serves himself and is served by others, but in the Prayopgamana-marana neither he serves himself, nor does he accept the service of  others. In the Prayaopagamana-marana the saint does not feel the necessity of even evacuating his bowels. He keeps his body from beginning to end in the same position in which he first placed it. He does not use the bed of straw. We may point out here that the Acaranga probably discusses these three types of death without giving their technical names. According to it, in the Bhaktapratijna-manara, the saint lies down on a bed of straw after giving up all kinds of food. He does not move even if he is touched by mosquitoes, ants etc. He bears them calmly. In the Ingini-marana the saint lies down on the bare ground after renouncing all food. He may move his limbs. In the Prayopagamanamarana, the saint does not stir from his place; and the restrains all the movements of his body.

 

 

CHAPATER VI

 

MYSTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF JAINA ETHICS

 

SUMMARY OF THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER : The previous chapter styled Acara of the ‘Muni’ has been devoted to the exposition of the various phases of Muni’s conduct, which conforms to the general standard of

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1 Bhaga. Ara. 2035. 2036. 2041.                   2 Ibid. 2038, 2039.

3 Ibid. 2047 to 2049.                                    4 Bhaga. Ara. 2053, 2054, 2055.

5 Ibid. 2064. Gomma. ka. 61.                       6 Ibid. 2065.

7 Bhaga. Ara. 2068.                                      8 Doctrines of Jainism p. 290.

9 Acara., 75-7.

 

negating Himsa to the last degree. We have endeavored, in the first place, to expound that his way of life which is adopted after he has awakened to transcendental consciousness is indicative of the discipline which eliminates all that stands in the way of his progress towards spiritual illumination. It purges away all those superfluous and detrimental elements that dissipate the precious energies of the self, and bulk the revelation of the divine magnificence and beauty. Secondly, we have unfolded the nature and importance of incentives to spiritual life, have emphasised the necessity of a simultaneous internal and external discipline, and have brought out the significance of the strenuous pursuance of the twenty eight Mulagunas. Thirdly, we have explained the nature of Parisahas and austerities, as also the importance of the subjugation of the former, and the observance of the latter. And lastly, we have dealt with the process of Muni’s Sallekhana (spiritual welcome to death ) .

 

          METAPHYSICS, ETHICS AND MYSTICISM: We have so far seen how the Jaina formulation of the ethical theory is grounded in metaphysics. The concept of Ahimsa follows as a logical consequence of the ontological nature of things. The entire ethical discipline prescribed for the layman and the monk is meant for translating Ahimsa into practice, the actual realisation of which can only be affected in the plenitude of mystical experience. Thus, if the fountain-head of ethics is metaphysics, mysticism win be its culmination. In other words, if the relationship of ethics to metaphysics is intimate, the relationship of ethics to mysticism is in no way less so. It will not be amiss to point out that ethics is the connecting link between the metaphysical speculation and the mystical realisation. It paves the way from metaphysics to mysticism. The journey from intellect to intuition can only be traversed through the medium of morality. The remark of Prof. Ranade is very enlightening in this respect : “ Metaphysics, Morality and Mysticism are as inseparable from each other in the interest of the highest spiritual development of man as intellect, will and emotion are inseparable for his highest psychological development.” We have, in the previous chapter, frequently, alluded to the spiritual nature of the Jaina ethics. We shall now endeavor to discuss its relevancy in more detail for the mystical life. In other words, we shall now bring out the significance of Jaina ethics, in view of its potentiality to land us in the domain of spiritualism, by dwelling upon the fourteen stages of 

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1 Constructive Survey of Upanisadic Philosophy, p. 288.

 

spiritual evolution, technically called Gunasthanas, as propounded by the Jaina Acaryas.

 

NATURE OF MYSTICISM:  Before we commence to reckon with the nature of Gunasthanas, we propose to discuss the nature  of mysticism, which will enable us to evaluate the Jaina conception of morality.  The word’ Mysticism’ does not possess any uniform and consistent meaning in spite of a noble history to its credit.  It has been variously used and diversely interpreted.  To dwell upon these various expressions and interpretations of the word ‘Mysticism’ is not our objective.  We simply note that notwithstanding its manifold meanings the note of concordance found in them is greater than that of discordance.  Prof. Ranade rightly says: “the mystics of all ages and countries form an eternal divine society.”1 “There are no racial, no communal, no national prejudices among them.  Time and space have nothing to do with the eternal and infinite character of their mystical experience.”2  “They may weave out their mysticism with the threads of any metaphysical structure, but they always to go behind the words and realize a unity of significance.”3  The equivalent expression in Jainism for the word ‘Mysticism’ is ‘Suddhopayoga’. According to Kundakunda, mysticism consists in realising the transcendental self through the internal self after renouncing the external self;4 i.e., after relinquishing the Bahiratman  and by turning to the Antaratman, one should realise the supra- ethical state of the Paramatman.  In other words, non- conceptual and perpetual meditation on the supreme self ought to be effected after abandoning the Bahiratman through the intermediation of the Antaratman; i.e., Bahiratman is to be of necessity renounced to attain Antaratman, which will in turn lead us to an unimaginable transformation into Paramatman through the medium of meditation and other practices of moral nature.  Following Kundakunda, Yogindu,5 Pujyapada,6 Subhacandra,7 Karttikeya8 etc., have endorsed this very statement.  It will not be idle to point out here that in realising the transcendental self, the whole of the existence is intuited on account of the spontaneous efflux 0f omniscience.  The realisation of self and intuition of other substances are synchronal.  According to Prof. Ranade,9   

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1 Mysticism in Maharastra, Preface, p. 2.

2 pathwa to God in Hindi Literature, p. 2.

3 PP. Intro., p. 26.          4 Mo. Pa. 4, 7.                5 PP. I. 12.

6 Samadhi. 4, 27.            7 Jnana. XXXII. 10          8 Kartti. 192.

9 Mysticism in Maharastra, Preface. p. 1

 

Mysticism denotes that attitude of mind which involves a direct, immediate, first- hand, intuitive apprehension of God.”  This definition as given by Prof. Ranade is in keeping with the Jaina exposition of mysticism, provided that the word ‘God’ is understood in the sense of the transcendental self as recognised by Jainism.  Thus mysticism is not mere speculation, but action. It is the transition from the life of sense to the life of spirit, which is tantamount to achieving the immortal heritage of man.  This amounts to the realisation of the transcendental self.  The limited character of the individual self is disrupted and invaded by the absolute self which the individual feels as his own.  We may sum up by saying that mysticism culminates in the heightened and completed form of life, which is accomplished by that transcendental belief, knowledge, and conduct which in our life remains ordinarily below the threshold of consciousness.

 

          The definition of mysticism as given above comprises the mystical aim as well as the process of its attainment.  This mode of expression of the nature of mysticism may be calculated to summarize the aspirant’s spiritual quest.  Just as Kundakunda resorts to explain perspicuously the transcendental and the empirical nature of the self by taking recourse to the employment of the two spiritual Nayas, Niscaya and Vyavaharai, so he has announced the three kinds of selves to make possible the discriminative knowledge of the ‘Self’ and ‘Not-self’ and to unlock the doors of mystical experience, may, to identify oneself with that.