CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THREE KINDS OF SELF : (a) BAHIRATMAN : The attitude of the Carvaka materialist sums up the meaning of the Bahiratman. The characteristic of the Bahiratman may, in the first place, be accounted for by affirming that he identifies himself with the logical consequences that he is constantly obsessed with the fear of self-annihilation on the annihilation of the body and the like. Secondly, he remains engaged in the transient pleasures of the senses, feels elated in getting the coveted things of the unsubstantial world, and becomes dejected when they depart. Thirdly, he is desirous of getting beautiful body and physical enjoyment in the life here-after as a result of his penances, and is tormented even by the thought of death.
1 Mo. pa. 8; Samadhi. 7, 13, 69; Kartti. 193.
2 Mo Pa. 10; Samadhi. 11, 14; jnana XXXII. 17, 21; PP. - I-83.
3 Jnana. XXXII. 18. 4 Samadhi. 7, 55. PP. -I-84.
5 Samadhi. 42. 6 Samadhi. 76.
(b) ANTARATMAN: First, he is the spiritually converted self who has relinquished the eight kinds of pride, and considers his own self as his legitimate and genuine abode, esteeming the outward physical dwelling places as unnatural and artificial. Secondly, he renounces all identification with the animate objects like wife, children etc., and with the inanimate objects like wealth, property etc., and properly weighs them in the balance of his discriminative knowledge. Thirdly, by virtue of the sprouting of profound wisdom in him, he develops a unique attitude towards himself and the world around him. His is the only self that has acquired the right of Moksa, and consequently he adopts such attitude as is necessary to safe-guard his spiritual status and interest. He gets endowed with such type of insight as will enable him to make spiritual invasion resolutely and then sound the bugle of triumph after defeating the treacherous foes of attachment and aversion assaulting him in his Bahiratman state.
THREE KINDS OF ANTARATMAN :Keeping in view the stages of spiritual advancement, to be dealt with afterwards, the Karttikeyanupreksa recognises three kinds of Antaratman : First, he who has attained spiritual conversion, who is devoted to the Jinendra, who possesses the attitude of self-censuring, who is disposed to the adoption of virtues, who is affectionate to the meritorious, but who lacks the pursuance of moral path; i.e., who leads the life of vowlessness, is called an initiate in spiritual life, or Jaghanya Antaratman. Secondly, the householder following partial vows and the Muni with Pramada, who are loyal to the words of Jina, who possess passions of very mild type, who are highly determined in the spiritual path, are regarded as Madhyama Antaratman. Thirdly, the saint who overcomes all Pramada, and who is steadfast in Dharma and Sukla Dhyana comes under Utkrsta Anteratman.
(c) PARMATMAN : The Paramatman is the supreme-self, the consummation of aspirant’s life, the terminus of his spiritual endeavors. The embodied Paramatman is Arhat, while the disembodied one is Siddha. The Moksa Pahuda Proclaims Paramatman to be bereft of collyrium, defects, body and senses, and to be associated with omniscience, and purity. He is free from birth, old age and death; he is supreme, pure, and devoid of eight Karmas; he possesses infinite knowledge, intui
1 Mo. Pa. 5. Kartti. 194. 2 Kartti 194. For eight kinds of pride — See p. 131. 3 Samadhi 73. 4 Moo. Pa. 17. 5 Ibid. 14, 87.
6 Kartti. 194. 7 Ibid. 197. 8 Ibid. 196. 9 Ibid. 195
10 Kartti. 198. 11 Mo. pa. 5 6; Niyama. 7.
tion, Bliss and potency; and he is indivisible, indestructible and inexhaustible. Beside, he is supersensuous and unparalleled, is free from obstructions, merit, demerit and rebirth, and is eternal, steady and independent.
MYSTIC WAY : Thus the Bahiratman which is the perverted self is to be renounced; the Antaratman is the converted self : i.e., it implies the awakening of the consciousness of the transcendental self within and of its outright separation from the body, external world, and psychical states, both auspicious and inauspicious. Paramatman is the true goal of the mysic quest. The journey from the Antaratman to the Paramatman is traversed through the medium of moral and intellectual preparations, which purge everything obstructing the emergence of potential divinity. Before this final accomplishment is made, a stage of vision and fall may intervene. Thus the whole mystic way may be put as follows : 1) Awakening of the transcendental self, 2) Purgation, 3) Illumination, 4) Darknight of the soul, and 5) Transcedental life. According to Underhill, “Taken all together, they constitute the phases in a single process of growth, involving the movement of consciousness from lower to higher levels of reality, the steady remarking of character in accordance with the ‘independent spiritual world’.” It is to be remembered that the mystical endeavour is incapable of dispensing with any of the constitutive elements of physical life –intellect, will, and feeling. In Jaina terminology, Right knowledge, Right conduct, which includes will and feeling, and Right belief, which is to be presupposed before the other two- all these are indispensable for mystical endeavour.
THE METAPHYSICIAN AND THE MYATIC : In metaphysical terms we may say that mysticism is the realisation of self’s capacity for its original organisation, destruction and continuance. It is the manifestation of the inherent characteristics and modifications ( Guna and Paryaya) of the self; i.e., it amounts to the realisation of self’s Svarupa-Satta, which conception has already been dealt with in the previous chapter on metaphysics. Mysticism and metaphysics connote difference of approach to the problem of reality. First, the fundamental aim of the mystic is to penetrate the Karmic veil and lead a superempirical life, which consists in the realisation of the whole of the existence by virtue of the effulgence of omniscience. In this sense, it may be averred that the metaphysician seeks in the end the same goal as the mystic, only that he is so constituted
1 Niyama. 176. 2 Ibid. 177. 3 Mysticism, p. 169
4 Puru. 20.
that he tries to reach it by intellectual speculation. What the mystic realises and intuits, the metaphysician envisages by intellect. If the qualification of the mystic is realisation and intuition, the qualification of the metaphysician is merely intellection. Mysticism is predominantly practical, while metaphysics is mainly the critical. Secondly, the mystical attitude towards Vyavahara Naya is purely negative; it is for the mystic untrue and ultimately unserviceable . The metaphysician, on the contrary, ascertains the nature of reality by dint of Pramana and Naya, and expresses it through the technique of Syadvada after comprehending every aspect of reality by means of Saptabhaugivada. Thirdly, the mystic gets sublime satisfaction from immediate contact with the transcendental self and along with it with the whole of the existence through the medium of infinite, intuitive knowledge in contradistinction to the metaphysician who gets merely intellectual satisfaction by mediately comprehending the whole of the existence. In other words, the mystic has Pratyaksa Anubhava, while the metaphysician has only paroksa Anubhava. Fourthly, the mystic does not contradict intellectual Anubhava, while the mere metaphysician may counteract it . According to the Jaina the intellect is not opposed to intuition, only the analytical character of intellect is transcended in intuition. The impotence of intellect to know the reality in its wholeness and clarity is overcome. The Jaina would not accept that reality at the intellectual and intentional levels is totally opposed to each other. We may say in passing that intellect for its termination and culmination. The intellect is sharpened as the mystic advances on the mystic path. It can be affirmed without fear of contradiction that great mystics may also be great metaphysicians. And for this the evidence is that great mystics like Kundakunda, Pujyapada, Samantabhadra, Yogindu Amrtacandra, Haribhadra and Hemacandra, have produced works of stupendous significance.
After dwelling upon the Jaina conception of mysticism and its relation to metaphysics, and after finding out that the mystical and metaphysical approaches to reality are poles asunder, we now proceed to describe the whole of the mystic way under the fourteen stages of spiritual
1 Gomma. Ji-9, 10. These Gunasthanas are : 1) Mithatva, 2) Sasadana, 3) Misra, 4) Aviratasmyagdrsti, 5) Desavirta o Viratavirata, 6)pramattavirata, 7) Apramattavirata, 8) Apurvakarana, 9) Anivttikarana, 10) Suksmasamparaya, 11) Upasantakasaya, 12) Ksinakasaya, 13) Sayogakevali, and 14) Ayogakevali.
evolution as propounded by Jaina Acaryas. We shall try to subsume these stages of spiritual advancement under the following heads, namely, 1) Dark-period of the self prior to its awakening, 2) Awakening of the self and fall from awakening, 3) Purgation, 4) Illustration, 5) Darkperiodpost-illumination, and lastly 6) transcendental life.
1) DARK PERIOD OF THE SELF PRIOR TO ITS AWAKENING OR MITHYATVA GUNASTHANA :The suffering on account of which the empirical souls remain in a perpetual state of discontent and disquiet is naturally consequent upon the beginningless functioning of Mohaniya (deluding) Karma, which on the physical side engenders a complex state of ‘Moha’. This state of ‘ Moha’ which pollutes self’s outlook, and consequently makes its conduct unfruitful for ascending the loftiest heights of mystical experience is a state of Mithyatva and Kasaya. At the outset, we shall confine ourselves to the exposition of the nature and function of Mithyatva, so extending it as to include its various types, since it constitutes the first stage, technically known as Mithyatva Gunasthana. The consideration of the nature and function of passion will form the subject matter of next stages, to be presently dealt with.
1) Dark-period of the self prior to its awakning—Mithyatva Gunasthana ; 2) Awakening of the self—Aviratasamyagdrsti Gunasthana; Fall from aawakening— (a) Sasadana Gunasthana : (b) Pramattavirata Gunhasthana ; 3) Purgation—(a) Viratavirata Gunasthana : (b) pramattavirata Gunasthana ; 4) Illumination— (a) Apramattavirata Gunasthana, (b) Apurvakarana Gunasthana, (c) anivrttikaana Gunasthana, (d) Suksmasamparaya Gunasthana, (e) Upasantakasaya Gunasthana, (f) Ksinakasaya Gunasthana : 5) Dark-period post-illumination-Fall to the first or the fourth Gunasthana ; 6) Transcendental life—(a) Sayogakevali Gunasthana, (b) Ayogakevali Gunasthana.
2 Sat. vol. I., p. 163. Gatha 107. 3 Gomma. Ji., 17.
4 Sat. Vol. I., p. 162, 5 Prava. I. 1, 2.
We have often shown his this Mithyatva is corruptive of knowledge and conduct as well. In its presence, both knowledge and conduct, however extensive and suffused with morality they may be, are impotent to disintegrate the hostile elements of the soul and to lead us to those superb heights which are called mystical. Consequently, the darkest period in the history of the self will be the one when the self is overwhelmed by Mithyatva. It obstructs all our mystical endeavors. The souls right from the one- sensed to the mindless five- sensed fall a victim it this venom of Mithyatva, till they are born as five- sensed souls endowed with mind. It is astounding that, they even in these rational five- sensed beings, some are such as will never triumph over this darkest period, and hence they will never win salvation. They are technically called abhavyas. Thus they will always be subject to the rounds of birth and death in sundry forms, falling an easy prey to interminable afflictions.1 The physical counterpart of perversion is Darsana- Mohaniya- Karma. The tendency of the perverted self is to engross itself in the modifications.2 Led astray by the perverted attitude, the soul identifies itself with bodily colour, physical frame, sex, caste, creed, family, friends and wealth.3 “Under its influence one accepts the Adharma (wrong religion) as the Dharma (right religion), the Amarga (wrong path) as the Marga (right path), the Ajiva ( non- soul) as the Jiva (soul) he Asadhu (non-saint) as the Sadhu (saint), the Amukta (unemancipated) as the Mukta (emancipated) and vice- versa.”4 Beside, if the soul with its vitiated outlook advances on the moral path, it esteems the observance of vows, performance of austerities, study of scriptures, as ends in themselves, and not as aids to the unfoldment of the divine within. Thus Vyavahara Naya is deemed to be an ideal.5 We may sum up by saying that the state of perversion is to be dealt with.
TYPES OF MITHYATVA :To dwell upon the types of Mithyatva, in view of the infinite- fold characteristics of a thing, there are as many Nayas as there are characteristics. Words may not be available o express them, but it is beyond doubt that as many words are available so many are the Nayas; and if any of the Nayas is exclusively given expression without due regard to the other aspects, the same number of perverted
1 Samaya. Comm. Amrta., 275. 2 PP. I. 77.
3 Ibid. 80 to 83. 4 Sthananga Sutra X-1-734; (vide Tatia : Studies in Jaina Philosophy. p. 145. 5 Samaya. 272 to 274
view will be the consequence.1 Hence to announce that Mithyatva is of five types is only partially correct.2 According to Pujyapada,3 Mithyatva expresses itself in the following five forms; namely,1) ekanta, 2) viparita, 3) Samsaya, 4) vainayika and 5) ajnana. One sided emphasis is Ekanta.4 To believe in things as they are not is styled Viparita.5 The possession of skeptical attitude towards the ultimate values of life is Samsaya.6 To have reverence for both the right and the wrong path is Vainayika.7 And lastly, the indiscriminatory attitude towards things leading upward and things leading downward is Ajnana.8 Another way of classification employed by Pujyapada is to divide Mithyatva into inborn (naisargika) and acquired from the insurrection of others (paropadesa- purvaka).9 The former is due to the rise of Mithyatva Karma by virtue of which non-belief in the Padarthas or Tattvas occurs.10 The latter is concerned with the acquisition of belief in non- Tattvas due to the assimilation of perverted views delivered by others.11 The difference between the two also lies in the fact that the occurrence of the first type of Mithyatva is also possible in the lower irrational stages of life, while the second type can be witnessed only in rational five- sensed human beings. In other words, the beings with developed reason have the potency to inhale the outward perverted atmosphere, while the undeveloped ones continue to live with the inborn non- belief in Tattvas. According to the Tattvartha Bhasya12 these two types correspond to the classification of Mithyatva on to anabhigrhita and abhigrhita.
CONVERSION- MORAL, INTELLECTUAL AND SPIRITUAL : We have pointed out that the plight of the self in Mithyatva Gunasthana resembles that of a totally eclipsed moon, or a completely clouded sky. In other words, it is a stage of spiritual slumber with the peculiarity that the self itself is not cognisant of its drowsy state. It is indubiously a dark- period, and the self is ignorant of that baffling darkness. The deep attachment to sensual life and unholy things, the identification of the self with the body, with passions, and with externalities, the ignorance of the superempirical state of life which is beyond the realm of good and evil, and the subconscious discomposure of mind on account of its being victim of the seven kinds of fear and the eight kinds of pride- all these are some of the broad characteristics of the clouded soul. Even if such an ignorant soul, on
1 Sat. Vol I. p. 162. Gatha 105. 2 Ibid. p. 162. 3 Sarvartha. VIII-1.
4 Ibid. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid.
8 Sarvartha. VIII-1. 9 Ibid. 10 Ibid.
11 Ibid. 12 t.su.bha. VIII-1
account of the subsidence- cum-destruction of the knowledge- covering Karman and the occurrence of mild passion, gets endowed with the capacity of intellectual and moral achievements respectively, it cannot be believed to have dispelled the darkness spiritual. In other words, an ignorant man may be an astute intellectualism, a resolute moralist, but he will lack that mystical quality by virtue of which he may be designated as a real saint, a seeks of mystical truth, a persons moving Godward. The above delineation may embarrass and astonish one, but the characters portrayed by Jaina Acaryas of Dravya- lingi1 Muni and some of the Abhavyas, 2 who have attained to the fair height of intellectual knowledge and moral upliftment, illustrate this sort of life without spiritual conversion. No doubt, intellectual learning and moral conversion, scriptural study and rigid adherence to moral principal may facilitate mystical conversion in certain souls, but they cannot as a rule bring about the latter. Intellectual attainments and moral achievements are unequivocally fraught with social
utility, but are incapable of invariably bringing forth spiritual beneficence. Thus spiritual conversion is to be sharply distinguished from moral conversion and intellectual accomplishments. Outward auspicious conduct and effective scholarship can never be an index of a mystically turned mind. On the contrary, a man not strictly pursuing the moral path, and not possessing sophisticated outlook may own mystical conversion. But on this account outward moral conduct and sophisticated learning need not be depreciated, though mystical conversion should not be confounded with them. For ordinary men like us, moral life alone or moral life together with learning is a thing fit to be adored wherever it is witnessed; for the mystic, it is necessary not to confuse moral with mystical conversion. We cannot do better than quote Prof. Date to enlighten us on this point: “ The moral life is, therefore, doubly valuable; valuable as a positive asset for the well- being of the society and valuable as the backbone and pointer of spiritual life.”3 The flower of mysticism does not blossom by the water of mere morality, but requires spiritual manure along with it. Morality pervaded with spiritualism can alone lead us to the transcendental heights of mystical experience. After this brief digression regarding the conception of difference between the mystical, the moral and the intellectual conversion, let us now proceed
1 Muni whthout spiritual conversion. 2 Souls incpable of attaining liberation.
3 Yoga of the Saints., p. 76
to discuss the problem of the transcendental awakening of the metaphysical difference between the self and not- self, which constitutes the subject matter of the fourth stage. We have already dwelt upon the nature of spiritual awakening, and shall now confine our attention to the process of its origination.
2) ORIGNATION OF SAMYAGDARSANA OR AWAKENING OF SELF OR AVIRATASAMYAGDRSTI GUNASTHANA: The occurrence of Samyagdarsana or spiritual conversion is sometimes consequent upon the instruction of those who have realised the divine within themselves, or are on the path of God- realisation, while at other times, the self is reminded of its spiritual heritage automatically without the help of any outside instruction.1 In both the cases, spiritual conversion emerges on account of the subsidence or destruction or subsidence- cum-destruction of Darsana Mohaniya Karma. Thus notwithstanding the outward difference which is seen in the taking place of spiritual conversion, the internal transformation in Karma is identical. It may be pointed out that the external distinction in the origination of mystical turning is only apparent, and that the difference exists only in the direct and the indirect nature of instruction.2 Hence the importance of instruction is paramount, since the self in whom spiritual conversion has taken place without apparently any direct instruction must have received instructions, if not here, in some pervious birth. In other words, he who has not got any instruction since beginningless past is incapable of being converted spiritually; and he who has got such an opportunity in some pervious birth may be so coverted without any instruction at present. Thus instruction is unavoidable. This fact may be corroborated by saying that of the five Labdhis, to be presently dealt with, which are indispensable to the dawn of Samyagdarsana, Desana Labdhi is one which again points to the impossibility of Samyagdarsana without instruction. The above discussion may lead us to another consideration that instruction alone cannot evoke Samyagdarsana in us. It is only when proper ‘Time’ comes; i.e., when Ardhapudgalaparavartana Kala for the deliverance of the self is left, that instruction, either of the present or of the past, can originate Samyagdarsana in us. Yogindu points out that insight is attained by the Atman, when, at an opportune time, delusion is destroyed.3 In the Yogasara he emphasizes that the soul visits unholy places and commits misdeeds, till he does not recognise
1 Ta.su. I. 3. 2. Foot note of Tattvarthasutrabhasya. p. 21. 3 PP. I. 85.
soul-God by the grace of Guru. Kundakunda advises us to meditate upon the self after knowing it thorough the holy medium of the Guru. Either prosperity or liberation is obtained by meditating on the Atman after receiving instruction from the Guru, says Nagakumaramuni. It shall not be contradictory to aver that "the secret of knowing God, of realizing Him, is, whether we like it or not, in the hands of mystics." "It is through them alone as spiritual teachers or Gurus that we shall have to bring about the spiritual conversion in us." The announcement of Pujyapada that the self alone is its own Guru, as it is responsible for its transmigration as well as liberation, is he estimation of the subject from the transcendental point of view, which is expressed by the word, paramarthatah. On this account, the importance of Guru for mystical conversion need not be underrated, inasmuch as the significance of empirical point of view (vyavadhara naya) is incontrovertible to lead us to good heights. Before dwelling upon the conception of five Labdhis, which necessarily precede the emergence of Samyagdarsana, we shall deal with the conception of the Sad-Guru as recognised in Jainism.
ARAHANTA AS THE SUPREME GURU: The supreme objects of devotion enumerated by the Jaina are five, namely, Arahanta, Siddha, Acarya, Upadhyaya and Sadhu. The same may be expressed by saying that deva, Sastra and Guru deserve our highest reverence. Again, we come across a different expression that the four objects, namely, Arahanta, Siddha, Sadhu and Dharma preached by Arahantas, are most auspicious and unexcelled in the universe. These different ways of expression are essentially one; and each is inclusive of rest. To make it clear, Arahanta and Siddhu are comprised under the category of Deva; Acarya, Upadhyaya and Sadhu are styled Gurus; and religion preached by the Arahanta is called Dharma or Sastra. Considered from the perspective of mystical realisation, Arahanta and Siddha stand at par. But as the former enjoys embodied liberation, and the latter, disembodied one, it is alleged that Siddha occupies a higher status. In view of this it may appear that disrespect is shown to Siddhas, inasmuch as Arahantas are everywhere bowed first, Siddhas, next. But the conviction of the Jaina is that it through Arahanta that we have been able to recognise the Siddha, and it is through his intervention that Apta, Agama and Padartha have
1 Yogasara. 41. 2. Mo Pa. 63, 64. 3. Tattvanusasana. 196.
4 Yoga of the Saints. p. 57. 5. Ibid. p. 58. 6. Samadhi. 75.
been made intelligible. Hence this supreme Guru is entitled to receive our preferential obeisance. Thus Arahanta is the perfect Guru owing to the delivering of sermons for general beneficence, and is also called perfect Deva on account of the complete actualisation of the divinity potential in Himself. It is through his medium that mystical life has been possible on earth. Hence he must have our highest gratitude and reverence.
DOUBLE ROLE OF ARAHANTA: The concept of Arahanta in Jainism plays a double role; the role of the perfect Deva, and the role of the perfect Guru. And this is quite consistent with view-point of spiritual experience, and the consequent upliftment of mankind at large through preaching. Guruhood refers to the outward manifestation of intuitive experience, while Devahood signifies simply the inward spiritual realisation. Thus the concept of Arhat stands for the consistent identification of Devata and Gurutva, of the inward experience. In the state of the Siddha, there is no outward representation of mystical experience, which, on the other hand, is integrally connected with the life of Arahanta. Because of this double role, Arahanta is bowed first in preference to the Siddha who is simply the Deva on account of his being incapable of preaching Dharama. Prof. A. N. Upadhye rightly remarks: "The magnanimous saint, the Jaina Tirthankara, who is at the pinnacle of the highest spiritual experience is the greatest and ideal teacher and has words are of the highest authority." This does no imply the belittlement of the Siddha, but simply the glorification of the Arahanta as the supreme Guru, Gurutva being his additional characteristic. We propose to discuss later on the nature and characteristic of this supreme Guru or ideal Saint.
CHARACTERISTIC OF THE ACARYA AS GURU IN THE TECHNICAL SENSE: In contradistinction to Arahantas, who have become divine beings, Acaryas, Upadhyayas and Sadhus are those who are on the path of realisation. They are still the pilgrims on the way to that Sublime, though the mystical characteristics which are essential to call them Gurus are present in them. Technically speaking, only Acaryas enjoy the privilege of initiating persons into mystical life; hence they are the Gurus. The Acarya adorns his life with those moral and spiritual characteristics which have been already referred to in the chapter 'Acara of the Muni'. The outstanding features of his life concise in initiating the souls who are bent
1 Sat. Vol. I. p. 53.
on having mystical life, in guiding them in their moral and Spiritual conduct, in correcting their errors, and in re-establishing them on the spiritual path. He is responsible for the governance and regulation of the order of monks. It is obligatory for the Acarya to have a thorough knowledge of the Sastras and of contemporary religion. Besides, he should be unshakable like the Meru mountain, enduring like the earth, destitute of seven kinds of fear and pure like the ocean which has purged the filth out of itself. The Bhagavati Aradhana very beautifully portrays the characteristics of the Acarya and proclaims them to be eight in number namely. 1) caravan, i.e., one who observes five types of Acara and persuades one's disciples to pursue them, 2) adharavan, i.e., one who has profound learning and discipline in order to be the back-done for the advancement of the disciple; 3) vyavadharavan, i.e., one who is expert in the theory and technique of spiritual punishment, 4) prakarata or prakurvi, i.e., one who helps the disciple physically in his physical troubles without being frustrated in spite of undertaking great paints, 5) ayopayadarsaka, i.e., one who impresses upon the mind of one's disciple the value of discovering his defects when he hides them on account of fear, shame, and pride, 6) Avapidaka, i.e., one who exhorts penetratingly, but politely in seclusion, when the disciple owing to vanity, fear, reluctance to be punished etc. hides his faults. Here the treatment of the Guru (Acarya) maybe compared to the mother who feeds the child even it it weeps; i.e., the Guru obliges the disciple to unveil his defects for his benefit. 7) Aparisravi, i.e., one who does not communicate the defects for one's disciple to anybody, just as the hot iron ball does not let the water go out after once soaking it; 8) Niryapaka, i.e., one who guards the ship of one's disciple form being sunk in the ocean of Samsara at the time when the storm of disease, cold, thirst, hunger etc., is at its highest to ruin the ship. 15
1. Sat Vol. I. p. 49. 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid.
4 Ibid. ; We have already dealth with these fers above.
5 1) janacara (Pursuance of five types of scriptural study). 2) Darsanacara (Belief in Tattvas); 3) Caritracara ( Avoidance of five types of Sins, namely, Himsa, stealing etc.); 4) Tapacara (Performace of external & internal austerities); 5) Viryacara (Performance of austerities without concealing one's own strength) (Bhaga Ara. Comm. Vija. and Mulara-419).
6 Bhaga. ara. 419. 7 Ibid. 428, 441 to 443.
8 Ibid. 448. 9 Ibid.. 45 to 457. 10 Ibid. 461, 462.
11 Ibid. 474, 475. 12 Ibid. 479.
13 Ibid. 480. 14 Ibid. 486. 15 Ibid. 503, 504.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE UPADHYAYA AND THE SADHU: The Upadhyaya possesses all the characteristics of the Acarya except those of initiation and correction of faults. The distinguishing characteristic of the Upadhyaya consists in discoursing on spiritual matters after he has dived deep into them. He can only discourse, but cannot command like the Acarya. The saint who observes moral and spiritual rules of conduct prescribed for them, but does not perform any special function like the Acarya and the Upadhyaya, is designated as Sadhu. Thus, it is evident that the life of the Acarya embodies in itself the life of the Upadhyaya and the Sadhu, since the latter two own their saintliness to the Acarya. In view of this, it will not be wrong to affirm that the Acaryas are net to Arahantas in doing the work of sustenance and perpetuation of spiritual life.
SPIRITUAL CONVERSION OR AWAKENING OF SELF PRESUPPOSES FIVE LABDHIS: Let us now revert to deal with the nature of the five Labdhis, which are presupposed before spiritual conversion (Samyagdarsana) occurs. They are: 1) Ksayopasama Labdhi implies the destruction-cum-subsidence of the Karmic matter to a certain extent. By virtue of this achievement, the self acquires such potency as will enable it to understand the nature of Tattva and Atattava, and to discriminate between the pursuable path and the non-pursuable one. Technically, this amounts to the accomplishment of the ten Pranas already referred to. 2) As a result of this achievement, the occurrence of auspicious psychical states is Visuddhi Labdhi. 3) Desana Labdhi signifies either the obtainment of instruction from the Sadguru, or the development of efficacy to treasure up instruction in the form of disposition to be revived in some other birth where it may not be available. 4) With the above three Labdhis comes in the in cessant purification of the psychical states, and the competence to reduce the duration of all the types of Karman except the Ayus Karman. The acquisition of this sort of efficiency is called Prayoga Labdhi. Now even with these four Labdhis the self may not acquire spiritual conversion. This again points to the possibility of moral conversion without one's being spiritually converted. According to the Jaina dogma these four Labdhis are acquired by the self number of times with no spiritual good.
1 Sat. Vol. I. p. 50. 2 sat. Vol. I. p. 50. 3. Labdhi. 3.
4 Ibid. 3. 5. Ibid. 5. 6 Labdhi. Comm. Candrika. 6.
7 Labdhi. 7. 8 Ibid. 7.
5) When there is Ardhapudgalaparvartana Kala for the deliverance of the self, it prepares itself for the fifth Labdhi, namely, Karana Labdhi, which guarantees for it spiritual conversion. According to the Gommatasara (Jivakanda), Samyagdarsana is acquired by that self which is in any one of the four conditions of existence, is destined to liberation, is possessing mind, is fully developed, is awake, and is having purity, determinate knowledge and auspicious Lesya. Karana Labdhi admits of three-fold classification: a) adhahpravrttakarana b) apurvakarana and c) anivrttikarana. Each of these lasts for an Antarmuhurta (less than forty-eight minutes). In the process of Adhahpravrttakarana the soul reduces the duration and intensity of Karmas to a considerable extent. b) In Apurvakarana, on the other hand, the soul passes at every instant through such new states as it never experienced before, and reduces the duration and intensity of Karmas still further. C) "The third process of Anivrttikarana leads the soul to the verge of the dawn of the first enlightenment that comes like a flash on account of the absolute subsidence of the Karmic matter of the vision-deluding (Darsana-mohaniya) Karma." Just after the termination of the period of the this Karana the soul experiences extreme delight on the sudden dawn of enlightenment." This spiritual conversion is called Upasama-samyakta, because it is due to the subsidence of Darsana Mohaniya (vision-deluding) Karma that deluded the self, and it is as pure as the pure water in which the filth has settled by the use of Nirmali etc.
TYPES OF SAMYAKTVA (SPIRITUAL CONVERSION) AND POSSIBILITY OF FALL TO LOWER STAGES, NAMELY, (A) SASADANA GUNASTHANA AND (B) MISRA GUNAHSTHANA: This conversion which is known as Pratha
1 Gomma. Ji. 651. 2 Labdhi. 33 3 Ibid. 34.
4 Labdhi. 36, 51. 5 Studies in Jaina Philosophy, p. 272.
6 Labdhi. 2. 7 Studies in Jaina Philosophy, p. 273
8 it may be noted here that arsana-mohaniya Karma and Anantanubandhi passions are intertwined with each other.
mopasama Samyaktva lasts for the duration of only one anatarmuhurta. But by virtue of the purity of stated owing to this enlightenment, the homogeneous mass of the vision-deluding Karma is divided into three qualitatively different fragments of Mithyatva (impure), Samyakprakrti (pure) and Samyak-Mithyatva (semi-pure). Thus the self, in the fourth Gunansthana, subsides four Anantanubandhi passions and three pieces of vision-deluding Karma. After completing the period of this sort of conversion, namely, one Anatarmuhurta, the self either falls to the lower stages or remains in the same stage with the emergence of certain subtle defects ordinarily icongisable. In a similar vein, Puyapada opines that the self, in spite of being conscious of the transcendental self and endowed with the discriminatory frame of mind, returns to the state of perversion on account of the persistence of the previous perverted dispositions. When the impure piece comes, up the self descends again to the first Gunasthana where again darkness overwhelms him; if the semi-pure piece, the self falls to the third Gunashana, namely, 'Misra Gunasthana' for one Antarmuhurta; and then it either retrogrades to the first stage or rises up to the fourth stage of Avirata Samyagdrsti. If there is the rise of Anantanubandhi passion the soul sinks to the second stage known as Sasadana Gunasthana'. This is the intemediatory stage of the self which has fallen from the peak of the mountain of Samyagdarsana, but has not arrived at, though sure to fall to, the stage known as Mithyatva Gunasthana, i.e., the first stage of total darkness. Lastly, when the pure peace rises up, it continues to be in the fourth stage, but has lost the purity of Upasama Samyaktva. Still it is powerful enough to lead the soul to higher stages of spiritual advancement. This is called Ksayopasamika Samyaktva or Vedaka Samyakta. This conversion may last for one Antarmuhurta to the minimum and sixty-six Sagaras to the maximum. Thus it also possesses the germs of dissension. Now when this self with Vedaka Samyaktava comes in contact with the Kevali or Sruta Kevali, it attains such purity of psychical states that the vision
1 Labdhi. 2.
2 Upasama Samyaktva is of two types, namely, 1) Prathamopasama 2) Dvitiyopasama. We shall deal with the second type later on. (Bhavana-viveka, 94.) 3 Bhavanaviveka, 100. 4. Gomma. Ka. 26.
5 Bhavanaviveka, 93, Labdhi. 102. 6 Samadhi. 45.
7 Labdhi. 108. 8 Ibid. 107. 9 Gomma. Ji. 20.
10 Labdhi. 105. 11 Kartti. 309. Gomma. Ji. 25, 648.
12 Bhavanaviveka, 109. 13 Kartti. 308. Gomma. Ji. 647.
deluding Karma in its entirely is wiped out: now the self has thrown over all the chances of its fall to the lower stages. This is called Ksayika Samyaktva. It differs from Upasama Samyaktva not in point of purity but of steadfastness. The former is permanent, while the latter is temporary. Thus in the fourth gunasthana the spiritual conversion is consequent upon the absolute subsidence of the vison-deluding Karma (Upasama Samyaktva) or it is due to the rise of pure peace (Ksayopasamika Samyaktva). Lastly, in results on account of the total annihilation of the Vision-deluding Karma (Ksayika Samyaktva).
REQUISITES OF MYSTIC'S JOURNEY AFTER SPIRITUAL CONVERSION: With the dispelling of the dense and intense darkness caused by the vision-deluding Karma, a part of the mystic's journey has been traversed. The self is now transformed into an Antaratman; it has become, on probation, a denizen of the new world. Pujyapada remarks that the self which was under the spell of deep sleep on account of the absence of spiritual consciousness has now become an awakened self owing to the fact of having developed the taste for the spirit. The illusion of body as the self like the illusion of trunk as the man and its consequent evil effects have now come to an end. The external sources which yielded gratification to the dormant self have now succumbed, and instead the internal source of satisfaction has grown. There has come about a total transplantation of interest. The inner significance has displaced the outer one. There is, however, yet a long and tiresome journey to be traversed by the self in order to transmute itself into Paramatman, "and to secure a permanent and respectable position among members of the new life." The conduct-deluding Karma still persists on account of which the aspirant finds himself incapable of supersensual adventure. Now the passionate and ardent longing of the awakened self is to purge all that stands between it and the transcendental self. In other words, its mystical adventure will now consist in eliminating the horrible contrast between the transcendental belief and the transcendental living, between the first enlightenment and the final one. The rest of the mystic's journey will be trodden by the help of the lamp of right knowledge and right will; and all the obstacles that baulk the pursuance of the moral and the spiritual path will be removed. The great Acarya Amrtancandra says that those who
1 Gomma. Ji. 645. Kartti. 308. 2 Gokmma Ji. 646.
3 Ibid. 645. 4 Labdhi. 164. 5 Yoga of the Saionts, p. 60.
6 Samadhi. 24. 7 Ibid. 21, 22 8 Ibid. 60.
9 Yoga of he Saints, p. 60.
have dispelled spiritual perversion, and who have comprehended the 'Path', and who are always in possession of sturdy will are capable of pursuing the practical path. Again, conduct followed by intellectual ignorance cannot be pronounced to be right. Consequently, the practice of conduct is advisable only after the intellectual comprehension of the 'Path.' This should not be understood to manthat intellectual clarification and moral uprightness, though the oretiallly separable are also practically so. In practical life, the two influence each other, and the one is incapable of being separated from the other. In the Jaina scriptures, we encounter the expression that right belief and right knowledge are related to each other as the cause and the effect, or as a lighted lamp and its light. But this signifies only that spiritual conversion possesses the potency of effecting intellectual turning of the mind in the right direction. This should not imply that no further intellectual study and exertion is necessary. But there should be a separate endeavour for the acquisition of knowledge, in spite of the simultaneous emergence of Samyagdarsana and Samyagjnana, since they differ in characterisation the characteristic of one being belief and of the other, knowledge. Hence even after the aspirant has been converted spiritually, intellectual Upasana and moral Aradhana are incapable of being dispensed with.
3) PURGATION OR (A) VIRATAVIRATA GUNASTHANA (B) PRAMATTAVIRATA GUNASTHANA: The aspirant who, in the fourth stage of journey known as 'Avirata Samyagdrsti Gunasthana', has been considered, owing to the rise of 'Apratyakhyanavarana' passion, as reluctantly engaged in committing Himsa to its full swing, and as totally occupied with the gratification of animal pleasures, now in the fifth stage of advancement resorts to the observance of self-denial. Not being competent to make himself free from all cices, he gets over a part of his moral restlessness by taking recourse to the adoption of the partial vows along with the Sila Vratas the nature of which has already been explained in the chapter, 'Acara of the Householder'. This state of the self's journey has been designated as Viratavirata or Desavirata Gunasthana, since here the aspirant avoids the Himsa of mobile beings having two to five senses, but on account of the rise of Pratyakhyanavarana passion he has to commit the Himsa of one-sensed souls. In his Atmanusasana Gunabhadra
expresses the inadequacy of the householder for spiritual advancement. According to him the actions of the householder are like an intoxicated man, or like an elephant's bath or like the twisting of a rope by a blind man, since even the sagacious persons in the household-stage sometimes perform meritorious acts, sometimes perpetrate villainous actions, and sometimes perform activities of mixed character. Hence, the latter two types of actions tend to obstruct the purgative way pursued by the mystic. Thus the renouncement of the householder's type of living is necessary for higher advancement of the mystic. We have already pointed out that the householder gradually triumphs over the subtle vices to convert the householder gradually triumphs over the subtle vices to convert himself into a saint, thereby relinquishing his vicious tendencies and acquiring self-restraint. Though Pramada still exists in the life of the saint, yet it is incapable of abrogating self-restraint; it simply engenders some kind of pollution in the life of the saint. Hence this stage has been called ' Pramatavirata Gunasthana', since here Pramada exists with self-restraint. In other words, in this stage the self associated with self-restraint breeds impurity-producing Pramada owing to the rise of Samjvalana type of passions and nine sub-passions. The self, notwithstanding the observance of the discipline prescribed for the monk, lapses into the conscious and subconscious kinds of Pramada. Nevertheless this stage may be regarded as the terminus of the purgative way. In the words of Underhill, "the exalted consciousness of Divine perfection which the self acquired in its 'mystical awakening' was balanced by a depressed and bitter consciousness of its own inherent imperfection and the clash of these two perfection's spurred it to that laborious effort of accommodation which constitutes the 'Purgative way'.6