|GUIDLINES OF JAINISM||
The Nine Doctrines
If we examine the point carefully, we find that the whole universe is made up of two entities. The whole universe is but a manifestation or expansion of these two principles. Those two entities are Jiva that which has life; and Ajiv that which has no life; or that which is conscious and that which is inert. All agitations and restlessness result from those two only. The Jiva is also called Atma, soul or Chetan the conscious entity. That which has no consciousness and that which has no life is called Ajiv. All the things in this universe both visible and invisible can be classified into these two kinds.
Lord Jineswar has divided all things in this universe into nine entities so that we may have a comprehensive knowledge of all of them.
(1) Jiva (living things), (2) Ajiva (Non living things) (3) Punya (Merit), (4) Pap (Sins). (5) Ashrav (Evil actions) (6) Samvar (good deeds), (7) Bandh (bondage), (8) Nirjara (Free from Karmas), (9) Moksh (Salvation).
The Jiv Tatva
The Jiva is that which grows; which decays, that which fluctuates and varies, that which eats. sleeps, is awake, acts, fears. takes rest, makes attempts for self-defense and that which can reproduce. All these qualities appear in the Jiva when it enters a physical body. These are the external features of the Jivatmä.
The inner feature of life is Chetan or consciousness. The Jain dharma believes that the soul or Jiva embodies consciousness. It goes on manifesting itself in various states, retaining its original and essential form, Gold remains as gold whatever form it may take, If a goldring is broken. out of that some other ornament can be made, but the basic substance, gold remains as gold. Only its external form changes. In the same manner, the soul remains in its original and essential form whatever external form it may assume. Only its states keep changing. Transformations keep appearing. The Jiva according to its Karmas gets into any form of the eighty lakh yonis or forms and remains in that form for a certain fixed duration. The soul when it is in Samsar (the cycle of birth and rebirth) becomes enslaved to the senses; and because of passions like attachment and hatred does good and evil deeds and it also experiences the effect of those good and evil actions.
The soul assumes the dimensions proportionate to the body and dwells in it. In accordance with the dimensions of the body, the soul also fluctuates (grows large or small). Just as time is without a beginning and an end; even the soul is without a beginning and an end and is boundless; and imperishable. The body can consume food and water; can speak and move because of the presence of the soul in it; and because for all these activities the motive force is the soul.
The Jain dharma clearly believes that the soul is conscious, formless, and animate. Awareness is the feature of consciousness. This shows itself in the form of sorrow and happiness, knowledge and self-realization. The soul is spotless and formless, The soul is neither masculine nor feminine. It is a collection or composite of countless conscious, formless entities and is formless. It has no shape. There are infinite number of souls in the universe.
The kinds of Jivas
Ordinarily the Jivas can be divided into two categories.
(1) Mukt Atma: The soul that is bodiless and has been once for all delivered from the bondage of Karmas.
(2) Samsari Atma: (two kinds) The soul that has a body and is caught in the bondage of Karmas.
(1) Tras- Moving.
The Jivas that by their own will move and act and are of two senses; three senses; four senses and five senses come under this category called Tras.
(2) Sthavar- Unmoving.
The earth, water, fire, air and vegetation - these Jivas that cannot move and act by their will come under this category called Sthavar,
There are five kinds among the Jivas belonging to the category called Sthavar.
The following ones which have only one sense namely the sense of touch are called Ekendriyas.
Prithvikaya: Clay, sand, metal, coral, etc.
Apkaya: Water-creatures, every kind of water, ice, dew, fog, iceberg, rain etc.
Teukaya: The lives of fire, various tempests, flames, blazes, lightnings, forest-fires, hot ash etc.
Vayukaya: The lives of air. atmosphere, all kinds of wind, tempests. whirl-winds, cyclones etc.
Vanaspati Kaya: two types - Trees and plants, green plants, raw vegetables, fruits, flowers, trees, leaves, branches, seeds, etc.
Sadharan : Common - That which has a body but in which the jiva is endless. Roots like fungus - mould, etc. These are also called Anantkaya.
Pratyek : Single or separate - A single soul dwelling in a single body. A separate soul dwells in each of these things: tree, branch, skin or case, flower, leaf, seed etc.
Do-indriya : The Jiva that has two senses They have two senses, namely, skin and tongue. Conch-shell, Cowries, germs, the microbes in stale food, the minute creatures in water, the worms that eat away wood etc.
Te-indriya : Those having three senses. These have skin, tongue and ears. Bugs, lice, white ants, ants, moths and insects in wheat centipedes etc.
Chaurindriya : Those that have skin, tongue, ears and eyes. Scorpions, beatles, locusts, house-flies, gad-flies, gnats, crickets, spiders etc.
Panchendriya : Those that have the five senses, namely, skin. tongue. ears, eyes and nose.
Narak : The jeevas of Naraka - Hell.
Tiryanch : Animals and birds that live on earth, in water; and which move in the sky.
Deva : Those jeevas that live in heaven (Devlok) .
Manushya : The jeevas that live in the form of human beings. There are two kinds among the jeevas possessing the five senses.
Sanjni Panchendriya: Creatures having a mind (Mind here means brain).
Asanjni Panchendriya - Creatures without a mind.
The six Paryapties - the six abilities.
Paryapti means a special ability which takes in Pudgals like food and converts them into separate kinds of energy. There are six kinds of Paryaptis.
(1) Ahar - food
(2) Sharir- body
(3) Indriya - senses
(4) Shwasoshwas - Respiration
(5) Bhasha - language
(6) Man -Mind
Pran: (lives) 10 These are also a kind of abilitles.
(1 ) Sparsh-lndriya: The ability to feel the sensation of touch.
(2) Ras-lndriya: The ability to taste.
(3) Ghran-lndriya: The ability to smell.
(4) Chalkshu-lndriya: The abilily to see.
(5) Shravan-lndriya: The ability to hear.
(6) Mano-bal The ability to think.
(7) Vachan-bal: The ability to speak.
(8) Kaya-bal: The ability of the body to move.
(9) Shwasoshwas: The ability to inhale and exhale air.
(1O) Ayushya: The duration of life.
The number of abilities and Pranas in various Jivas.
Ekendriya - those having one sense 4 4
Doindriya - those having two senses 5 6
Teindriya - those having three senses 5 7
Chaurindriya - those having four senses 5 8
Asanjni Panchendriya -those having five
senses but without a mind 5 9
Sanjni Panchendriya -those having five
senses and a mind 6 10
Lord Jineshwar has made a careful and subtle examination of the J;vas. His vast enquiry has exer-cised itself through a number of differences and varieties. He has classified the Jivas into 563 main groups.
Human beings 303 kinds.
Heavenly beings 198 kinds.
Animals and birds 48 kinds
Those that live in hell 14 kinds
Total 563 Kinds of Jivas
Ajiv- Lifeless things
That which does not have consciousness; which has no birth or death, which is not bound by Karma; which is not a doer; which does not experience the result of anything and which does not possess knowledge or self-realization is called Ajiva or inert or achetana, that which lacks consciousness.
The Jain philosophy has divided all lifeless things into the following categories.
Asti means Pradesh and Kay means collection; so Astikäy means a collection of Pradeshas (aspects). Before understanding these doctrines the meanings of four technical words should be known. Then, one can understand those doctrines clearly.
Skandh: It means the full form of a thing.
Desh: Some parts that are attached to the Skandh.
Pradesh: The parts that are attached to the Skandh but which are inseparable from it.
Paramanu: Extremely minute and microscopic; they are separated from the Skandh but are not visible to the naked eye.
These words are deeply connected with Astikäy. Skandh, Desh and Pradesh - these three are found equally in ail, but only in Pudgal, Paramanu, is present in a special form. In the others, the Paramanu cannot be separated. The Pradeshas of Dharma, Adharma and Akäsh are inseparable. These three are considered to be full and inseparable.
Time is not a collection of Pradeshas, of course, time is divided into three phases, namely, the past, the present and the future. At the present, it is the present time; that too, it is present in the form of a second or a moment. Therefore, it is not a collection of Pradeshas. Hence, it is not even called Astikay.
The Jiva also is astikäy, because it is in the form of a collection of countless Pradeshas. The name dravya is given to the six i.e., Jivastikay and time. In the Jain Dharma, they are famous as Shaddravyas the six substances. Samsar the cycle of birth and rebirth is only a collection of these six dravyas We have learned something about Jiva among the shaddravyas. Now, let us have a look at the other five dravyäs.
Just as Dharma and Adharma or Shubh and Ashubh are known as propensities in general but here in the Jain philosophical terminology Dharma is Gati-sahäyak (helping movement) and Adharma is called Sthiti Sahayak (helping to stay stationary ). This conception is peculiar to the Jain Dharma.
That which helps the Jiva and Pudgals in their movement is called Dharmästikäy. That which is called ether in science, can be called Dharmästikay. The tendency of movement is present in all. With its help, movement occurs in Jivas and inert matter. The fish swims with the support of water. The condition of the Dharmastikay resembles that of the fish which moves with the support of water. Dharmästikay gives support to all things that move and keep going forward.
The principle which helps in being still, in stopping; in standing, in sitting, is called Adharmästikay. The Astikäy helps all those living and non-living things that can stand, sit; can achieve mental concentration and firmness and can experience firmness and stillness.
Akasästikay is the name given to that substance that gives space for existence. The extent to which the Dharmastikay and Adharmästikay are present is called Lokäkäsh. The name Alokakash is given to the vast and boundless space where those substances are not present. There are no Jivas or Pudgals or paramanu in Alokakash. There, only space exists and that is called Akashastikay.
What scientists call matter, the Jain philosophers call Pudgal. Paramänu is the minutest form of Pudgal. In the Jain philosophy. a profoundly imaginative and valuable enquiry has been carried out in respect of Pudgal First of all. the Jain philosophy has given the name Pudgal to all kinds of sounds, noises, light, shadow, darkness. None of these things gets completely destroyed at any time; and all those things firmly exist in Avakash space. The present-day scientific devices like tape recorders, record players, television, video recorders, telephone, wireless devices, electronic machines etc., not only show the validity of this Jain belief but also support and exemplify it.
The entire inert world is the mesh of illusion of Pudgals. (Puran: making; Galan: marring). Pudgal is the name given to that which has these two characteristics. Pugdal is the name given to that which keeps changing every moment and which undergoes variations every moment.