Bhadrabahu Vijay


Single-point of view.

Naya is an aspect of Praman-Naya means choosing one special aspect of an object which has countless aspects or natures and describing the object in terms of that aspect. ignoring the other aspects.

In other words, to put it more clearly, Naya is to describe an object from one, single and separate point of view.

Naya is classified into two kinds; and it is of seven types.

1. Nishchay Naya

It means understanding the inner nature of an object; not depending upon exceptions.

2. Vyavahar Naya

Vyavahar Naya is understanding the external nature or form of an object. making use of exceptions.

The seven types of Naya

Naigam Naya

Understanding by name

This means understanding a man or a thing by name and understanding the form and nature of an object on the basis of the name. For instance we say " My cloth has burnt away" when we see it just burning.

Sangrah Naya

Partial understanding

Including much in a little.. or understanding a special object in an ordinary way.... This is called Sangrah Naya.


External understanding

Vyavahar Naya means understanding an ordinary thing as a special thing; and differentiating the object on that basis. An example of this is to consider a man as noble on the basis of his outward behavior and appearance.

Rujusutra Naya

Understanding on the basis of the present condition.

This Naya implies the tendency to understand an object as it is at present. Ruju means--simple.... so thinking in a simple way.... thinking thus: ' What we have done today is right".

Shabd Naya

Understanding on the basis of sound.

Sound is all-lmportant in this Naya. Hearing the name of any man or object and understanding the man or the object as the meaning of the name suggests.

Samabhirudh Naya

Understanding on the basis of the derivation of words.

Obtaining various meanings on the basis of various derivations of the sounds or words

Evambhut Naya

The truth as it is

This Naya implies the tendency to believe that an object functions and produces results as its name indicates; and the three are complete and identical. For example, calling a man a devotee when he is showing devotion; not at other times; and not otherwise.

The way of understanding all objects by means of the collective medium of all these seven Nayas is called Samakiti or comprehensive vision. All things cannot be done by means of one article. Many times, we construct something by mixing various things; and we have to give equal importance to all those things. To build a house, lime, mortar, cement. stones, clay etc., are as important and essential as bricks. Only by combining all these things can we build a house.