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GUIDLINES OF JAINISM

Bhadrabahu Vijay

A GLOSSARY OF DIFFICULT WORDS

1. Ayambil Tap: An austerity during which one takes food devoid of any special taste or spices.

2. Asan: A woollen mat to sit on.

3. Agamas: Scriptures in Prakrit or Ardhmagadhi language

4. Avaddh: Taking food and water eight hours after sunrise.

5. Attham: Fasting for three days continuously.

6 Atthai: Fasting for eight days continuously.

7. Anjanshalaka: Applying holy collyrium to the eyes of a new idol of the Lord.

8. Astikay: A collection of Pradeshas or aspects.

9. Ashrav: Evil actions.

10. Avirat: Sinful.

11. Apramatta: Being aware and alert.

12. Apoorvakatan: The stage in which the jivatma is completely freed from the gross passions.

13. Anivritti-badar: Merely passionless state.

14. Ayogi-Kevali: Total freedom from Karmas.

15. Atichar: Violation of rules or vows.

16. Astikya: Total faith in the nine doctrines.

17. Anukampa: Benevolence,

18. Avadhijnan: Knowledge of concrete things obtained by the soul.

19. Aartadhyan: Deep in sorrow.

20. Adan-nikshepan Samiti: Carefulness in taking and keeping things.

21. Anitya: Transitory.

22. Asharan: Refuge.

23. Anupreksha: Another name for Bhavanas or reflections.

24. Anyatva: Thinking that the soul is separate from the body.

25. Ashuchi: Unclean.

26. Biyasan: Taking food only twice a day.

27. Badar: Gross.

28. Bhasha Samiti: Limit in speech.

29. Bhavanas: Reflections.

30. Bodhidurlabh Bhavana: Thinking of faith in Dharma.

31. Chaturmas: The four months of the rainy season.

32. Charvala: A small mop made of woolen threads stuck to a stick.

33. Chauvihar: Taking neither food nor water during fasting after sunset.

34. Chaitya: Jain temple.

35. Charan-karananuyog: Works about conduct and observance.

36. Deeksha: Initiation into the ascetic order.

37. Das-trik: Ten rules with three parts of each for worship or Puja.

38. Desh: Some parts that are attached to Skandh.

39. Dwesh: Hatred.

40. Desh-virati: Phased renunciation.

41. Dhyan: Meditation.

42. Dharmadhyan: Thinking of the ways to make the soul Pure.

43. Dharmaswakhyat Bhavana : Thinking of the effect of Dharma.

44. Dravyanuyog: Works relating to philosophy and theory.

45. Dharmakathanuyog Works relating to literature.

46. Digambar A sect of Jains who think that nakedness is necessary for salvation.

47. Ekasan: Taking food only once in a day.

48. Evambhut Naya: Knowledge of truth as it is ( partial vision ).

49. Eshana-samiti: Limit of articles (food and clothes)

50 Ekatva Bhavana: Thinking of being alone.

51. Gunasthanak: A qualitative phase in the process of attaining salvation.

52. Jneya: That which is worthy of being known.

53. Jnan: Knowledge.

54. Gupti: Restraint or concealment.

55. Ganitanuyog: Works comprising mathematics etc.

56. Irya Samiti: Limit in movement.

57. Katasana: A small carpet for sitting on during Samayik.

58. Kayotsarg: Fixed posture for meditation.

59. Khamasaman: Kneeling with five limbs touching the ground.

60. Kayaklesha: Voluntarily bearing the physical exercise or pain.

61. Kashay: The passions like anger. pride, deception and avarice.

62. Kaivalyajnan: Absolute and the highest pure knowledge

63. Kaya-gupti: Restraint on the body.

64. Karuna: Compassion.

65. Leshya: States of mind.

66. Lobh: Avarice.

67. Lok-swarup: Thinking of the structure of the universe.

68. Muhapati: A square piece of cloth to hold near the mouth at the time of speaking.

69. Moh: Infatuation.

70. Mithyadrishti: False vision or delusion.

71. Mishra: Mixed.

72. Mati-jnan: Knowledge obtained by the intellect and the senses.

73. Mana-paryavajnan: Clear knowledge of thoughts and mind obtained by the soul.

74. Mano-gupti: Restraint of the mind.

75. Maitri: Friendship, amity.

76. Madhyasthya: Being unconcerned about the wicked people (neither hatred nor love).

77. Nirlanchan Karma: Causing violence to animals and birds for profit.

78. Nivi: One kind of austerity like Ekasan.

79. Nava-pad: The nine elements or positions for meditation.

80. Nivritti: Renunciation.

81. Naya: Knowledge obtained from a single point of view.

82. Naigam Naya: Understanding only by means of a name.

83. Nirved: An appearance of detachment for all worldly things.

84. No-kashay: The nine kinds of passions.

85. Nirjara: Being free from Karmas.

86. Ogha: A mop of woollen threads.

87. Oli: One kind of austerity.

88. Ogh Samjna: Imitating blindly.

89. Paushadh-Shala: A religious centre.

90. Pranatipat: Causing violence.

91. Pratikraman: Retreat from sins.

92. Porasi: Consuming food or water only three hours after the sunrise.

93. Purimuddh: Taking food and water only six hours after the sunrise,

94, Panahar: This is the vow for the night in some austerities.

95. Panjarapol: A shelter for animals and birds which are disabled or needy.

96. Pradesh: The inseparable parts of Skandh.

97. Pudgal: Matter.

98. Purusharth: Efforts

99. Pramatta: The state of not being mindful.

100. Pramad: Intoxication or laziness.

101. Praman: Knowledge obtained from multiple- vision.

102. Pratyaksh: Perceptible truth.

103. Parishtapanika-Samiti: Limit in throwing away articles.

104. Pramod Bhavana: Thinking of respecting superiors.

105. Ras-tyag : Renouncing six types of tastes (Rasas) that provoke passions.

106. Rag: Attachment.

107. Rujusutra Naya: Understanding on the basis of the Present condition.

108. Raudradhyan: Thinking of violence.

109. Rajlok: Structure of the universe.

110. Sthapanacharyaji: After giving a special form to the conch-shell, the Panchparmeshthi are enshrined in it and worshipped.

111. Samayik: A religious austerity, sitting in a place for 48 minutes and carrying out spiritual activities.

112. Samlinata: Becoming still in meditation.

113. Sadhporasi: Taking food or water four hours and 30 minutes after sunrise.

114. Samyaktva Dharma: A strong faith in the nine doctrines.

115. Skandh: The full form of a thing.

116. Samvar: The factors that prevent the Karmas from entering the soul.

117. Samjna: Gonads or natural feelings.

118. Samavay: It is the connection between the action and the cause.

119. Sadhana: Spiritual endeavour.

120. Siddhi: Attainment of perfection through the destruction of Karmas.

121. Saswadan Samyagdrishti: Having tasted righteousness.

122. Shraman: Mendicant or ascetic.

123. SukshmaSamparay: Withalittleavariceremaining.

124. Sayogi Kevali: A stage of having perfect knowledge.

125. Sangrah Naya: A general way of understanding.

126. Shabd Naya: Knowledge obtained only from sound.

127. Samabhirudh Naya: Understanding on the basis of the origin and derivation of words.

128 Samakiti: Comprehensive vision.

129 Syadvad: It is relative truth.

130. Samyaktva: Righteousness.

131. Sham: A state of peace.

132 Samveg Innate enthusiasm for salvation.

133 Shruta-jnan Knowledge obtained from the scriptures by enquiry.

134 Shukladhyan: Meditation on the soul in its pure form.

135 Samiti: Limits.

136 Samsar The cycle of birth and death.

137. Swetambar: A sect of Jains who always wear white cloths.

138 Sthanakvasi A sect of Jains started by Laukashah. They reject idol-worship, temples and idols.

139 Tivihar Upavas Taking only boiled water in sitting position only before sunset during a fast.

140. Tatva: Doctrine.

141. Terapanthi A sect of Jains founded by Shri Bhikhanji Swami. Rejects worship of Idol, giving

charity and showing mercy to others.

142. Upashraya: A religious centre.

143 Unodari Eating and drinking less than the quantity required.

144. Upshant Moh Periodically passionless.

145. Upama: Comparison.

146. Upadeya That which is acceptable.

147.Upadhan The exalted 3 types of spiritual endeavors and austerity that a shravak has to do.

148. Vasakshep Scented and sanctified sandal powder for blessing.

149. Vrat: A religious vow.

150. Vigai-tyag: Limiting the consumption of certain kinds of food.

151. Vanah: Restrictions relating to shoes, sandals, etc,

152. Vaiyavach: Serving religious and spiritual fellow members with devotion,

153. Varsi-tap: The austerity of fasting in a prescribed manner throughout a year in the form of fasting for one day and Biyasan for one day etc.

154. Vadas: Metaphorical arguments.

155. Vitrag: One who is totally devoid of attachment and hatred.

156. Vyavahar Naya: External ( Partial ) Understanding

157. Vachan Gupti: Restraint in speech.

158. Yogodvahan: Carrying out yogic activities with Ayambil for scriptural studies.