BANDHA


 

 

It must be obvious to all thinking minds that every slight contact of matter with spirit does not necessarily imply their fusion, so that all the particles of matter which come in contact with the soul do not necessarily combine with it to cause its bondage. Hence, the Jaina Siddhanta divides bondage into two classes, samprayika and iryapatha. Of these, the former signifies the fusion of spirit and matter, and the latter only a momentary contact between them.

 

The absorption of matter by the soul result in the formation of a compound- personality in which the natural attributes of spirit become suppressed to a greater or less extent, according to the nature and quantity of the particles absorbed. Just as hydrogen and oxygen are deprived of their natural freedom during the period of their fusion in the form of water, so is a soul debarred from the full exercise of its natural attributes while in union with matter; and just as the separation of hydrogen and oxygen from one another results in restoring to them their natural properties in the fullest degree of manifestation, so does the removal of matter from the constitution of the soul establish it in its natural perfection as a pure spirit. It follows from this that the union of spirit and matter does not imply a complete annihilation of their natural properties in the fullest degree of manifestation, so does the removal of matter from the constitution of the soul establish it in its natural perfection as a pure spirit. It follows from this that the union of spirit and matter does not imply a complete annihilation of their natural properties, but only a suspension of their functions, in varying degree, according to the quality and quantity of the material absorbed. Thus, the effect of the fusion of spirit and matter is manifested in the form of a compound- personality which partakes of the nature of both, without actually destroying either. Hence, the Jiva involved in the cycle of births and deaths manifests something of the nature of both, pure spirit and matter, the quality of omniscience appearing in the form of knowledge dependent on the activity of senses and mind, that of right belief in the form of wrong and absurd notions, of infinite power in the guise of bodily prowess, and of infinite happiness, as sensations of pleasure and pain through the senses. On the other hand, attraction and repulsion, which are the properties of matter, assume the form of attachment and hatred, giving rise to al kinds of emotions and passions, greed, anger and the like. Another effect of the unhappy union between spirit and matter is the liability to death from which pure spirit is perfectly immune, but which, together with its companion, birth, is a constant source of dread to an un-evolved, that is to say, an un- emancipated soul. The fusion of spirit and matter also exposes the soul to danger from another quarter from which it enjoys complete immunity as pure spirit. This additional source of trouble consists in the inflow of fresh matter in consequence of the operation of the forces of magnetism, chemical affinity and the like, residing in the material already in union with the soul. As gaseous matter is not liable to combine with the element of earth in its natural purity, but becomes defiled by it when existing in the condition of water, so, owing to the influence of the material already in combination with it, does the soul become liable to be forced into union with certain types of matter which cannot assail it directly.

 

     We thus observe that the union of soul and matter is simply fraught with evil for the Jiva, whose condition scarcely differs from that of a man thrown into prison and thereby deprived of his freedom of action. The Karma Shareer is a sort of self-adjusting prison for the soul and constantly accompanies it through all its incarnations, or births. Subject to modification at the end of each form of life, it is again and again attracted into a new womb, organizing, mechanically, the outer encasement of gross matter by the energies inherent within its own form.

     

Thus the conditioning of the physical body, and of the circumstances depending on that body- descent, family, status, wealth and the like- is the result of the mechanical operation of the force of karma stored up in the Karma Shareer.

     This karmic force is dealt with by the Jaina Siddhanta under the following eight heads:

 

     (1) Jnana varaniya, or the knowledge -obstructing group;

     (2) Darsana varaniya, or the class of forces which interfere with perception;

     (3) Vedaniya, i.e., the class of prakriti (energies) which determine and regulate the experiencing of pleasure and pain;

     (4) Mohaniya, that is to say, the forces which produce delusion;

     (5) Ayu, or the prakriti which determine the duration of the association of the soul with the body of gross matter;

     (6) Nama, or the forces which organize the body and its limbs;

     (7) Gotra, or the energies which determine the family, surroundings, position and the like, of individuals; and

     (8) Antaraya, or the group of forces which interfere with our doing what we should like to do.

 

     As flesh, blood, muscles, bones, marrow and the like are formed from the same food, so are the different kinds of karmic energies engendered from the particles of matter absorbed by the soul through Asrava.

 

     Of these eight kinds of karmas, the first, second, fourth and eight are called Ghatia (lit. that which destroys), because they obstruct the natural qualities of spirit, and the remaining four Aghatia (a = not + Ghatia) because of their not interfering with those attributes. The formers are, moreover, regarded as inimical to the Jiva, because they are the most difficult to be destroyed, while the latter can be burnt up speedily.

 

     We now proceed to describe the number and nature of energies comprised in each of these eight groups of Karmas.

 

I. The Jnana varaniya class comprises five energies, namely;

 

(i) That which obscures knowledge derived through the senses (Mati Jnana); (1)

 

(ii) That which interferes with knowledge based on the interpretation of signs (Sruta Jnana); (2)

 

(iii) That which obstructs clairvoyance (Avadhi Jnana); (3)

 

(iv) That which debars one from telepathic knowledge (mana Paryaya Jnana); (4) and

 

(v) That which prevents omniscience (Kevala Jnana) from manifesting itself. (5)

 

II. The darsana varaniya group consists of the following nine kinds of energy all of which interfere with the perceptive faculties of the soul in different ways:--

 

(i) That which debars the soul from seeing with the eye (khakis darsana); (6)

 

(ii) That which prevents perception through senses other than sight (achaksu darsana); (7)

 

(iii) That which obstructs clairvoyant perception (Avadhi darsana); (8)

         

(iv) That which prevents the manifestation of Kevala darsana (full, unqualified perception); (9)

 

(v) Nidra (sleep); (10)

 

(vi) Nidra- Nidra (deep-sleep); (11)

         

(vii) Prachala, light or restless sleep, like that of a dog; (12)

 

(viii) Prachala-prachala, a more restless form of slumber than the preceding, also a kind of madness; (13) and

         

(ix) Styana griddi (somnambulism). (14)

 

III. The Vedaniya type comprises two kinds of energies:

        

 (i) Those responsible for pleasurable experiences (Sata Vedaniya), and (15)

         

(ii) Those leading to suffering and pain (Asata Vedaniya). (16)

 

IV. The Mohaniya class is subdivided into:

 

(i) Darsana Mohaniya, which obstructs right belief.

It is of three kinds:

 

(a) Mithyatva which leads to settled wrong beliefs, (17)

 

(b) Samyag Mithyatva which is characterized by mixture of truth and falsehood, (18) and

 

(c) Samyag prakriti or samyaktva which signifies blurred faith. It this state the truth is known, but faith is slightly tinged with superstition. (19)

 

(ii) Charitra Mohaniya which interferes with right conduct.

 

This is of the following twenty-five kinds:

Made of two groups Kashaya and no-kashaya.

                  

Kashaya are of four types:

           First, Anantanubandhi, that is, the most intense type.

           (a) Anger, (20)

           (b) Pride, (21)

           (c) Deceit, (22)

           (d) Greed, (23)

           

Second, Apratyakhyana, or a very, intense type.

           (e) Anger, (24)

           (f) Pride, (25)

           (g) Deceit, (26)

           (h) Greed, (27)

           

Third, Pratyakhyana, that is intense type.            

        (i) Anger, (28)

           (j) Pride, (29)

           (k) Deceit, (30)

           (l) Greed, (31)

           

Fourth, sanjvalana, or mild type

           (m) Anger, (32)

           (n) Pride, (33)

           (o) Deceit, (34)

           (p) Greed, (35)

           

And, No-kasayas are:

           (q) Joking, (36)

           (r) Attachment or love, (37)

           (s) Aversion, (38)

           (t) Grief, (39)

           (u) Fear, (40)

           (v) Disgust, (41)

           (w) Sex-passion peculiar to males, (42)

                  (x) Sex-passion peculiar to females, and (43)

            (y) sex-passion peculiar to those of the neuter sex. (44)

 

V. The Ayu karma group includes four kinds of energies, which control and determine the duration of life of the four kinds of beings, namely,

            (i) Devas (residents of heavens), (45)

            (ii) Human beings, (46)

            (iii) Lower forms of life belonging to the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms, (47) and

            (iv) Denizens of hells. (48)

 

VI. The Nama karma group comprises the following ninety-three kinds of energies falling under forty-two heads, which are responsible for the formation of the different kinds of bodies and their organs:

 

       (1) Gati or condition of existence which is of four kinds, namely,

               (i) Manushya (human) (49)

            (ii) Tiryanchas (lower forms of life, such as animals, vegetables and the like), (50)

      (iii) Deva (life in heavens), (51) and

            (iv) Nark (the condition of existence as a resident of hell) (52)

      

              (2) Jati, that is, type of class, which comprises the following five heads:

(i)One-sensed beings, (53)

(ii) Two-sensed beings, (54)

           (iii) Three-sensed beings, (55)

           (iv) Four-sensed beings, (56)

           (v) Beings with all the five senses. (57)

 

       (3) Shareer, i.e., body, which is of five kinds viz.,

       (i) Audarika, the outer body of gross matter, (58)

                  (ii) Vaikriyaka, the outer body of Devas (residents of heavens), and of      those who are the denizens of hells, (59)

 (iii) Aharaka, an invisible body of small dimensions, which, issues from the forehead of advanced ascetics alone, and enables them to visit the Teacher, if there be one in a distant land, (60)

     (iv)Taijasa, the body of luminous matter, (61) and

      (v) Karma, the body of karmic energies. (62)

 

(4) Angopanga, that, is the principal and subsidiary limbs, which are of three kinds--

(i) Audarika., i.e., pertaining to the physical body, (63)

(ii)Vaikriyaka, pertaining to the Vaikriyaka sarira which can become big or small, and assume any form at will, and (64)

(iii) Aharaka, i.e., pertaining to the Aharaka body.(65)

 

(5) Nirmana, that is symmetry. (66)

           

(6) Bandanna, or union of articles without which it would be impossible for the body to be organized. This is five kinds corresponding to the five kinds of bodies enumerated above. (67-71)

  

(7) Sanghata, a still closer union of particles than bandana. (72-76)

    This is also different for the five different kinds of bodies, hence, of five types.

 

(8) Sansathana, or development which is of six kinds, as follows:

     (i) Samachaturasra, i.e. proportionate, (77)

   (ii) Nyagrodha parimandala, that is, well- developed in the upper parts and ill- formed in the lower, (78)

(iii) Svatika, or well-formed in the lower portion, but stunted in the upper, (79)

     (iv) Kubjaka, that is, hunch-backed, (80)

     (v) Varana, or dwarfish, (81) and

               (vi) Hundaka, that is, general mal-formation. (82)

 

(9) Sanghanana, or formation of bony skeleton. This is of the following six kinds, of which only the last three are possible in the present age:

     (i) Vajra vrisabha narrate, that is, adamantine, or iron-like formation of bones, their wrappings and nails. (83)

(ii) Vajra Naracha, i.e. iron-like formation of bones and nails, but not of wrappings, or bandages, (84)

(iii) Naracha, or bones, wrappings, and nails of the ordinary type, that is to say, without adamantine strength, (85)

      (iv) Ardha Naracha, that is, no wrappings, but only partially nailed joints, (86)

      (v)      Kilaka or wholly nailed joints, (87) and

 (vi) Asamprapta sripatika, that is, bones strung together by nerves, but not fixed with nails. (88)

      

(10) Color (Varna) which is of five kinds, viz.

           (i) Black, (89)

           (ii) Blue, (90)

           (iii) Red, (91)

           (iv) Yellow, (92) and

           (v) White. (93)

 

(11) Smell (Gandha), which is either--

           (i) Pleasant, (94) or

           (ii) Unpleasant, (95)

 

(12) Taste (Rasa), which is of five kinds, namely

           (i) Pungent, (96)

           (ii) Bitter, (97)

           (iii) Saline, (98)

           (iv) Acid, (99) and

           (v) Sweet, (100)

     

(13) Touch (spars), which falls under eight heads as follows:

           (i) Hard, (101)

           (ii) Soft, (102)

           (iii) Light, (103)

           (iv) Heavy, (104)

           (v) Cold, (105)

           (vi) Hot, (106)

           (vii) Smooth, (107) and

           (viii) Rough, (108)

      

(14) Anupurvi, which enables the soul to retain during the moments of transition from one life to another the form of its last incarnation. This is of four kinds, corresponding to the four gait's (conditions of existence), namely:

           (i) Human, (109)

           (ii)Deva, (110)

                 (iii)Nark (pertaining to the residents of hells), (111) and

                 (iv) Animal (Tiryanch). (112)

 

(15) Agurulaghu, which has reference to the weight of matter, of which any particular body may be made. Literally, the word Agurulaghu means neither light nor heavy, hence it has reference to that energy which is responsible for the manufacturing of the material of the different bodies, which, bulk for bulk, is neither heavy like iron, nor light like cotton-wool. (113)

 

(16) Upaghata, by whose operation are formed such organs as are inimical to the very organism to which they belong e.g., big, bulky belly, long horns, and the like. (114)

      

(17) Paraghata, the energy that makes organs, which might be used for the destruction of others, such as sharp horns, poisonous fags and the like. (115)

 

(18) Atapa, which makes a heat-producing and luminous body, such as that of the prithavikaya Jivas in the solar orb. (116)

 

(19) Udyta, the energy which produces a phosphorescent, that is, luminous, but not heat-producing, organism, e.g., the body of a fire- fly. (117)

 

(20) Vihayogati, the energy which enables one to fly, or move through air. It is either Shubha (grace- full) (118) orashubha (the opposite of graceful). (119)

 

(21) Breathing (uchchhvasa). (120)

 

(22) Trasa, which procures birth in the classes of Jivas above the one- sensed type. (121)

 

(23) Sthavira, which leads to birth in the class of one-sensed Jiva. (122)

 

(24) Badara, which produces a body capable of offering resistance to, and of being resisted by, other bodies. (123)

 

(25) Sukshma, which produces a body incapable of offering resistance to, or of being resisted by, others. (124)

 

(26) Periapt, the power to utilize the particles of matter for the full development of certain physical and mental faculties. (125)

This is of six kinds, namely--

               (a) The power to absorb nourishment,

               (b) The power to build the body from the nourishment absorbed,

               (c) The power to develop physical organs and faculties, including that of sense perception,

               (d) The power to maintain breathing and circulation of blood,

               (e) The power of speech, and

                            (f) The power of discrimination, or thinking with the help of the physical organ of thought.

 

(27) Aparyapti, the energy, which does not permit the development of the any of the six parayaptis or powers described under the next preceding head. (126)

 

(28) Pratyeka, which appropriates a body to one soul only. (127)

 

(29) Sadharan, which enables a body to be appropriated by more than one souls. (128)

 

(30) Sthira, the energy which retains the various dhatus and upadhatus in their respective positions in the body. The dhatus are juices, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow and semen; and the upadhatus wind, bile, phlegm, nerves, sinews, skin and the digestive fire. (129)

 

(31) Asthira, the energy which tends to disturb the equilibrium of dhatus and upadhatus. (130)

 

(32) Shubha-Nama-karma is a prakriti, which imparts attractiveness to the limbs of the body. (131)

 

(33) Ashubha-Nama-karma is the energy, which makes the bodily limbs unattractive and offensive to look at. (132)

 

(34) Subhaga-Nama-karma is an energy which makes one the object of love by others. (133)

 

(35) Durbhaga-Nama-karma acts in the opposite way to the Subhaga prakriti. (134)

 

(36)      Susvara renders speech agreeable and melodious. (135)

 

(37) Dusvara makes the voice croaky and unpleasant to hear. (136)

 

 (38)      Adeya imparts radiance and glow to the body. (137)

 

 (39)      Anadeya makes a body devoid of radiance or glow. (138)

 

(40) Yashakirti makes one popular in the world. (139)

 

(41) Ayashakirti operates in the opposite way, and makes one unpopular. (140)

 

(42) Tirthankara-Nama-karma raises one to the supreme status of a Tirthankara (God). (141)

 

VII. Gotra karmas are the two kinds, that which secures one's birth in a noble, influential or prosperous family (Uchcha gotra) (142) and that, which drags the soul into opposite kinds of surroundings (Niche gotra). (143)

  

VIII. Antaraya karmas comprise the following five kinds of karmic energy:

 

      (i) That which interferes with the making of gifts, though we may be willing to do so, (144)

 

      (ii) That which steps in to deprive us of gain, though we might do all in our power to deserve it, (145)

 

      (iii) That which prevents one's enjoying things, which can be enjoyed only once, such as food, (146)

 

      (iv) That which interferes in the enjoyment of things which may be enjoyed in more than once, such as pictures, and (147)

 

      (v) Lack of effectiveness to accomplish anything, though we may do our best to succeed. (148)

 

     It will be seen from the above classification of karma- prakriti that the total number of energies falling under the eight groups is 148, which exhaust the whole range of karmas thought it is possible to divide and sub-divide them still further under many heads. Of these, the number of energies which fall under the description of the Nama karma alone is ninety-three, the remaining fifty-five being divided among the other groups. The number of prakriti of the Ghatia karmas out of these fifty-five is forty-seven, which comprise five of Jnana varaniya, nine of darsana varaniya, twenty-eight of Mohaniya and five of Antaraya, the remaining eight, along with the ninety-three of the Nama karma, are all Aghatia, since they do not prevent to the natural properties of the soul from becoming manifested. It is these 47 energies of the Ghatia karmas, which stand in the way of salvation, and debar us from the enjoyment of our natural attributes --omniscience, bliss, and the like.