THE 14 GUNASTHANAS


mithyadrsti-gunasthanas

sasvadana-samyagdrsti-gunasthana

samyagmithyadrsti-gunasthana

avirata-samyagdrsti-gunasthana

desavirata-samyagdrsti-gunasthana

pramatta-samyata-gunasthana

apramatta-samyata-gunasthana

apurvakarana-gunasthana

anivrtti-badara-samparaya-gunasthana

suksma-samparaya-gunasthana

upasanta-kasaya-vitaraga-chadmastha-gunasthana

ksina-kasaya-vitaraga-chadmastha-gunasthana

sayogi-kevali-gunasthana

ayogi-kevali-gunasthana

 

Explanation of the gunasthanas Kg. I, 56a, Ps. 40 seq., Lp. III, 1131 seq., duration Ps. 181 seq.; marganasthanas Kg. I, 81b seq., Ps. 100; upayoga Kg. I, 147a Ps. 90; yoga Kg. I, 145b, Ps. 88; lesya Kg. I, 148b ; jivasthanas Kg. I, 97b; bandhahetavah Kg. I, 151a seq.; bandha. udaya. satta Kg. 63a seq. II, 168b seq.

 

All that has previously been said will be recapitulated and amplified in the following analysis of the gunasthanas. We see once more the different species of jivas in their dependence upon karman, and in their states and qualities produced thereby; we follow the manner in which, by degrees, they deliver themselves from the fatal effects of matter and accompany them up to the moment of their complete liberation from karman. The procedure followed in the description of the different stages corresponds to that followed in the description of the forms of the existence. I commence with a short characteristic of each state and continue with a survey of the upayogas, yogas, lesyas, as well as of the species of belief and conduct, which are possible in being who are in the respective gunasthanas. Thereafter follows a survey of the causes of binding and of the karmans which can exist in this stage in bandha, udaya, satta, as well as of those which are eliminated when the gunasthana is left. In most of the cases I could restrict myself to a simple enumeration, as the Kgs. only seldom offer arguments, and where this happens, the reason generally follows from the definition of the respective karman. With regard to that which will be said concerning satta, I must observe that I confine myself only to the most important. Still many other possibilities are suggesting themselves here (e.g. that someone possesses already ksayika-samyaktva and then ascends the upasama-sreni) which the reader can easily find or himself. About the sthiti-, rasa- and pradesa-bandha, I need not make any detailed statements, as the little that the Kgs. offer concerning their maximum and minimum, follows from the principle explained in chapter II, 2-4. I only recall the fact that in the gunasthanas which lie beyond the cutting of the "knot", a sthiti above sagaropamantahkotikotis cannot be bound, and that with the elimination of the kasayas the binding of sthiti and rasa ceases entirely:" the passionless one binds only momentary karman which is without intensity (comp. Tattv. II,5).

 

mithyadrsti-gunasthana.

 

The characteristic mark of this 1st gunasthana is unbelief, the declining of the truths of Jainism. "But why is this stage called a stage of virtue, as the virtues (guna) of the soul, viz. knowledge, belief and conduct, are absent?" "Because in every jiva these exist at least to a minimum extent, however much they might be darkened through the karman; for if this should be lacking to a jiva, he would be no jiva." But, if now in every being the samyaktva, although only in the smallest measure, is existing, why does one then speak of "mithyadrstis"? "Mithyadrstis are those in whom, on account of the realization of the mithyatva-mohaniya-karman, the true belief does not manifest itself, those who find no pleasure in the truth of salvation taught by the sublime Arhat. But as long as someone does not accept even one of the words spoken by the Jina, he is a mithyadrsti (comp. Kg. I, 56b).

 

The abhavyas and the bhavyas who by reason of unfavorable conditions do not reach salvation, remain eternally in this gunasthana; with them it is without beginning and without end. With the other bhavyas this gunasthana has no beginning, but an end which comes sooner or later. With the one who fell from a higher stage and sank back into unbelief, it has a beginning and an end; the duration of the stay in it amounts then in the minimum to a fraction of a muhurta, in the maximum to something less than one-half of a pudgalaparavarta,

cognition: mati-, sruta-ajnana, vibhanga-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-darsana.

activity : 13, i.e. all except aharaka- and aharaka-misra-kaya-yoga.

lesyas : all 6.

belief : unbelief.

conduct : avirati.

cause of bondage: 55, i.e. all except aharaka- and aharaka-misra-kaya-yoga.

bandha : 117 prakrtis, i.e. all 120 except the translocation-body and its limbs and tirthakara.

udaya and udirana: 117 prakrtis i.e. all 122 except the translocation-body and its limbs, tirthakara, mixed belief and samyaktva.

satta : all 148.

 

Table of            bandha            udaya                  satta of ks

1. jnanavarana      5            5                  5

2. darsanavarana      9            4,5                  9

3. vedaniya      1            1                  2

4. mohaniya      22            7 e, 8 de, 9cde, 10      28, 26, 27

5. ayus                  1            1                  1, 2

6.

7. gotra            1            1                  1, 2

8. antaraya            5            5                  5

 

It is not necessary to give a table of bandha, udaya and satta of nama-karman in this gunasthana, as all karman-combinations in which the above-mentioned 3 or 5 karma-prakrtis do not occur in bandha or udaya, are possible. In satta the combination indicated by an asterisk are not possible.

 

Beyond this gunasthana, the following prakrtis have no more bandha, udaya and udirana:

bandha: unbelief, 3rd sex, infernal state, anupurvi, ayus; 1-, 2-,3-, 4-sensed class of beings, 6th figure, 6th firmness of the joints, warm splendor, undeveloped, common, fine, immovable body.

 

udaya and udirana: unbelief, warm splendor, undeveloped, common, fine body.

 

sasvadana-samyagdrsti-gunasthana.

 

This gunasthana is only of very short duration ; it lasts in the minimum 1 samaya, in the maximum 6 avalikas. In it are beings who possessed aupasamika-samyaktva during the fraction of a muhurta, but who had lost it again on account of the breaking out of the life-long passions. It is therefore a state of quite short duration, which lies between a stage on which mithyatva was suppressed, and the mithyadrsti-gunasthana; after the laps of that time, the being sinks back into the 1st gunasthana.

 

cognition: mati-, sruta-ajnana, vibhanga-jnana; caksur- acaksur-darsana. activity : all except aharaka- and aharaka-misra-kaya- yoga.

lesyas : all 6.

belief : sasvadana-samyaktva.

conduct : avirati.

causes of bondage: 50, i.e. all 57 except the 5 mithyatvas and aharaka- and aharaka-misra-kaya-yoga.

bandha : 101 prakrtis, viz. the 117 of the previous gunasthana without the 16, cause of which is unbelief.

udaya and udirana: 111 prakrtis, viz. the 117 of the preceding gunasthana without the 5 mentioned at the end. Besides that, there is no udaya of the infernal anupurvi, because a sasvadana does not go to hell.

satta : 147, i.e. all except tirthakara.

 

 

Table of            bandha            udaya            satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      5                  5            5

2. darsanavarana      9                  4, 5            9

3. vedaniya            1                  1            2

4. mohaniya            21                  7f, 8f, 9d            28

5. ayus                  1                  1            1, 2

6. naman      28e, 29b, 30b            30 cdefg, 31 b                  92, 88

                                             21abcdf, 24a, 25f, 26def

                                                29nop, 30abcdefgk,

7. gotra            1                  1            1

8. antaraya      5                  5            5

 

Beyond this gunasthana, mixed belief has no more udaya and udirana.

 

 

Samyagmithyadrsti-gunasthana

 

The prominent property of this gunasthana, which only lasts during the fraction of a muhurta is indifference. This manifests itself chiefly in the attitude towardss belief; without love and hatred towards the doctrine of th Jina, the misra embraces mixed belief by mingling true and flse. If the time of the stay on this stage is over, the jiva attains, according to circumstances, the false or true belief.

 

cognition: Mati-, sruta-, avadhi-jnana; Mati-, sruta-ajnana; vibhanga-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-darsana, avadhi-darsasana.

activity: 4 man0-, 4 vag-, as well as audarika- and vaikriya-yoga.

leshya: akk 6.

conduct: avirati

belief: mixed belief.

cause of bondage: 43, i.e. all except mithyatvas, 4 anantanubandhins, audarik-misra-, vaikriya-misra-, aharak-, aharakmisra-, karmana-kaya-yoga.

bandh: 74 prakrits. From the 101 of the preceding gunasthana the 25 mentioned above are to be deducted. Besides that, the two still remaining ayus cannot be bound here, because the jiva cannot die on this stage, and because, also, a clear tendency of will which could be decisive for the binding of a certain ayus, is not existing.

udaya and udirana: 100 prakrits. From the 111 of the preceding gunasthana the 9 mentiones are deducted. Besides, there is no ealization of the the 3 still remaining anuourvis, because the jiva does not die here.Misra-samyaktva has udaya in this gunasthana, and must be added.

 

Table of            bandha            udaya            satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      5                  5            5

2. darsanavarana      6                  4, 5            9

3. vedaniya            1                  1            2

4. mohaniya            17                  7c, 8b, 9a            28, 27, 24

5. ayus                  0                  1            1

6. naman      28a, 29c,            30 cdefg, 31 b, 29nop            92, 88

7. gotra            1                  1            1

8. antaraya      5                  5            5

 

Beyond this gunasthana, mixed belief has no more udaya and udirna.

 

 

avirata-samyagdrsti-gunasthana.

To this gunasthana belong beings who possess the true belief and who therefore know what is good and evil and who believe renunciation worthy of being striven after, but who, on account of the realization of the apratyakhyanavarana-kasayas, are not capable of practicing self-control. They are either without sreni (sreni-rahita), or they ascend here the upasama- or ksapaka-sreni. The duration of this gunasthana, lasts in the minimum the fraction of a muhurta; in the maximum, 33 sagaropamas, or even more.

 

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity : all except aharaka- and aharaka-misra-kaya-yoga.

lesyas : all 6.

belief : ksayopasamika, aupasamika, or ksayika-samyaktva.

conduct : avirati.

cause of bondage: 46. To the 43 of the preceding gunasthana are to be added audarika-misra, vaikriya-misra, and karmana -kayayoga; because an avirata can die, and is active with his karman body on the way to his new birth.

bandha : 77 prakrtis. To the 74 of the preceding gunasthana are to be added tirthakara as well as human and celestial anupurvi, the former, because samyaktva, the cause of it, is existing; the latter, because death is possible here, and a sufficiently marked tendency of will is existing.

udaya and udirana: 104 prakrtis. From the 100 of the preceding gunasthana, mixed belief is to be deducted; the lower samyaktva and the 4 anupurvi however are to be added.

satta: in general 148. When the 4 anantanubandhins and the 3 darsana-mohaniyas are annihilated, 141.

 

Table of            bandha      udaya                  satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      5      5                  5

2. darsanavarana      6      4, 5                  9

3. vedaniya      1      1                  2

4. mohaniya      17      6c, 7d, 8c, 9b      28, 24, 21, 23, 22,

5. ayus            1      1                  1, 2

6. naman            28a, 29c,      21cd, 25cd, 26ef, 27bc,      92, 88, 93, 89

29d, 30c      28bcdef, 29cdefghi

30cdefg, 31b

21fg, 25fg, 27fg, 28klm

29 nop, 30k

21d, 25 d, 26f, 27c, 28de

                                         29ghi, 30 fg

21f, 25f, 27f, 28kl, 29no,

30k

                                         21g, 25g, 27g, 28m, 29p

7. gotra            1      1                  1, 2

8. antaraya      5      5                  5

 

Beyond this gunasthana the following prakrtis have no more bandha, or udaya and udirana.

 

bandha: 4 apratyakhyanavarana-kasayas; human state, anupurvi, ayus; 1st firmness of the joints, physical body and limbs.

 

udaya and udirana: 4 apratyakhyanavarana-kasayas, celestial and infernal state, anupurvi ayus; animal and human anupurvi; transformation-body and limbs, unsympathetic, unsuggestive, shame.

 

 

desavirata-samyagdrsti-gunasthana.

In this gunasthana partial self-control exist. The stay in it lasts in the minimum the fraction of a muhurta; in the maximum somewhat less than a purvakoti. The beings in this stage are either without sreni, or ascend the upasama- or ksapaka-sreni, or are on them.

 

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity: 11 yogas i.e. all except aharaka-, aharaka- misra, audarika-misra- and karmana-kaya-yoga.

lesyas : all 6.

belief : ksayopasamika, aupasamika or ksayika samyaktva.

conduct : partial self-control.

causes of bondage: 39, i.e. the 46 of the preceding gunasthana without the 4 apratyakhyanavarana-kasayas, audarika-misra- and karmana-kaya-yoga, as well as without the avirati, which refers to the injury done to beings with movable bodies.

bandha : 67, i.e. the 77 of the preceding gunasthana without those separated at the termination of it.

udaya and udirana: 87, i.e. the 104 of the preceding gunasthana without those separated at the termination of it.

satta : in general 148. When the 4 anantanubandhins and the 3 darsana-mohaniyas are annihilated, 141.

 

Table of            bandha      udaya                  satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      5      5                  5

2. darsanavarana      6      4, 5            9

3. vedaniya      1      1                  2

4. mohaniya      13      5b, 6b, 7b, 8a                  28, 24, 23, 22, 21

5. ayus            1      1                  1, 2

6. naman            28a, 29d      25cd, 27bc, 28cef, 29efhi,      92, 88, 89

                                          30cdefg, 31b

                                         25d, 27c, 28ef, 29hi, 30fg      

7. gotra            1      1                  1, 2

8. antaraya            5      5                  5

 

Beyond this gunasthana the following prakrtis have no more bandha and udaya or udirana.

 

bandha: the 4 pratyakhyanavarana-kasayas.

 

udaya and udirana: the 4 pratyakhyanavarana-kasayas, animal state and ayus; cold splendor, low family surroundings.

 

pramatta-samyata-gunasthana.

 

In this gunasthana complete self-control has been achieved, although this is disturbed through negligence (pramada), produced through realization of the flaming-up passions, of sleep, etc. The duration of the stay on this stage lasts in the minimum 1 samaya, in the maximum the fraction of a muhurta. If somebody dies after 1 samaya, he becomes an avirata; if he dies after the fraction of a muhurta, he becomes a desavirata. If the antarmuhurta, however, has passed without incident, the jiva goes into the apramatta-gunasthana, where he remains for the fraction of a muhurta, in order to return once more into the pramatta-gunasthana; then this operation begins anew. This wavering between the 6th and 7th gunasthana lasts in the maximum somewhat less than a purvakoti. This refers to the munis who have ascended no sreni; if the upasama- or ksapaka-sreni is ascended, or continued, such a wavering does not take place. cognition: mati-, sruta, avadhi-, manahparyaya-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

 

activity : 13 yogas, viz. 4 mano-, 4 vag-, as well as audarika-, vaikriya-, vaikriya-misra, aharaka- and aharaka - misra - kaya - yoga.

lesyas : all 6.

belief : ksayopasamika, aupasamika or ksayika-samyaktva.

conduct : samayika, chedopasthapana, pariharavisuddhi.

causes of bondage: 26, i.e. the 39 of the preceding gunasthana without the 4 pratyakhyanavarana-kasayas, and the 11 still remaining kinds of avirati; to be added are aharaka- and aharaka-misra-kayayoga, as here samyama is achieved.

bandha : 63 prakrtis, i.e. the 67 of the preceding gunasthana without the 4 pratyakhyanavarana-kasayas.

udaya and udirana : 81 prakrtis, i.e. 87 of the preceding gunasthana, without the 8 which reach their end there ; to be added are translocation-body and its limbs.

satta : in general 148; if the 3 disturbances of belief and the 4 life-long passions are annihilated, 141.

 

Table of            bandha      udaya                  satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      5      5                  5

2. darsanavarana      6      4, 5                  9

3. vedaniya      1      1                  2

4. mohaniya      9      4, 5a, 6a, 7a                  28, 24, 23, 22, 21

5. ayus            1      1                  1, 2

6. naman            28a, 29d      25de, 27cd, 28eg, 29h, 30f      92, 88, 93, 89

7. gotra            1      1                  1, 2

8. antaraya      5      5                  5

 

Beyond this gunasthana the following prakrtis have no bandha, udaya, or udirana.

 

bandha: asata-vedaniya, disliking, sorrow, flexible, unpleasant, shame.

 

udaya : the 3 worst kinds of unconsciousness; translocation-body and limbs.

 

udirana: the 3 worst kinds of unconsciousness, sata- and asata-vedaniya; translocation-body and limbs, human ayus.

 

apramatta-samyata-gunasthana.

 

In this gunasthana complete self-control without negligence is existing. It lasts 1 samaya till antarmuhurta. (For the details see the foregoing gunasthana).

 

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-, manahparyaya-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 11 yogas i.e. the 13 of the preceding gunasthana without vaikriya-misra-and aharaka-misra-kaya- yoga.

lesya : fiery, lotus-pink, white.

belief : ksayopasamika, aupasamika, ksayika samyaktva.

conduct : samayika, chedopasthapana, pariharavisuddhi.

causes of bondage: 24, i.e. 26 of the previous gunasthana without vaikriya-misra- and aharaka-misra-kaya-yoga.

bandha : 58(59) prakrtis. From the 63 of the preceding gunasthana those separated at its termination, eventually also the celestial ayus, are deducted. To be added are translocation-body and its limbs.

udaya : 76 prakrtis, i.e. the 81 of the preceding gunasthana without the 5 there separated.

udirana : 73, i.e. the 81 of the preceding gunasthana without the 8 there separated.

satta : generally 148, if the 3 disturbances of belief and the 4 life-long passions are annihilated, 141.

 

Table of            bandha            daya            satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      5            5                  5

2. darsanavarana      6            4, 5            9

3. vedaniya      1            1            2

4. mohaniya      9            4, 5a, 6a, 7a      28, 24, 23, 22, 21

5. ayus            1            1            1, 2

6. naman            28a, 29d, 30d, 31      29hikl, 30fgh      88, 89, 92., 93

7. gotra            1            1            1, 2

8. antaraya            5            5            5

 

Beyond this gunasthana the following prakrtis have no more bandha, udaya, udirana.

 

bandha: celestial ayus.

udaya and udirana: low true belief, the 3 worst firmness of the joints.

 

 

apurva-karana-gunasthana.

 

This gunasthana is, like the following, accessible only to one who is on a sreni. In it the process called apurva-karana is performed, which consists here of 5 single events (sthiti-ghata, rasa-ghata, guna-sreni, guna-samkrama, anya-sthiti-bandha). On this stage the jiva who is on the upasama-sreni remains in the minimum 1 samaya, in the maximum antarmuhurta; the one who is on the ksapaka-sreni altogether antarmuhurta.

 

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-, manahparyaya-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 9 yogas i.e. 4 mano-, 4 vag- and audarika- kaya-yoga.

lesya : white.

belief : aupasamika, ksayika-samyaktva.

conduct : samayika, chedopasthapana.

cause of bondage: 22, i.e. the 24 of the preceding gunasthana without aharaka- and vaikriya-kaya-yoga.

bandha : With regard to bandha, there are 7 divisions to be distinguished in this gunasthana. In the 1st division the 58 prakrtis of the apramatta are bound. In the following five, only 56, because the two light kinds of sleep have no longer bandha. In the last, seventh, only binding of 26 prakrtis exists ; the 30 prakrtis: celestial state and anupurvi, 5-sensed class of beings, pleasant gait, movable, gross, developed, individual body, firm, pleasant, sympathetic, melodious suggestive, transformation-body, translocation-body and their limbs, fiery body, karman body, 1st figure, formation, tirthakara, smell, taste, color, touch, "not light not heavy", self-annihilation, annihilation of others, breathing, are no longer bound beyond the 6th division.

 

udaya: 72 prakrtis, i.e. the 76 of the preceding gunasthana without the 4 separated at its termination.

 

udirana: 69 prakrtis, i.e. the 73 of the preceding gunasthana without the 4 separated at its termination.

 

satta : on the upasama-sreni 148, on the ksapaka-sreni 138, because the 4 anantanubandhins, the 3 disturbances of belief and celestial, animal and human ayus have disappeared.

 

 

Table of            bandha            udaya      satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      5                  5      5

2. darsanavarana

   (in the 1st part)      6                        4, 5 9

   (beginning from

    the 2nd part)      4                        4, 5 9

3. vedaniya      1                  1      2

4. mohaniya      9                        4, 5a, 6a      28, 24, 21

5. ayus      0                  1      1

6. naman      28 a, 29 d , 30 d, 31, 1            30 f      88, 89, 92, 93

7. gotra      1                  1      1, 2

8. antaraya      5                  5      5

 

Beyond this gunasthana the following prakrtis have no bandha, udaya, udirana:

bandha: joking, liking, fear, disgust.

udaya and udirana: joking, liking, disliking, sorrow, fear, disgust.

 

 

anivrtti-badara-samparaya-gunasthana.

 

In this gunasthana the one who is on the upasama or ksapaka-sreni performs the anivrtti-karana. The former remains here in the minimum 1 samaya, in the maximum, antarmuhurta; the latter antarmuhurta.

 

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-, manahparyaya-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 9 yogas, viz. 4 mano-, 4 vag-, as well as audarika-kaya-yoga.

lesya : white.

belief : aupasamika, ksayika samyaktva.

conduct : samayika, chedopasthapana.

causes of bondage: 16 i.e. the 22 of the preceding gunasthana without joking, liking, disliking, sorrow, fear, disgust.

bandha : 5 parts exist here. In the first, 22 prakrtis are bound, i.e. the 26 of the preceding gunasthana without the 4 separated at its termination. In the 2nd part the bandha of the male sex, in the 3rd that of the flaming-up anger, in the 4th that of flaming-up pride, in 5th that of flaming-up deceitfulness fall away, so that therefore in the last part of this gunasthana 18 prakrtis only can be bound.

udaya : 66 prakrtis, i.e. the 72 of the preceding gunasthana without the 6 separated there.

udirana : 63 prakrtis, i.e. the 69 of the preceding gunasthana without the 6 separated there.

satta : On the upasama-sreni 148. On the ksapaka-sreni the 9 parts are to be distinguished here. In the 1st part the 138 prakrtis of the preceding gunasthana exist. In the 2nd part 122, because the 3 worst kinds of unconsciousness, animal- and infernal state and anupurvi, 1-, 2-,3-, 4- sensed class of beings, immovable, fine, common body warm splendor, cold, luster are annihilated. In the 3rd part are 114, because the 4 apratyakhyanavarana-, and the 4 pratyakhyanavarana-kasayas fall away. In the following parts there are successively annihilated: third sex, female sex, then simultaneously joking, liking, disliking, sorrow, fear, then simultaneously joking, liking, disliking, sorrow, fear, disgust, then male sex, flaming-up anger, flaming-up pride. In the last moment of this gunasthana there are, therefore, 103 prakrtis in satta.

 

Table of            bandha udaya      satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      5            5      5

2. darsanavarana      4            4, 5 9, 6

3. vedaniya      1            1      2

4. mohaniya      5, 4, 3, 2, 1      2, 1      28, 24, 21, 13, 12, 11, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1

5. ayus      0            1      1

6. naman      1            30f            93,92,89,88;80c,79,76,75

7. gotra      1            1      1, 2

8. antaraya      5            5      5

 

Beyond this gunasthana the following prakrtis have no more bandha, udaya, udirana:

bandha: flaming-up greed.

udaya and udirana: all 3 sexes as well as flaming-up anger, pride, deceitfulness.

 

 

suksma-samparaya-gunasthana.

 

In this gunasthana passion still only occurs in the most subtle form in order to be then totally suppressed of annihilated. In lasts with the upasamaka 1 samaya in the minimum, antarmuhurta in the maximum; with the ksapaka antarmuhurta.

 

cognition: mati-, sruta-, avadhi-, manahparyaya-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 9 yogas, viz. 4 mano-, 4 vag- and audarika-kaya-yoga.

lesya : white.

belief : aupasamika or ksayika samyaktva.

conduct : suksmasamparaya.

causes of bondage : 10, i.e. 9 yogas and flaming-up greed.

bandha : 17 prakrtis, because the flaming-up greed is no longer bound beyond the preceding gunasthana.

udaya : 60 prakrtis, i.e. the 66 of the preceding gunasthana without the 6 separated when leaving it.

udirana : 57 prakrtis, i.e. the 63 of the preceding gunasthana without the 6 separated when leaving it.

satta : on the upasama-sreni 148 prakrtis; on the kspaka-sreni 102, because in the last moment of the preceding gunasthana the flaming-up deceitfulness has disappeared.

 

 

Table of            bandha      udaya      satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      5      5      5

2. darsanavarana      4      4, 5      9, 6

3. vedaniya      1      1      2

4. mohaniya      0      1            28,24,21 ; 1

5. ayus                  0      1      1

6. naman            1      30f            93,92,89,88 ; 80c,79,76,75

7. gotra            1      1      1, 2

8. antaraya      5      5      5

 

Beyond this gunasthana the following prakrtis have no more bandha, udaya, udirana:

bandha: 5 veilings of knowledge, 4 veilings of undifferentiated cognition, fame, high family surroundings, 5 hindrances.

udaya and udirana: flaming-up greed.

 

upasanta-kasaya-vitaraga-chadmastha-gunasthana.

 

This gunasthana is the highest stage which can be reached on the upasama-sreni. It lasts in the minimum 1 samaya, in the maximum antarmuhurta. When it ends, the jiva falls down from the upasam-sreni and comes into one of the lower gunasthanas.

 

cognition : mati-, sruta-, avadhi-, manahparyaya-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 9 yogas, viz. 4 mano-, 4 vag- and audarika-kaya-yoga.

lesya : white.

belief : aupasamika samyaktva.

conduct : yathakhyata.

cause of bondage : 9 yogas.

bandha : 1 prakrti, sata-vedaniya, as all the others are extinguished.

udaya : 59 prakrtis, i.e. the 60 of the preceding gunasthana without flaming-up greed.

udirana : 56 prakrtis, i.e. the 57 of the preceding gunasthana without flaming-up greed.

satta : 148 prakrtis.

 

 

Table of            bandha      udaya      satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      0      5      5

2. darsanavarana      0      4, 5 9

3. vedaniya      1      1      2

4. mohaniya      0      0      28, 24, 21

5. ayus            0      1      1

6. naman            0      30f      93, 92, 89, 88

7. gotra            0      1      1, 2

8. antaraya            0      5      5

 

 

ksina-kasaya-vitaraga-chadmastha-gunasthana.

 

When in the last samaya of the suksmasamparaya-gunasthana the last particle of greed has been annihilated, the jiva who is on the ksapaka-sreni has become a ksina-kasaya. On this stage he remains antarmuhurta, and then becomes omniscient.

 

cognition : mati-, sruta-, avadhi-, manahparyaya-jnana; caksur-, acaksur-, avadhi-darsana.

activity : 9 yogas, viz. 4 mano-, 4 vag- and audarika-kaya-yoga.

lesya : white.

belief : ksayika samyaktva.

conduct : yathakhyata.

cause of bondage: 9 yogas.

bandha : 1 prakrti, viz. sata-vedaniya.

udaya : Here in the beginning are 57 prakrtis in udaya, i.e. the 60 of the suksmasamparaya without flaming-up greed and the 2nd and 3rd firmness of the joints. In the penultimate samaya ends the udaya of the two first kinds of sleep, so that then only 55 prakrtis are realized.

udirana : 54, or 52 prakrtis.

satta : at first 101 prakrtis, i.e. the 102 of the suksmasamparaya without flaming-up greed. In the penultimate samaya the two first kinds of sleep are eliminated, so that only 99 prakrtis are in existence.

 

Table of            bandha      udaya      satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      0            5      5

2. darsanavarana      0            4      6, 4

3. vedaniya      1            1      2

4. mohaniya      0            0      0

5. ayus                  0            1      1

6. naman      0            30f      80c, 79, 76, 75

7. gotra            0            1      1, 2

8. antaraya      0            5      5

 

In the last samaya of this gunasthana, udaya and satta of the 5 veilings of knowledge, of the 4 veilings of undifferentiated cognition and of the 5 hindrances disappear.

 

 

sayogi-kevali-gunasthana.

 

When the karman restricting the knowledge, the undifferentiated cognition and the power of the jiva has disappeared, man becomes a sayogi-kevalin. He knows everything, and he can do everything. He still possesses a body and certain activity conditional upon matter, the formerly-bound karmans are still realizing themselves, but as soon as his ayus is exhausted he annihilates these also in order to be released. The sayogi-state lasts in the minimum antarmuhurta, in the maximum somewhat less than a purvakoti.

 

cognition: kevala-jnana, kevala-darsana.

activity: 7 yogas: audarika-, audarika-misra, karmana-kaya-yoga; satya and asatyamrsa mano- and vag-yoga.

lesya : white.

belief : ksayika samyaktva.

conduct : yathakhyata.

causes of bondage: 7 yogas.

bandha : 1 prakrti (sata-vedaniya).

udaya : 41 prakrtis, i.e. the 55 of the preceding gunasthana without the 14 separated in the last samaya. If the rare case occurs that somebody has bound in his former existences the tirthakara-nama-karman, this latter here comes to realization. In that case 42 prakrtis have here udaya.

 

Table of            bandha            udaya                  satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      0      0                  0

2. darsanavarana      0      0                  0

3. vedaniya      1      1                  2

4. mohaniya      0      0                  0

5. ayus                  0      1                  1

6. naman      0            20, 26g, 28I, 29m, 30I,      80c, 79, 76, 75

21e, 27e, 31c      

 7. gotra      0      1                  1, 2

8. antaraya      0      0                  0

 

When the time that the kevalin had to pass in this state has elapsed, the prepares himself for salvation. For this purpose he has to annihilate the still remaining karmans. If the sthiti of vedaniya, naman and gotra is longer than that of his ayus, he must at first equalize these karmans. This is effected by the process called samudghata. When this process is finished, he sinks into deep meditation and stops the yogas. He brings first the grosser activity of manas, speech and body to a standstill, then the finer one. He has thereby no more yoga nor lesya, and enters into the last gunasthana, that of an ayogi-kevalin.

 

In the last samaya of the 13th gunasthana he terminates the binding of karman ; for how could he convey fresh matter to the soul if the last remaining causes of bandha, the yogas are annihilated !

 

Simultaneously, udaya, and udirana of the following 30 prakrtis disappear:

 

1. vedaniya (sata or asata), physical body and limbs, fiery and karman body, 6 figures, 1st firmness of the joints, pleasant and unpleasant gait, firm and flexible, pleasant and unpleasant, melodious and ill-sounding, individual body, "not light not heavy", color, smell, taste, touch, self-annihilation, annihilation of others, breathing and formation.

 

 

ayogi-kevali-gunasthana.

 

This last and highest gunasthana is a transitory state, which lasts only the fraction of a muhurta and leads to the complete liberation from karman.

 

cognition: kevala-jnana, kevala-darsana.

activity : none.

lesya : none.

belief : ksayika samyaktva.

conduct : yathakhyata.

cause of bondage: none, therefor no bandha.

udaya : 12 prakrtis, i.e. the 42 of the preceding gunasthana without the 30 separated there in the last samaya.

udirana : none, because the premature realization is conditional upon a certain activity.

satta : 85 prakrtis.

 

Table of            bandha      udaya      satta of k.s

1. jnanavarana      0            0      0

2. darsanavarana      0            0      0

3. vedaniya      0            1      2

4. mohaniya      0            0      0

5. ayus      0            1      1

6. naman      0            8, 9      79, 75, 80c, 76

7. gotra      0            1      2

8. antaraya      0            0      0

 

With the complete disappearance of every yoga, the kevalin has entered the sailesi-state which only lasts as long, as is necessary to pronounce 5 short syllables. Absorbed in pure meditation, he annihilates, through gunasreni the last remaining karman. He extirpates in the penultimate samaya the satta-k. of one of the two vedaniya, of celestial state of existence and anupurvi, human anupurvi, pleasant and unpleasant gait, 2 smells, 8 touches, 5 colors, 5 states, 5 bodies, 3 limbs, 5 bindings, 5 samghatanas, 6 figures, 6 firmness of the joints, formation; firm and movable, pleasant and unpleasant, melodious and ill-sounding, unsympathetic, shame, "not light not heavy", self-annihilation, annihilation of others, breathing, unsuggestive, undeveloped, individual body, high family surroundings.

 

In the last samaya, udaya and satta of the two other vedaniya, of human state and ayus, 5-sensed class of beings, movable, gross, developed, sympathetic, suggestive, fame, tirthakara and high family surroundings end.

 

With the disappearance of this karman the jiva is free of all karman; there is no more matter in him, he is released.

 

Note to the Tables of bandha, udaya, satta of the Karmans.

 

These tables do not intend to give an exhaustive enumeration of all combinations which are possible in a jiva- or gunasthana ; they are only intended to afford an approximate survey of the distribution of the karmans, without claiming absolute exactitude and completeness. It would be a thankful task for an Indian Jain scholar to draw up in all its details an exact list of the karmans in the different jiva- and gunasthanas, and to remove or to explain the many contradictions in the karman-texts, I have not been able to solve-myself.