THE KARMAN IN THEIR RELATION TO THE SOUL AND TO ONE ANOTHER


 

Bandha, udaya, satta

Udirana

Apavartana and Udvartana

Samkrama

 

 

BANDHA, UDAYA, SATTA.

(Kg. II, 127b seq., Ps. 1223 seq.)

 

Bandha "bondage" is called the assimilation of the matter penetrated into the jiva in the form of certain karman-species. (abhinava-kammaggahanam bandho, Kg. I, 63a; bandho nama karmaparamanunam atmapradesaih saha vahnyayahpindavad anyo'nyanugamah Kg. II, 115b).

 

Udaya "realization" is the becoming manifest of the effects of the karman in due time. (karmapudgalanam yathasvasthitibaddhanam udayasamayapraptanam yad vipakena-'nubhavanena vedanam sa udaya ucyate Kg. I, 69a; karmaparamanunam eva vipakapraptanam anubhavanam udayah Kg. II, 115b).

 

Satta is the existing in potentia of the karmans, from the moment of the assimilation to the moment of the realization or some other elimination. (satta kammana thii bandhailaddhattalabhanam Kg. I, 75a; bandhasamayat samkramena-'tmalabhasamayad va arabhya yavat te karmaparamanavo na-nyatra samkramyante, yavad va na ksayam upagacchanti tavat tesam svasvarupena yah sadbhavah sa satta Kg. II, 115b).

 

 

In the following I give a summary of the bandha- udaya- and satta-sthanas of the 8 karman-species, i.e. to show which uttara-prakrtis of a mula-prakrti exist side by side in bandha, or udaya or satta. The aim of these explanations is two-fold. Firstly, the understanding of the effect of the different karma-prakrtis is essentially promoted, and, secondly, through this procedure I am capable considerably to curtail what is to be said later on concerning the jivasthanas and gunasthanas. The different counting of the karmans in bandha, udaya and satta has already been pointed out.

 

Jnana-avarana.

 

All 5 uttara-prakrtis are always simultaneously bound. It is therefore not possible to bind only one or two of the veilings of knowledge, but, as long as the mula-prakrti can altogether be bound, the 5 uttara-prakrtis of them must be bound. All 5 species are likewise always jointly existing in udaya as well as in satta. II.

 

Darsana-avarana.

Three combinations are possible with bandha and satta, namely:

9 uttara-prakrtis, i.e., all kinds of veiling of undifferentiated cognition.

6 (i.e.) the preceding ones without nidranidra, pracalapracala and styanardhi.

4 (i.e.) the preceding ones without nidra and pracala, that is to say, the 4 proper veilings of undifferentiated cognition alone, without the different species of unconsciousness.

 

Two combinations are, however, only possible at udaya, namely:

 

4 uttara-prakrtis, i.e. the above-mentioned proper veilings of undifferentiated cognition.

5. (i.e.) the former and one of the 5 kinds of unconsciousness of the physio-psychological conditions of sleep, intensive sleep etc. More than one cannot realize itself at one time.

 

Vedaniya.

Sata and asata exclude one another; only one of them, therefore, can be bound, and only one of them can realize itself. In satta, however, both of them exist until such time as one of them is annihilated (in the penultimate samaya of the 14th gunasthana).

 

Mohaniya.

Ten combinations are possible at bandha, namely:

1 uttara-prakrti = flaming-up greed.

2 = flaming-up greed + deceitfulness.

3 = flaming-up greed + deceitfulness + pride.

4 = flaming-up greed + deceitfulness + pride + anger.

5 = 4 flaming-up passions + male sex.

9 = 4 flaming-up passions + male sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.

13 = 4 flaming-up + 4 pratyakhyanavarana passions + male sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.

17 = flaming-up + 4 pratyakhyanavarana + 4 apratyakhyan-avarana passions + male sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.

21 = 16 passions + male (female) sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.

22 = unbelief + 16 passions + male (female or third) sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow) + fear + disgust.

 

Nine combinations are possible in udaya:

1 uttaraprakrti = flaming-up anger (pride, deceitfulness, greed).

2 = flaming-up anger (pride, deceitfulness, greed) + male (female, third) sex.

4 = flaming-up anger (pride, deceitfulness, greed) + male (female, third) sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow).

5a = 4 + fear (disgust or samyaktva).

5b = flaming-up + pratyakhyanavarana anger (pride, deceitfulness, greed) + male (female, third) sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow).

6a = 4 + fear + disgust (fear + samyaktva or disgust + samyaktva).

6b = 5b + fear (disgust or samyaktva).

6c = flaming-up + pratyakhyanavarana + apratyakhyanavarana anger (pride, deceitfulness, greed) + male (female, third) sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow).

7a = 4 + fear + disgust + samyaktva.

7b = 5b + fear + disgust (fear + samyaktva or disgust + samyaktva).

7c = 6c + mixed belief.

7d = 6c + fear (disgust or samyaktva).

7e = 6c + unbelief.

7f = flaming-up + pratyakhyanavarana + apratyakhyanavarana + anantanubandhi anger (pride, deceitfulness, greed) + male (female, third) sex + joking and liking (disliking and sorrow).

8a = 5b + fear + disgust + samyaktva.

8b = 6c + fear (disgust) + mixed belief.

8c = 6c + fear + disgust (samyaktva).

8d = 6c + fear (disgust) + unbelief.

8e = 7f + unbelief.

8f = 7f + fear (disgust).

9a = 6c + fear + disgust + mixed belief.

9b = 6c + fear + disgust + samyaktva. 9c = 6c + fear + disgust + unbelief.

9d = 7f + fear + disgust.

9e = 7f + fear (disgust) + unbelief.

10 = 7f + fear + disgust + unbelief.

 

Fifteen combinations are possible in satta:

28 = all uttaraprakrtis.

27 = all, except the lower belief (samyaktva).

26 = the preceding, except mixed belief.

24 = all except the 4 passions of life-long duration.

23 = the preceding except unbelief.

22 = the preceding except mixed belief.

21 = the preceding except the lower belief.

13 = the preceding except the apratyakhyanavarana and pratyakhyanavarana passions.

12 = the preceding except third sex.

11 = the preceding except female sex.

5 = the preceding except the 6 non-passions.

4 = the preceding except male sex.

3 = the preceding except flaming-up anger.

2 = the preceding except flaming-up pride.

1 = the preceding except flaming-up deceitfulness.

 

Ayus.

As the 4 kinds of ayus are in opposition to one another, only one ayus can be bound at a time, only one ayus can realize itself at a time. In satta however, 2 ayus can be in existence; namely, at the time when the ayus of the next existence is already bound but that of the present one has not yet completely expired.

 

Naman.

In bandha the following 9 prakrtis are always in existence (dhruva):

Fiery and karman body, color, odor, taste, touch, not-light-not-heavy, self-annihilation, formation.

 

There are 8 combinations:

23 uttaraprakrtis for undeveloped 1-sensed beings) = animal state of existence and anupurvi + a sense + physical body + 6th figure + immovable + fine (gross) + undeveloped + individual (common) body + flexible + ugly + unsympathetic + unsuggestive + shame + 9 dhruvas.

 

25a (for developed 1-sensed beings) = animal state of existence and anupurvi + 1 sense + physical body + 6th figure + annihilation of others + breathing + immovable + gross (fine) + developed + individual (common) body + firm (flexible) + beautiful (ugly) + unsympathetic + unsuggestive + fame (shame) + 9 dhruvas.

 

25b (for undeveloped 2-,3-,4-,5- sensed animals) = animal state of existence and anupurvi + 2 (3,4,5) senses + physical body and limbs + 6th figure + 6th firmness + movable + gross + undeveloped + individual body + flexible + ugly + unsympathetic + unsuggestive + shame + 9 dhruvas.

 

25c (for undeveloped human beings) = 25b, but human state of existence and anupurvi + 5 senses.

 

26 (for developed 1 -sensed animals) = animal state of existence and anupurvi + 1 sense + physical body + 6th figure + annihilation of others + breathing + immovable + warm splendor (cold luster) + gross + developed + individual body + firm (flexible) + beautiful (ugly) + unsympathetic + suggestive + fame (shame) + 9 dhruvas.

 

28a (for gods) = celestial state of existence and anupurvi + 5 senses + transformation-body and limbs + 1st figure + annihilation of others + breathing + pleasant gait + movable + gross + developed + individual body + firm (flexible) + beautiful (ugly) + sympathetic + melodious + suggestive + fame (shame) + 9 dhruvas.

 

28b (for infernal beings) = infernal state of existence and anupurvi + 5 senses + transformation-body and limbs + 6th figure + annihilation of others + breathing + unpleasant gait + movable + gross + developed + individual body + flexible + ugly + unsympathetic + ill-sounding + unsuggestive + shame + 9 dhruvas.

 

29a (for 2-,3-,4- sensed animals) = animal state and anupurvi + 2(3,4) senses + physical body and limbs + 6th figure + 6th firmness + annihilation of others + breathing + unpleasant gait + movable + gross + developed + individual body + firm (flexible) + beautiful (ugly) + ill-sounding + unsympathetic + unsuggestive + fame (shame) + 9 dhruvas.

 

29b (for 5-sensed animals) = animal state and anupurvi + 5 senses + physical body and limbs + 1st-6th figure + 1st-6th firmness + annihilation of others + breathing + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + movable + gross + developed + individual body + firm (flexible) + beautiful (ugly) + sympathetic (unsympathetic) + melodious (ill-sounding) + suggestive (unsuggestive) + fame (shame) + 9 dhruvas.

 

29c (for human beings) = 29b with human state as anupurvi.

 

29d (for gods) = 28a + tirthakara.

 

30a (for 2,-3,-4 sensed animals) = 29a + cold luster.

 

30b (for 5-sensed animals) = 29b + cold luster.

 

30c (for human beings) = 29c + tirthakara.

 

30d (for gods) = celestial state and anupurvi + 5 senses + transformation-body and limbs + translocation-body and limbs + 1st figure + annihilation of others + breathing + pleasant gait + movable + gross + developed + individual body + beautiful + firm + sympathetic + suggestive + melodious + fame + 9 dhruvas.

 

31 (for gods) = 30d + tirthakara.

 

1 (bound only by persons in a high state of spiritual development) = fame.

 

In udaya 12 combinations are possible.

The following 12 prakrtis are "dhruvas", i.e. they always exist: fiery and karman bodies. "not light nor heavy", firm and flexible, beautiful and ugly, color, odor, taste, touch, formation.

 

It is distinguished between the realization of the karman during apantarala-gati (i.e. during the time between the new and the old incarnation) and the realization of the karman in the incarnated state.

 

20 uttara-prakrtis (with kevalins) = human state + 5 senses + movable + gross + developed + sympathetic + suggestive + fame + 12 dhruvas.

 

21a (with 1-sensed animals in apantarala-gati) = animal state and anupurvi + 1 sense + immovable + gross (fine) + developed (undeveloped) + unsympathetic + unsuggestive + fame (shame) + 12 dhruvas.

 

21b (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals in apantarala-gati) = animal state and anupurvi + 2(3,4) senses + movable + gross + developed (undeveloped) + unsympathetic + unsuggestive + fame (shame) + 12 dhruvas.

 

21c (with 5-sensed animals in apantarala-gati) = animal state and anupurvi + 5 senses + movable + gross + developed (undeveloped) + sympathetic (unsympathetic) + suggestive (unsuggestive) + fame (shame) + 12 dhruvas.

 

21d (with human beings in apantarala-gati) = 21c with human state and anupurvi.

 

21e (with kevalins) = 20 + tirthakara.

 

21f (with gods in apantarala-gati) = 21c with celestial state and anupurvi, only developed.

 

21g (with infernal beings in apantarala-gati) = infernal state and anupurvi + 5 senses + movable + gross + developed + unsympathetic + unsuggestive + shame + 12 dhruvas.

 

24a (with incarnated 1-sensed animals) = animal state + 1 sense + common (individual) body + gross (fine) + developed (undeveloped) + unsympathetic + unsuggestive + fame (shame) + immovable + 6th figure + physical body + self-annihilation + 12 dhruvas.

 

24b (with aerial beings) = 24a, but transformation-body, gross, developed, shame.

 

25a (with developed 1-sensed animals) = 24a + annihilation of others.

 

25b (with gross aerial beings) = 24b + annihilation of others.

 

25c (with 5-sensed animals, capable of transformation) = animal state + 5 senses + movable + gross + developed + sympathetic (unsympathetic) + suggestive (unsuggestive) + fame (shame) + transformation-body and limbs + 1st figure + self-annihilation + individual body + 12 dhruvas.

 

25d (with human beings, capable of transformation) = 25c with human state.

 

25e (with human beings with translocation-body) = human state + 5 senses + translocation-body and limbs + 1st figure + self-annihilation + individual body + movable + gross + developed + sympathetic + suggestive + fame + 12 dhruvas.

 

25f (with gods) = 25c with celestial state.

 

25g (with infernal beings) = infernal state + 5 senses + movable + gross + developed + unsympathetic + unsuggestive + shame + transformation-body and limbs + 6th figure + self-annihilation + individual body + 12 dhruvas.

 

26a (with 1-sensed animals) = 24a + annihilation of others + breathing.

 

26b (with 1-sensed animals) = 24a + annihilation of others + warm splendor (cold luster).

 

26c (with aerial animals) = 24b + annihilation of others + breathing.

 

26d (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals) = animal state + 2 (3,4) senses + movable + gross + developed (undeveloped) + unsympathetic + unsuggestive + fame (shame) + physical body and limbs + 6th figure + 6th firmness + self-annihilation + individual body + 12 dhruvas.

 

26e (with 5-sensed animals) = animal state + 5 senses + movable + gross + developed (undeveloped) + sympathetic (unsympathetic) + suggestive (unsuggestive) + fame (shame) + physical body and limbs + 1st-6th firmness + self-annihilation + individual body + 12 dhruvas.

 

26f (with human beings) = 26e, but human state.

 

26g (with kevalins) = human state + 5 senses + movable + gross + developed + sympathetic + suggestive + fame + physical body and limbs + 1st-6th figure + 1st firmness + self-annihilation + individual body + 12 dhruvas.

 

27a (with 1-sensed animals) = 24a + annihilation of others + breathing + warm splendor (cold luster).

 

27b (with 5-sensed animals capable of transformation) = 25c + annihilation of others + pleasant gait.

 

27c (with human beings capable of transformation) = 25d + annihilation of others + pleasant gait.

 

27d (with human beings with translocation-body) = 25e + annihilation of others + pleasant gait.

 

27e (with kevalins) = 26g + tirthakara.

 

27f (with gods) = 25f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait.

 

27g (with infernal beings) = 25g + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait.

 

28a (with 2,-3,-4,-sensed animals) = 26d + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait; only developed.

 

28b (with 5-sensed animals) = 26e + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait.

 

28c (with 5-sensed animals capable of transformation) = 25c + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing.

 

28d (with human beings) = 26f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait.

 

28e (with human beings capable of transformation) = 25d + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing.

 

28f (with human beings capable of transformation) = 25d annihilation of others + pleasant gait + cold luster.

 

28g (with human beings with translocation-bodies) = 25e + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing.

 

28h (with human beings with translocation-bodies) = 25e + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + cold luster.

 

28i (with kevalins) = 26g + annihilation of others + pleasant gait.*

28k (with gods) = 25f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing.

 

28l (with gods) = 25f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + cold luster.

 

28m (with infernal beings) = 25g + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing.

 

29a (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals) = 26d + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing.

 

29b (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals) = 26d + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + cold luster.

 

29c (with 5-sensed animals) = 26e + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + breathing.

 

29d (with 5-sensed animals) = 26e + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + cold luster.

 

29e (with 5-sensed animals capable of transformation) = 25c + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + melodious.

 

29f (with 5-sensed animals capable of transformation) = 25c + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + cold luster.

 

29g (with human beings) = 29c with human state.

 

29h (with human beings capable of transformation) = 29e with human state.

 

29i (with human beings capable of transformation) = 29f with human state.

 

29k (with human beings with translocation-bodies) = 25e + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + melodious.

 

29l (with human beings with translocation-bodies) = 25e + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + cold luster + breathing.

 

29m (with kevalins) = 26g + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + breathing.

 

29n (with gods) = 25f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + cold luster.

 

29o (with gods) = 25f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + cold luster + melodious.

 

29p (with infernal beings) = 25g + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing + ill-sounding.

 

30a (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals) = 26d + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing + melodious (ill-sounding).

 

30b (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals) = 26d + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing + cold luster.

 

30c (with 5-sensed animals) = 26e + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + breathing + melodious (ill-sounding).

 

30d (with, 5-sensed animals) = 26e + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + cold luster + melodious (ill-sounding).

 

30e (with 5-sensed animals capable of transformation) = 25c + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + melodious + cold luster.

 

30f (with human beings) = 30c with human state.

 

30g (with human beings capable of transformation) = 30e with human state.

 

30h (with human beings with translocation-bodies) = 25e + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + melodious + cold luster.

 

30i (with kevalins) = 26g + annihilation of others + breathing + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + melodious (ill-sounding).

 

30k (with gods) = 25f + annihilation of others + pleasant gait + breathing + melodious (ill-sounding) + cold luster.

 

31a (with 2,-3,-4-sensed animals) = 26d + annihilation of others + unpleasant gait + breathing + melodious (ill-sounding) + cold luster.

 

31b (with 5-sensed animals) = 26e + annihilation of others + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + breathing + melodious (ill-sounding) + cold luster.

 

31c (with kevalins) =26g + annihilation of others + breathing + pleasant (unpleasant) gait + melodious (ill-sounding) + tirthakara.

 

8 (with kevalins) = human state + 5 senses + movable + gross + developed + sympathetic + suggestive + fame.

 

9 (with kevalins) = 8 + tirthakara.

 

In satta the following combinations are possible:

93 uttaraprakrtis, all.

 

92 = 93 - tirthakara.

 

89 = 93 - physical body and limbs, binding and samghatana.

 

88 = 89 - tirthakara.

 

86a = 88 - infernal state and anupurvi.

 

86b = 88 - celestial state and anupurvi.

 

80a = 86a - celestial state and anupurvi, transformation-body and limbs, binding, samghatana.

 

80b = 86b - infernal state and anupurvi, transformation-body and limbs, binding, samghatana.

 

*80c = 93 - infernal state and anupurvi, animal state and anupurvi, 1-2-3-4 senses, immovable, warm splendor, cold luster, fine, common body.

 

*79 = 80c - tirthakara.

 

78a = 80a - human state and anupurvi.

 

78b = 80c - human state and anupurvi.

 

*76 = 80c - physical body and limbs, binding, samghatana.

 

*75 = 79 - physical body and limbs, binding, samghatana.

 

*9 = human state + 5 senses + movable + gross + developed + sympathetic + suggestive + fame + tirthakara.

 

*8 = 9 - tirthakara.

 

VII. Gotra.

 

Never more than one of the 2 uttara-prakrtis can be bound; only one can realize itself. In satta however both can exist.

 

Antaraya.

All 5 kinds are always associated with one another in bandha, in udaya, in satta.

 

A summary (samvedha) of the simultaneously appearing bandha-, udaya- and satta- combination of every mula-prakrti will be given later, with the separate jiva-sthanas and gunasthanas, where also a table of the simultaneous occurrence of the mula-prakrtis will be found.

 

UDIRANA

Kg. I, 69a II 194b ; Kp. 122a seq; Ps. 1060 seq.

 

Udirana "premature realization" is the premature becoming manifest of the effect of the karman. (Karmapudgalanan yathasvasthitibaddhanam yad apraptakale vedanam udirana bhanyate Kg I 69a). The premature realization is caused by the yoga, regardless as to whether it (the yoga) is with or without kasayas. It can, in general, always occur where udaya takes place, yet there must remain more than one avalika of the sthiti of the karman which has to be realized prematurely; if there is only one avalika left, only udaya and not udirana is possible. More will be said on the most important differentialities in the occurrence of udaya and udirana in the discussion of the gunasthanas.

 

APAVARTANA AND UDVARTANA.

Ps. 1041 et seq., KP. 116a seq., Tattv. II 52.

 

The time during which a karman works, and the intensity with which it manifests itself, is definite. But every karman can increase or decrease its effect. The increased realization is called "apavartana", the decreased realization "udvartana". sthiyanubhagayorbrhatkaranam udvartana, tayor eve hrasvikaranam apavartana" (Kp 2a). The most important apavartana is that of ayus, which has already been mentioned. Such an increased realization of the ayus-karman is, however, not possible with all beings; with celestial and infernal beings, with human beings in their last existence, with tirthakaras, cakravartins, ardhacakravartins, as well as with men and animals whose ayus lasts innumerable years, it is not possible.

 

SAMKRAMA.

Ps. 890 et seq., KP. 68 b et seq., cf. Tattv. VIII 22c.

 

Under certain circumstances a karman-species can realize itself as another one, whether this is itself bound or not. Thus, e.g., a bound mati-jnanavarana-k can manifest itself as a likewise bound sruta-jnanavarana-k or "bound uccairgotra-k as a nicair-gotra-k even when the latter has not been bound. This transformation of one karman into another is called samkrama. "samkrama prakrtisthityanubhagapradesanam anyakarmarupataya sthitanam anyakarmasvarupena vyavasthapanam" (KP 2a). It can only take place between the uttara-prakrtis of a mula-prakrti, not between different mula-prakrtis. It is not possible between 4 ayus and between darsana-mohaniya and caritra-mohaniya nor between the different kinds of darsana-mohaniya-k.