One who is at the ascending stage of his spiritual development has acquired vipulamati, while one who is sure to descend in the spiritual scale gets rjumati manahparyaya. However, telepathic experience is itself possible only for those who have the right attitude, who are free from passions and possessed of rddhi. “It seems that the development of conception of matahparyaya stopped with Pujyapada on one side and Jinabhadra on the other. The later Jaina thinkers only took sides with one or the other, but did not make any further development.”

          We have seen that, in the West, interest in extra-sensory perception is increasing. It is being investigated on an experimental basis since the establishment of the Society for Psychical Research. Philosophers, psychologists and other scientists have been taking interest in the problem. Prof. Oliver Lodge carried out experiments on telepathy  when he was a Professor of Physics. Some of the Universities in the West have been taking up the study of the problem. Duke University is foremost in this respect. At present, the phenomena of extra-sensory perception, like clairvoyance, telepathy, precognition and mediumship have been accepted as facts, Even psychologists like McDougall are inclined to believe that extra-sensory perception, like clairvoyance, telepathy and foreknowledge, seems also in a fair way established. Even critical investigators, like Lehman, admit the existence of genuine telepathy. Dr. Mitchell says that telepathy or some mode of acquiring knowledge which for the present we may call supernormal must be admitted, because if we refuse to accept telepathy we stand ‘helpless’ in the face of well-attested phenomena which could not otherwise be accounted for. Prof. H. H. Price is of opinion that evidence for clairvoyance and telepathy is ‘abundant and good.’ Prof. Richet admits that telepathic experiences certainly exist.  Dr. Rhine, who has done good work on extra-sensory perception, says that extra-sensory perception in the form of clairvoyance and telepathy is an actual and demonstrable occurrence. It is not a sensory phenomenon. Prof. Myres cites many instances of telepathic intuition. He mentions the publication called Apparitions, which gives many instances. However, Myres says that the evidence for telepathy does not rest entirely on instances of such description. Other sources of evidence of the existence of telepathy are possible to any one who has not a ‘strong apriori objection to it.

          Several theories have been presented to explain the phenomenon of extra-sensory perception. Some scientists have explained telepathy in terms of physical radiation. It is sometimes said that telepathy is an experience in which an idea present in the conscious mind of A is transferred to the conscious mind of B by some process resembling that of radio-telepathy. Dr. Tuckett says that admission of telepathy means nothing more than believing in the existence of vibrations in ether resulting from and acting on nervous matter. Similarly, Prof. Ostwald has proposed a physical theory of telepathy. He says that a transpiration of known psycho-physical energies into unknown forms is projected through time and space and and is received by the percipient. But scientists like Myres, Tyrrell, Barrette and Mrs. Sidgwick show that such a physical theory of telepathy is not adequate. Telepathy is more a psychological fact than a physical phenomenon. Tyrrell shows that the physical theory of telepathy does not work. He has given his own explanation of telepathic experiences on the basis of Myers explanation. He bases his own explanation on the assumption of the Subliminal self. In telepathy, a signal is made to the conscious by the subliminal self of the percipient, which may take the form of a sensory hallucination or some other form. The importance of telepathy lies in the fact that it reveals the subliminal portion of the human personality at work.  Similarly, more comprehensive theories that embrace clairvoyance and telepathy have been mentioned by Rhine. He, however, says that evidence for E. S. P. is good but the theories are bad.s Flew has mentioned two current theories of telepathy: Carrington’s theory, and the Shin theory put forward by Thouless and Weisner. But there is a strong case for saying that the research situation is not right for theory construction’. However inadequate may be the explanations given by the various theories mentioned above, psychical phenomena like clairvoyance and telepathy are at present established facts. Few deny the existence of such phenomena; and the question whether such phenomena contradict an established law of nature, like the law of causation, is irrelevant. ‘The apparent contradiction arises because we have decided that anything which happens at all must happen in the world order with which we are familiar’. Similarly, we labour under the impression that all that is known is known through the sense organs. But, once the idea has been grasped that the organs of sense perception are narrowly specialized to serve biological and practical ends; that our normal consciousness is also specialized and largely focussed on consciousness; that our body is highly specialized; that, in fact, as a psycho-physical being the human individual represents a special adaptation to the sensory world, it becomes easier to contemplate an elsewhere’, that is to say, a continuation of the order of existence beyond the familiar. The psychical phenomena of extra-sensory perception seem to contradict the law of causation, because we have been accustomed to take cause in a narrow and traditional sense. The trouble comes from using a concept of cause which has not been adapted to cope with psi. Russell’s suggestion of mnemic causation shows how we might adopt the concept cause’. We might invent a ‘psi-causation’.

          However, the Western analysis of extra-sensory perception like clairvoyance, telepathy, foreknowledge and mediumship shows that they are experiences possible for man, for some men for all time and perhaps for all men for some time. Western scientists make these phenomena paranormal and extra-sensory occurrences. A superstructure of experimental investigation is being built for explaining these occurrences in mail. Western scientists prefer to speak of extra-sensory perception rather than supernormal perception, which we have mentioned with reference to the Indian view of such experiences. Rhine says that extra-sensory’ perception is preferable to supernormal perception’ because of the ambiguity of the term supernormal in psychology. But the Jaina analysis of avadhi and martahparyaya shows that avadhi may be called paranormal, although it is not found in all human beings, while manahparyaya may be called supernormal cognition. We have seen that avadhi is- possible even for sub-human beings and lower organisms and also for the denizens of hell. These beings get it at birth, while in the case of human beings we acquire it. This shows that avadhi need not be termed as supernormal cognition. But manahparyaya is restricted to human beings. Even the gods residing in heaven cannot possess it. Only those human beings who have fully developed sense organs, who have the right faith and self-control and who are free from passions can get the experience of manahparyaya. These are the gifted few among human beings. Therefore, manahparyaya may be included in supernormal perception. The Western approach to the problem of extra-sensory perception is analytic and critical. A good deal of experimental investigation has been carried out in this connection. The Western approach aims at finding experimental justification and a scientific explanation for the existence of such phenomena. Western scientists believe that it is possible for ordinary human beings to get such experiences sometimes. But the Jaina approach, like all other ancient Indian attitudes, is speculative. The ancient seers have experienced or observed the existence of such phenomena. The Jaina view of such supernormal perception is based on the intuition of the prophets and the philosophic contemplation of the saints.

 

Kevala

          According to the Jainas, the soul in its pure form is pure consciousness and knowledge. It is omniscient. But it is obscured by the karmas, just as the moon or the sun is liable to be obscured by the veil of dust or fog, or by a patch of cloud. The obscuration of the soul is beginningless, although it has an end. The veil of karma obscuring the perfect knowledge of the soul is capable of being removed by the practice of meditation and contemplation and by the practice of self-control, just as the obscuration of the sun or the moon can be removed by a blast of the wind. When such a veil of karma is removed, omniscience dawns. That is kevala jnana, a stage of perfect knowledge and the stage of kaivalya. Perfect knowledge is gained by the total destruction of the four types of karma-jnanavamya; darsarravaraniya, mohaniya and anrarirya karmas. The total destruction of the mohartiya karma is followed by a short interval of time called muhurta, which is about forty eight minutes. After an interval of less than a muhurta, the other karmas obscuring jnana and darsana and antaraya karma are destroyed. Then the soul shines in all its splendour and attains omniscience.  The moment the darkening karmic substance of the six lesyas is removed, ignorance disappears.

The Jainas are agreed on the nature of omniscience. Omniscience intuits all substances with all their modes. Nothing remains, unknown in omniscience.        There is nothing to be known and nothing is unknown. It is the knowledge of all substances and modes of the past present and future, all in one. It is lasting and eternal. It is transcendental and pure. It is the perfect manifestation of the pure and the real nature of the soul when the obstructive- and obscuring veils of karma are removed. This omniscience is co-existent with the supreme state of absolute clarity of the life monad! This is precisely the release. No longer the monad dimmed with the beclouding of passions but open and free and unlimited by the particularising qualities that constitute individuality.  The moment the limitations that make particular experience possible are eliminated, perfect intuition of every thing knowable is attained. The need of experience is dissolved in the infinite-this is the positive meaning of kaivalya. Zimmer says that one is reminded of the protest of the modern French poet and philosopher Paul Valery in his novel Monsieur Teste.          ‘There are people,’ he writes, who feel that the organs of sense are cutting them off from reality and essence , , , , . . . : . . knowledge, a cloud obscuring the essence of being; the shining moon, like darkness or a cataract on the eye! Take it all away, so that I may see’. Zimmer writes, ‘This outcry, together with the modern theory of knowledge from which it arises, is remarkably close to the old idea to which Jainism holds: that of the limiting force of our various faculties of human understanding’.

        There has been a controversy regarding the nature of omniscience, the nature of jnana and darsana at the highest stage of kaivalya. Some philosophers like Umasvati say that in the case of the omniscient, kevala jnana and kevala darsana occur simultaneously at every point of time, Kundakundaearya states that there is simultaneous occurrence of both jnana and darsana in the omniscient stage just, as the light and heat of the sun occur simultaneously. But Siddhasena Divakara does not accept the distinction between jnana and darsana in the omniscient stage. Jinabhadra, on the basis of the spiritual texts, supports the view of successive occurrence of jnana and darsana in this stage. This problem has already been referred to in our discussion on the relation between jnana and darsana. But the Jainas never questioned the occurrence of omniscience for a purified soul, although they had some differences of opinion regarding the possibility of the occurrence of ,jnana and darsana in this stage.

          We now come to the criticism of the possibility of omniscience, as presented by the Jainas. The Mimarilsakas are not prepared to accept the possibility of the occurrence of omniscience, and have raised a series of logical objections. According to them, omniscience cannot mean knowledge of all the objects in the world, either at the same time or successively. Nor can omniscience be knowledge of archetypal forms and not of particular things. There can be no omniscience, as the knowledge of the past, present and future can never be exhausted. Moreover, if all objects were known in omniscience at one moment, the next moment there would be a state of absolute unconsciousness. The omniscient, again, would be tainted by the desires and aversions of others in knowing them.

          But the Jainas refute the arguments of the Mimamsakas against the occurrence of omniscience. In the Pramanarnimamsa we get such refutation of the Mimansaka arguments. Similarly, the Mimarirsaka objections have been refuted by Prabhacandra in Prameyakamalamartanda. The Jainas say that it is not correct to deny the occurrence of omniscience as the Mimamsakas do. Omniscience is the single intuition of the whole world, because it does not depend upon the sense organs and the mind. The pure intuition of the omniscient self knows all objects simultaneously, at a single stroke, since it transcends the limits of time and space. Prabhacandra says that the Mimamsaka objection that the omniscient soul would be unconscious the moment after the occurrence of omniscience is not correct, because it is a single unending intuition. For the omniscient, cognition and the world are not destroyed the moment the omniscience is possible. Similarly, the Jainas contend, as against the Mimarisakas, that the omniscient soul knows the past as existing in the past and the future as existing in the future. The omniscient self is absolutely free from the bondage of physical existence as past, present and future. In fact, the Msmarrsakas also admit that, in recognition, we apprehend in a flash of intuition, the past as well as the present in one cognition, while pratibha jnana, in empirical life, can apprehend the future as future. It is, therefore, possible for the white omniscient soul, who is entirely free from the fetters of karma, to have a super-sensuous vision of the whole world, past, present and future, by a single unending flash of intuition, In the Pramarram Fmarivsn, the possibility of the occurrence of omniscience is logically proved by the necessity of the final consummation of the progressive development of knowledge. There are degrees of excellence in knowledge, and the knowledge must reach its consummation somewhere. That is the stage of omniscience, when the obscuring karmas are totally annihilated.

          We may briefly refer to the distinction in kevala jnana’ mentioned in the Narrdisutra. Kevula jnana is of two types, (i) bhavastha, the omniscience of the liberated who still live in this world, as for instance the omniscience of the Tirtharikaras; and (ii) the omniscience of one who is totally liberated, who may be called siddha. The bhavastha omniscience is, again, of two types (i) suyogi and (ii) avogi. There are subdivisions in both these. Similarly, siddhu omniscience is of two types, (i) anantara kevala and (ii) pararnpara kevala, each having its own subdivisions. The classification of omniscience as described in the Nandisutra is given in table No. IX. This classification of omniscience into various types is not psychologically significant. It has possibly arisen out of the general tendency, mentioned elsewhere, for mathematical calculations and minute classifications.

          The Jaina view of omniscience may be compared to the Nyaya view of divine knowledge  and the yoga theory of divine perception. Divine knowledge is all-embracing and eternal. It has no break. It is a single all-embracing intuition. It is perceptual in character, as it is direct and not derived through the instrumentality of any other cognition. The divine perception grasps the past, the present, and the future in one eternal ‘now’. The soul, according to the Jainas, is itself divine and perfect, and there is no transcendental being other than the individual soul. Each soul is a god by itself, although it is obscured by the karmic veil in its empirical state. The kaivalya state of the individual soul may be compared to the divine omniscience. However, the Naiyayikas and Pataijali admit that man has sometimes a flash of intuition of the future and can attain omniscience by constant meditation and practice of austerities. The Jainas believe that, by the removal of obscuring Icarma by meditation, the threefold path and self-control, the individual soul reaches the consummation of omniscience, the state of kaivalya. That is the finality of experience. But others, like the Naiyayikas, posit a divine omniscience which is higher and natural and eternal.

 

[Please see the Table in file name “Page No. 135,148  is Table”]

 

 

          It is not possible to establish the possibility of omniscience on the basis of the methods of investigation which psychology and the empirical sciences follow. However, its logical possibility cannot be denied. Progressive realization of greater and subtler degrees of knowledge by the individual is accepted by some psychologists, especially since the introduction of psychical research for analysing the phenomena of extra-sensory perception. A consummation of this progressive realization would logically be pure knowledge and omniscience, a single all-embracing intuition.

 


CHAPTER VIII

 

THE JOURNEY OF THE SOUL

 

(The Doctrine of Gunasthanas)

 

 “Man’s history”, writes Tagore, “is the history of his journey to the unknown in quest of the realization of the immortal self-his soul”.’

          In the Homeric epic, Ulysses descended to the nether world to seek counsel of the departed, and there he saw the shades of his former companions who were killed in the siege of Troy. They were but shadows, but each one retained his original form. For the Western mind, personality is eternal. It is indestructible, not to be dissolved. This is the basic idea of the Christian doctrine of the resurrection of the body. In the Western thought, the individual retains the individuality he had in his empirical life. When the play is over, the persona cannot be taken off; it clings through death and into the life beyond. ‘The occidental actor, having wholly identified himself with the enacted personality during his moment on the stage of the world, is unable to take it off when the time comes for departure, and so keeps it on indefinitely, for millenniums-even eternities-after the play is over’. But, as Zimmer says, Indian philosophy, on the other hand, insists on the difference emphasizing the distinction between the actor and his role. Indian philosophy emphasizes the contrast between the empirical existence of the individual and the transcendental nature of the self which is unaffected by the vicissitudes of empirical existence.

          The Jainas believe in the inherent capacity of the soul for self-realization. Self-realization is not the realization of the empirical ,self, but the realization of the transcendental self. The goal is to reach perfection, ‘siddhahood’. In the Tattvarthasutra we get an account of the nature of the soul as possessing the characteristic of urcthvagati, tendency to move upwards. It is the tendency of the soul to escape from the cycle of worldly existence and to reach perfection. This tendency, this force leading upwards, is called the centrifugal force. The capacity of the soul for perfection is, however, obstructed by the obscuration of we soul by the veil of karma. The tendency for upward motion is thwarted by the perversity of attitude, mithyatva that develops through the accumulation of karma. The soul gets caught in the wheel of samsara and forgets its real nature. The first three types of passions obscure the effort for the search for truth (samyaktva), capacity for partial renunciation, (desavirata caritra), and the capacity for the full realization of the self. The effort for the search for truth is thwarted and the effort takes the direction of untruth. Still, the desire and the capacity to ascertain the truth about the things of the world, remains unobscured. This is -explained on the analogy of the clouds. The pure and perfect knowledge is still possible, although it is covered by mithyatva. The attainment of samyaktva is a necessary condition of the way to the realization of the self. By the destruction and subsidence of the veil of karma which obscures the knowledge and activity of the soul, the soul attains samyaktva and knows its real nature. It is reminded of the great mission it has to realize. It is aroused to active spiritual exertion. It is awakened from nescient slumber, and its inherent capacity for self-realization gets expression. It now knows that it has to escape from the wheel of samsara to get to the realization of itself. This is the awakening of the soul. Sometimes the awakening comes through the instruction of those who have realized the truth. But sometimes it is aroused by its own efforts without any outside help. Jainism does not believe in the revelation of truth like the Vedanta and the Mimamsa schools, nor does it accept the Yoga and Nyaya Vaisesika view that the supreme deity reveals the truth. The Jainas believe that the soul has an inherent capacity for self-realization.

          But self-realization is a long process. It is an arduous and difficult path. It is a fact of common experience that different individuals have different degrees of power to realize the stage of perfection. In the course of its eternal wandering in various forms of existence, the soul sometimes gets an indistinct vision and feels an impulse to realize it. This is due to the centrifugal force. Such an awakening does not always lead to enlightenment and spiritual progress. The soul has to go through various stages of spiritual ups and downs before the final goal is reached. These stages of spiritual development are by the Jainas called guyasthunas. They believe that there are fourteen such stages of spiritual development. These stages _ are linked up with the stages of the subsidence and destruction of the karmic veil. In its journey to perfection, the soul passes through an infinite number of states, going from the lowest to the highest stages of spiritual development.

          We shall now consider the journey of the soul through the fourteen stages of spiritual development as the Jainas describe them. Gunasthana refers to the state of the soul at a particular stage in its spiritual development with reference to the nature of jnana, darsana, and criteria, through the operation, subsidence and destruction of karma. The soul passes through an infinite number of states in its journey. The stages which the soul has to go through have been classified into fourteen stages. They are called gunasthanas. In the Gommatasara, we get a list of fourteen gunasthanas with a detailed description of each stage. The fourteen gunasthanas are as follows: (1) Mithyadrsti, perversity of attitude; (2) Sasvadana samvagdrsti, transitory stage of the right attitude; (3) Samyag-mithyadrsti, the right and the wrong attitude mixed; (4) Avirata samyagdrsti, right attitude, but having no moral self-control; (5) Desavirata samyagdrsti, right attitude, with limited moral self-control; (6) Virata, partial self-control; (7) Pramatta virata, imperfect self-control; (8) Apurva karana, new thought effort; (9) Anivrtti karana, advanced mental effort. This is also called anivpttibadara-samparaya; (10) Suksrna samparaya, the slightest mental disturbances; (11) upasanta kasaya, suppression of mental disturbances; (12) KsFna kasaya, destruction of mental disturbances like delusions; (13) Sayoga kevali, the stage of omniscience while still in the bodily existence; and (14) Ayoga kevali, the stage of omniscience and perfection after throwing off all bodily bonds. After the last gunasthana

the soul becomes liberated. The first four stages of spiritual development have no moral flavour and do not involve any moral effort. All other stages are combined with moral effort. In all these different stages, the mental efforts for the realization of the different stages of spiritual development are innumerable. But the classification of the mental efforts into fourteen spiritual stages has been possible as they present prominent factors in the progress of self-realization.6

          We have referred to the innate tendency of the soul to escape from the wheel of samsara. The soul possesses the characteristic of urdhva gati. This tendency is the centrifugal force which leads the soul along the path of liberation. This tendency to struggle for emancipation remains dormant in souls still clouded by the veil of karma. The counteracting forces, like the passions, obstruct the progress of the soul in the path of realization. These are the centripetal forces which keep the soul tied to the wheel of samsara and make it difficult for it to escape from the bonds of empirical existence. The centripetal forces mainly consist of perversity of attitude, in fact, of the obdurate perversity, and the passions that cloud the purity of mental life. In its wanderings in the wheel of samsara, the soul, as we have seen, sometimes gets the vision of the goal of liberation and of the way towards this goal. It also feels an urge to make efforts to reach the goal. This urge is the expression of the centrifugal force. It manifests the energy called yathapravrttakarana.7 Visesavasyakabhasya describes the process of operation of this energy towards self-realization. The yathapravrttakarana, the energy for effort, lasts only for some time, for less than a muhurta, about forty-eight minutes. The soul feels during this mental state a kind of uneasiness with the worldly existence. It becomes aware that this empirical life, the life in this world, is meaningless. It also sees the possibility of emancipation from this empirical existence. If the impulse which creates such dissatisfaction with the worldly existence and a restless desire to struggle for emancipation, is strong, then the soul cuts the cluster of karmic matter called the granthi. The soul is then successful in some measure in its struggle to free itself from the bondage of worldly existence. It is set on its way to liberation. The struggle consists in the twofold process known as apurvakarana and anivrttikarana. Labdhisara describes the different stages of the progress of the soul on  the way to self-realization by means of these two processes. The process of attainment of self-realization takes four forms: (l) a certain measure of subsidence and destruction of karmic matter; (2) purification of the soul as a result of such process; (3) the possibility of getting instruction from the sages; and (4) reduction of the duration of all types of karmas except in the ayukarmas However, such a process of purification and the efforts for self-realization are not possible for all souls. Some souls are not capable of such spiritual efforts to the extent of reaching the highest perfection. They are called abhavya jivas. It is only for the souls which are embodied, possessing five sense organs and mind and fully developed, that efforts towards self-realization are possible. They are called bhavya jivas. In such cases the soul gets an indistinct awareness of the sufferings of the world and a vision of the way to liberation through the impulse of yathapravrttakarana. But such an awareness is not alone sufficient for the upward journey of the soul. A more powerful expression of the energy would be required for the purpose of a fuller and more successful struggle for self-realization. The soul that lacks energy fails to fulfil its mission and withdraws from the struggle. The energy of yathnpravrttakarana which leads the soul in the direction of self-realization manifests itself in two processes, apurva karana and anivrtti karana. The karana is the spiritual impulse that leads the soul to fulfil its mission and to realize the goal. Karmaprakrti gives a detailed description of the two processes that operate in the efforts to realize the self. Thus, the inherent impulse of yathapravrttakaraya leads to the vision of the goal and makes efforts possible. In its efforts to self-realization, the soul finds that it has to face innumerable difficulties in the form of karma granthi. These hinder the efforts for enlightenment. The processes of apurvakarana enable the soul to clear the obstacles in the form of karma granthi, while anivrttikarana leads it to the verge of the dawn of enlightenment. The enlightenment comes like a flash through the subsidence and destruction of the mithyatvamohaniya karma. This is possible because of the fundamental characteristic of the soul in its tendency to upward motion. The straggle for liberation goes on with the help of the two processes mentioned above. This is the journey of the soul along its homeward path. The progress of the soul in its homeward journey takes fourteen stages till the final goal in perfection is realized. These fourteen stages are the gunasthdnas.

          The soul gets the first spiritual vision from the subsidence of the karmic matter and removal of the perversity of attitude, the mithyatva. But this spiritual vision does not in the beginning last long. But the soul remains restless and struggles in a number of ways to recapture the vision and keep it permanently. This struggle is long and arduous. It has to remove gradually the five conditions of bondage-mithyatva, perversity of attitude, avirata, lack of self-control, pramnda, spiritual inertia, kasaya, passion and trigupti, threefold activity of body, speech and mind. The subduing of passions is an important condition of spiritual progress. It is possible only by the operation of the processes of yathapravrttakmana manifesting in the forms of apilrvakararra and anivrttikaraza. The progress of the soul in all the fourteen stages is possible in two ways: (1) the soul may suppress the passions, when, as a consequence subsidence of the karma would take place. This is the path of suppression or subsidence. It is called upcrscrrna srerri. (2) The soul may also go the way of annihilating the karmas altogether. This spiritual path is called k.saya sreni. Thus, the soul goes the way of self-realization by the paths of subsidence (trpasama), and destruction, (ksaya) of the karmic veil. In the highest stage of self-realization, the soul reaches the stage of perfection and omniscience. This is the fourteenth stage and the consummation of the struggle.

 

Discussion of the Fourteen Stages

          We shall now refer briefly to the fourteen stages of spiritual development. These stages represent the journey of the soul to self-realization.

          (1) The first is the lowest stage. It is the stage of perversity of attitude and is called mithyatvadrsti. In this stage, we accept wrong beliefs and are under the false impression that what we believe is right. We look at every thing through coloured glasses We refuse to recognise that we are wrong. It is a stage of wrong belief which is caused by the operation of mithyatva karma. However, the soul is not entirely bereft of an indistinct vision of the right. This is possible because the soul cannot be entirely bereft of the possession of the right knowledge. The soul has at least the minimum degree of right vision in this stage, although the latter is entirely clear. Though the soul has, the capacity of removing the perversity by means of the right vision, it is still, under the veil of perversity. The perversity of wrong belief consists in not having belief in things as they are. Wrong belief is of five kinds: (i) one-sided belief (ekanta); (ii) perversity of belief (viparita). For instance, the practice of sacrifice of animals is due to perversity of belief. In this, we forget that a11 lives have to be respected. We ignore the fundamental equality and dignity of the individual souls in whatever state they are; (iii) veneration of false creeds, called vinaya. It refers to the acceptance of a false creed; (iv) doubt, which is responsible for instability of faith, (sariasaya), as when we are not prepared to accept either of two beliefs; (v) indiscreet acceptance of any view although it is perverse and wrong, ajancr. The soul, suffering from perversity of attitude, does not relish the truth, just as a man suffering from fever has no taste for sugarcane juice. This state of the soul refers to the perversity which may give rise to intellectual aberrations like false ideologies in social, political and religious life. Even souls that have cut the karma granthi and have experienced spiritual vision may fall back to this stage of perversity. For instance, a man who has known the right view may fall back and be perversely fanatical in the wrong faith. However, such men are not totally condemned, because, for them, there is a possibility of regaining the lost vision. They have tasted the right vision, and when the occasion arises they will realize that they have fallen back and try to free themselves from their perversity of attitude. This is not so easy for those who are still in the lowest stage of spiritual development, since they have never had a glimpse of the right vision.

          (2) The next stage is the sasvadana samyagdrsti. This is a transitory stage, as it is an intermediate stage in the fall from the heights of samyaktva. The soul halts while falling from a higher stage of spiritual development. For instance, at the end of the period of the dawn of enlightenment life-long passions envelop the soul, and there is a fall to a lower stage. From the higher stage of samyaktva the soul comes down to wrong belief, but it has neither the right belief nor a fanatical perversity of attitude. This is called the doubtful stage, or sasvadana. The mental states in this stage are said to be in a transitory condition. The soul had_ acquired the right belief but it has now come down, although the fall is, not to the lowest stage. The minimum duration of the fall in this stage is one instant of time (samaya), and the maximum is avali, six wings. During this fall, the soul has neither the right belief nor the wrong belief, because the karma which is responsible for the perversity of attitude (mithyatva) has not yet begun to operate. It is possible that after one avali the mithyatva karma may begin to operate again, when it falls to the lowest stage of mithyatva drsti. Putting this description into language common, we may say that those who strive and get the right attitude towards life and the right view about the things of the world in social and political life, may begin to hesitate and fall back on false views through the loud propaganda of the false beliefs. Such a transformation may take place through intense propaganda and counter suggestion. This stage of hesitation before accepting the false belief with a fanatical perversity may be called the snsvadana stage. Propaganda clouds the right view and leads to hesitation. It may bring a person down to false belief. However, men who have already known what is right and have accepted right faith for some time may not remain in this stage for a long time. There is, further, a possibility of redemption.

          (3) Now we come to the third stage, called samyagmithya drsti. It is a mixed attitude of right and wrong belief. There is neither a desire to have true beliefs nor a desire to remain in ignorance and false beliefs, like mixing curds and treacle. This is also a transitional stage. After getting insight into the right attitude for the first time, it is possible that a man may at the same time begin to feel that what is right may not be right, and he may cling to false ideologies also. This type of mixed attitude has been explained by the Jainas as due to the rise of the semi-pure cluster of the karmic veil deluding the vision. This stage lasts only for an antarmuhurta, about forty-eight minutes. After that, it may either go up to the higher stage or may fall back to the lower stage of sasvadana or mithyatva. In this stage, there is no self-control, desasamyama. One experiences both the right attitude and the perversity at the same time owing to a confusion of attitudes. The persistence of wrong belief makes moral effort difficult. The practice of vows is not possible in this stage because of the perversity which is partially operating. Self-control and the practice of vows are possible only from the fifth stage of spiritual development, because the moral effort requires right knowledge and right belief. The Socratic dictum, ‘virtue is knowledge’, implies a similar assumption that right knowledge will alone give us the possibility of virtue. In this mixed stage, there is no bondage of the particles of ayu karma, the karma which determines the duration of life.          There is no death in this stage, because, as Nemicandra says, death must be from the very stage in which the aye karma is bound.l3 Death is not possible also because this stage expresses the vital struggle between the perverse attitude and the right attitude. But in death there is no energy for such struggle, and the man drops either right belief or wrong belief without offering much resistance. This is the stage of active struggle which gives rise to the mixed attitude.

           (4)          Next comes the stage of the right attitude. This is the fourth stage. Here, the right attitude is not yet accompanied by moral efforts for the attainment of the good. This is, therefore, called avirata samya drsti. One gets a glimpse of the truth, but one lacks the spiritual strength to strive for the attainment of the truth. In this stage, the soul lacks self-control in spite of the fact that it gets the right attitude and, knowledge of the truth. But this belief in the truth is not steady. It is impure and inconstant. It still causes destruction of karma. The right view at this stage may be due to the subsidence of the vision-deluding karma, or it may be due to the subsidence and destruction of the relevant karma. It is also possible that such a stage of right attitude is due to the annihilation of the four primary passions. Thus, the right attitude in this stage may be of three kinds, (i) right belief due to the suppression of the relevant karma, aupasazrtlka saznyaktva. It lasts for an ezntamuhairta and then may fall down to the lower stage and lose the right attitude or it may go up to the higher stage. (ii) This higher stage of right attitude is a second form of scrmyak, trcr. It is due to the destruction and subsidence of the karmic veil formed by the relevant karma. It lasts for one antarmuhurta, but, in the language of Jaina theology, it may last for sixty-six sagara. in the case of beings residing in heaven. This stage is called ksayopasanuz saznyaktva. Next in stage is the right attitude which is formed through the destruction of the karznus which are responsible for the perversion of right belief and the excitement of the four passions. This right attitude is clear. There is nothing to cloud it. It is right vision. But in the case of ksayopasama scznyaktva it is vitiated by perversity and is therefore impure and unsteady.

          This stage gives us the right attitude, but there is no possibility of moral effort to attain it because it lacks spiritual strength. Moral self-control is not possible. It is called the vowels stage, avirata. In this stage, “here is absence of control of the senses and lack of solicitude regarding injury to living beings. However, the person knows the truth and knows that the breaking of vows is wrong. He is filled with compassion and calm. He believes in the right principle and is afraid o the wheel of sarisaru, but the moral control and the positive efforts required are not possible. He may not hurt any living being without provocation, but he has not taken any vows in the matter.

          But right intuition, right knowledge and self-control are necessary for spiritual development, and the soul which lacks self-control may not rise higher in the state of spiritual development. A soul can rise to the next higher stage only when it can overcome this obstacle of lack of spiritual energy and moral effort. This stage of self-development belongs to persons who are helpless in the practice of virtue. They have knowledge of the right and good, but they have no power to practice them as they have no control over their senses. Aristotle raised a similar objection against the Socratic doctrine of ‘virtue is knowledge’, since men act wrongly even knowing what is right. The will in these cases is not strong. Effective virtue would be possible with a strong will and the requisite energy of the soul to translate the will into virtuous action. The soul has to develop self-control gradually for the sake of fuller self-realization. From the next stage onwards there is a gradual expression of self-control.

          In the four spiritual stages that are described here, we have to establish the right attitude which requires moral effort for further progress. We may compare these four stages to the state of persons described in Plato’s Parable of the Cave. “And now”, said Socrates, “let me show a figure how far our nature is enlightened or unenlightened”. c Socrates presents a picture of some human beings living in an underground den from their childhood, with legs and necks chained so that they cannot move. They can only see what is in front of them. The den has a mouth towards the light. Fire is blazing at a distance above them and behind them. Between the fire and the prisoners, there is a raised way and low wall built along the way like the screen which marionette players have in front of them over which they show their puppets. They would see their own shadows and the shadows of men and animals passing along. And the prisoners would mistake the shadows for realities. This is the stage of mithyatva, the perversity of attitude towards truth. In this stage we are unable to see the truth because we are bound and chained to perversities through the operation of the deluding karmas.

          But if one of them is liberated and is compelled to stand up and walk towards the light, the glare will certainly distress him. He will suffer pain. He would be unable to see the reality and would persist in maintaining the superior truth of the shadows. If he is then taken to the light, he will be in a confused state till he gets accustomed to the sight of the upper world. This may be compared to the stage of sasvadancr samyagdrsti, where there is hesitation and very faint and indistinct glimpses of the truth. But once he gets accustomed to the change, he will be able to see the things of the world. He will gaze upon the light of the moon and the stars and the spangled heavens. The vision may still be indistinct for him. He may not know the meaning of it all. But once he gets the clearer vision of the truth, he will realize the folly of his fellow-prisoners and he will pity them. This is the fourth stage of

avirata samyagdnsti. Stripped of all moral flavour, the parable roughly represents the four stages of self-realization resulting in the attainment of right vision. It is possible that one who gets the vision may fall down to the lower stage of perversity. But he would still be different from those who have never come out of the den of darkness and perversity. His nature would be filled with the mellowness of the vision. But others in the den would ridicule him and say of him that he went out and came down without his eyes.s It was better not to think of ascending. In this parable of the cave, Plato gives a description of people steeped in ignorance and perversity. If any one is given a lift to enable him to rise from this perversity, he may rise for some time but he may fall back again. This parable roughly corresponds to the four stages of guyasthana mentioned in the Jaina philosophy.

          (5) Next higher among the stages of spiritual development is the stage of right attitude coupled with partial self-control, and is called desavircetcz samyagdrsti. At this stage, one knows what is right and one tries to practice the right, but one is still vitiated by temptations for untruth and vice. In this stage, we are still controlled by passions, which are an impediment in the struggle for self-realization. There is partial destruction of the karmic matter producing passions. The full practice of virtues would not be possible, because there is often the possibility of falling off in the snares of passions. Self-control is only partial.          This stage is also called virtue avirata, because there is the possibility of both self-control and self-indulgence in the control of vices and the practice of virtues. For instance, at this stage one takes a vow not to injure any animal, but is still sinless if one unwittingly kills an animal. However, he may fall off in the practice of such virtues. There is only a partial expression of the energy of self-control. However, in this stage one knows the truth and is devoted to the truth, although one may not be able to practise it fully and consistently.

          (6)          Next is the stage which expresses moral activity. In this stage, moral effort takes a more definite shape, although the efforts are not always successful. The right attitude and the knowledge of the truth gained in the earlier stages have created a general background for the practice of the moral life and the attainment of the good. Moral effort begins to shape itself. In the fifth stage, a person has a glimpse of the truth which is more or less clear and steady, and he tries to develop self-control and to practise virtues for the sake of attaining the truth. But complete self-control has not been possible in this stage, although he acquires some form of moderate self-control. It was only a partial expression of the moral effort. But this lack of full self-control and practice of virtues is overcome in the sixth stage. But even in this stage the effort for moral life and the spiritual struggle are not fully successful, because their full expression is vitiated by the moral and the spiritual inertia which comes in the way of a successful practice of the moral life. This inertia is called prarmada. Pranrnda is responsible for the failure to realize full control and the full practice of moral life. Therefore, this stage is called pramada sarrryata. The prarnada poisons and vitiates moral activities through the operation of’ the passions which come in the way of perfect conduct. Minor passions operate in this stage. Prsrmada causes impurity and partially prevents the perfect observance of vows. Thus, from the. fifth stage moral effort has begun to express itself though in an imperfect way. In the sixth stage also, the effort for the moral life continues, although it may not still be successful.

          (7)          Prarmada, which we have called moral and spiritual inertia, is overcome in the seventh stage. The impediments to the practice of virtues are now gradually being removed. This stage is called aprarncrtta samyata. Now more pronounced self-control is possible. Efforts for the moral life take a more definite shape. One is able to practise the five vows with greater success and without many obstructions. Efforts towards morality are being established. It is possible to get, in this stage, greater self-control and self-confidence. The operation of the karma which prevents the perfect conduct is very feeble into the karmas are being subdued. Similarly, the minor passions called no-kasaya are also at the lowest level of expression. The minor troubles disappear like ripples on water. As a result, parried is overcome and one is able to attain the stage where one can practise virtues and vows with greater confidence and greater success. Here, vision of truth is blended with effort for the moral life, to attain truth. The aprwrmatta scrmyatcr of this stage is of two kinds; (i) snasthnna apraanrtta, which is the normal and ordinary stage of practice of virtues, and (ii) satiscrna crprarncrtta, an extra-ordinary way of practising perfect vows. In the first stage of the practice of vows, prarnada is suppressed. One practices five great vows and possesses twenty-eight virtues. One has right knowledge and a calm disposition. One is absorbed in concentration. From this stage onwards, we may take two ascending scales of spiritual development. For instance, it is possible to go higher in the scale of suppression and the destruction of lzarrnas. This stage is called the ordinary stage of practice of the moral life, because it is not possible to rise higher than this stage. It lasts only for one antarnruhirrta, falls down to the sixth stage, and rescinds to the seventh again and again. In the higher stage of the effort for the moral life and practice of perfect virtues, it is possible to go higher in the scale of subsidence and destruction of their relevant karmas. The process of crdhahpruvrttakarana, by which the soul on a lower level can rise higher and acquire purity, begins to operate in this stage. In this stage of self-development, the journey has taken a definite direction, although it may not proceed with the directness and speed required for the proper and speedy development of the self. However, the efforts for the moral life have taken the right direction and, if pursued, will continue towards the final realization of the self.

          (8)          Greater self-control and a more definite progress on the path of self-realization is possible in the eighth stage of development. This is called the stage of aparrwn larayu. The self attains special purification, and it is capable of reducing the intensity and duration of the karnla. It is able to reduce the intensity of the karmas and transform the karmic series. Such a process increases the purity of the soul. The apinva karma operates in this stage. The souls bring about the subsidence of the karma, which is responsible for the obscuration of the right conduct, after having acquired freedom from the bondage of the karmic matter of sleep and drowsiness. But the karma determining the age, the ayu karma, still operates. And those who proceed on the way of the destruction of the karma which obscures right conduct, go the way of destruction of karma called ksapaka.sreyi. Here also the karma determining the age still exists. Gonrmratasa’ra gives a detailed analysis of the process of apirrva kururm operating in this stage. The duration of the stay of the soul in the two scales of subsidence and destruction is different. The soul going the way of subsidence remains, at the most, for an auturmuhurta. But, while going the way of destruction of karmas, it remains for an antarmuhurta as a rule. In this stage one is only affected by mild passions. One experiences extreme delight in overcoming the strain arising out of the suppression and elimination of the passions that one may have in this stage in a mild form. Emotional disturbances do not much affect one. It is possible to develop a stoic attitude of calm and indifference in this stage of self-development, because one has already overcame, with fair confidence, even the milder forms of passion that disturb quiet concentration and contemplation.

          (9)          Next is the ninth stage of self-development. It is called urriytri-lurdura-sampuraya. The process of nnivrtti kararmr operates in this stage. It is possible to have progress in the direction of either suppression or destruction of the Kerrie matter. But one may be affected by gross passions to some extent. Therefore it is called hirdura-surnparaya. However, the affliction of the soul by the passions and by the emotional disturbances is still possible, though it is only an occasional possibility and not a frequent occurrence. Very rarely is one afflicted by gross passions and emotions. But it is possible to Overcome such emotional disturbances,  if they occur with greater confidence and ease. In this stage, we have fairly established oversells as spiritual and moral individuals, although sometimes we may be slightly afflicted by passions and grosser impulses.