Naam Karma are the determining factors in deciding the
place of birth like heaven, hell or earth, the kind of organism on earth,
the shape of body of the chosen organism, different organs of the body,
the body structure and look of the body, etc. There are 42 types of body
making Karma having a total of 93 sub types, the largest number of
sub-types amongst all the types of Karma. The next largest number of
sub-types 28 is that of deluding (mohaniya) Karma.
The 42 types of body making Karma are as follows.
1. Gati Naam Karma. The 4 Gati Naam
Karma determines the species of the living organisms, viz. (i) sub -
animal (such as plants) and animal world ; (ii) human beings; (iii)
celestial beings; and (iv) denizens of hell.
2. Jaati (specie) Naam Karma. The 5
Jaati Nama Karma determine the type of body of the organism
viz. (i) One sensed organism; (ii) two sensed organism; (iii) three
sensed organism; (iv) four sensed organism; and (v) five sensed
organism. Some examples of these organisms are:
(i) One sensed organism ï¿½ different kinds of
trees and plants.
(ii) Two sensed organism ï¿½ conch, oyster, stomach
(iii) Three sensed organism ï¿½ Bed bugs,
earthworm, louse, ants, scorpion, etc.
(iv) Four sensed organism ï¿½ Bee, grasshopper,
moth, fly etc.
(v) Five sensed organism ï¿½ human beings,
celestial beings, hellish beings, lion, elephant, horse, cow, tiger,
dog, snake, etc.
3. Body Naam Karma. There are 5 Body Naam
Karma which construct five types of bodies with the help of ahara
(i) Physical (audaric) Body Naam
Karma. The physical Body Naam karma enables ahara vargava
to construct a physical body containing fluids, blood, serum, bones,
flesh and marrow.
(ii) Vaikriyika Body Naam Karma.
The Vaikriyika Body Naam Karma enables ahar
varganas to construct a Vaikriyaka body (fluid like body)
having supernatural power. This type of body is possessed by
celestial beings and hellish denizens.
(iii) Aharak Body Naam Karma. The
aharak Body Naam Karma enables ahar vargana to
construct aharak Body. This is a luminescent subtle body used
by yogis and Munis having special power for cosmic travel in order
to establish contact with liberated souls and seek their guidance in
difficult to solve cases.
(iv) Tejas Body Naam Karma. The
tejas body Naam Karma enables yogis and Muniï¿½s having
special powers to construct a tejas Body for some specific
purpose. The tejas Naam Karma are also responsible for
existence of a tejas body (electric body or vital body) in
(v) Karma Body Naam Karma. The Karma Body
Naam Karma enables Karmon varganas to construct
a Karma Body in every organism.
4. Body Bond Naam Karma. The Body Bond Naam
Karma enables the atoms and molecules of a body to bond together. These
Karmas are of 5 types providing bonds in five types of bodies.
5. Body Union Naam Karma. Body Union Naam
Karma cause conglomeration of body matter so as to form a monolithic
continuous structure of body after the atoms and molecules are bound by
Body Bond Naam Karma. These Karmas are also of 5 types for five
types of bodies.
6. Body Shape Naam Karma. For the type of
specie of organism determined by Jaati Naam Karma, the
shape of that particular specie is determined by Body shape Naam
Karma. There are 6 sub-types of Body shape Naam Karma
corresponding to six types of body shapes as under:
(i) Symmetrical Body shape (Samchaturarsa
(ii) Nyagrodh Body Shape. Bodies having a
structure like a banyan tree.
(iii) Swati (Pyramid like) Body shape.
Bodies having a structure like a mole tree, voluminous at bottom and
thin at top.
(iv) Hunch - Back Body shape. Body having a hunch
in the middle.
(v) Dwarf Body Shape.
(vi) Asymmetrical Body Shape.
7. Organ Naam Karma. Organ Naam Karma
enables various organs to be formed in the body. This Karma is of 3
sub-types for the three kinds of bodies ï¿½ physical body. vaikriyika
body and aharak body.
8. Skeleton Naam Karma Skeleton Naam
Karma determines the skeleton structure consisting of bones and joints.
There are 6 types of skeleton structures.
(i) Impenetrable and strong (like steel) skeleton
(ii) Very strong (like steel) skeleton structure.
(iii) Strong skeleton structure.
(iv) Mildly strong skeleton structure.
(v) Weak skeleton structure. The bones are very
thin like nails.
(vi) Snake like skeleton structure. The bones are
9. Pigment Naam Karma. Pigment Naam
Karma determines the body colour of the organism. The body colours are 5
ï¿½ black, blue, red, yellow and white.
10. Odour Naam Karma. The odour Naam
Karma determines the odour of the body. The odour is of 2 types ï¿½
fragrant and foul.
11. Flavour Naam Karma. The Flavour Naam
Karma determines the flavour in the body. The flavour is of 5 types ï¿½
pungent, bitter, astrigent, acidic (tarmarind like) and sweet.
12. Touch Naam karma. The Touch Naam
Karma determines the texture of touch of the body. The touch is of 8
types ï¿½ harsh, soft, heavy, light, smooth, rough, cold and hot.
13. Migration (Aanupurvi) Naam Karma.
Transit Naam karma determines the shape of the body in migration
period between one life and the next. This shape is similar to the shape
of the physical body left by the soul.
14. Compaction (Agurulaghu) Naam Karma.
Compaction Naam Karma determines the extent of compaction of the
body; the body can be heavy or light.
15. Self ï¿½ Discomfort (Opghat) Naam
karma. Self Discomfort Naam Karma produces a body structure which
causes discomfort to self. For example the horns of a reindeer, large
16. Discomfort to others (Paraghat) Naam
Karma ï¿½ These Karma produce a body component which can harm others. For
example poison in the mouth of a snake, sting in the tail of a scorpian,
sharp nails and teeth in a lion, poison in a tree, etc.
17. Respiration Naam Karma. Respiration
Naam Karma produces respiration system in the body.
18. Heat Naam Karma. Heat Naam Karma
produces heat in the body so that temperature is maintained at a
19. Light Naam Karma. Light Naam Karma
enables bodies to produce light. This is the cause of light in a
20. Movement Naam Karma. Movement Naam
Karma enables body to move on earth or fly in sky. This is of 2 types ï¿½
good looking movement like that of a lion, cow, etc and odd looking
movement like that of an ass, camel, jackal, etc.
21. Sub-human and Human Naam Karma. This
Naam Karma is similar to Jaati Nama Karma but it
refers to animals and humans as a class (trasa).
22. Sthavar Naam Karma. The Sthavar
Naam Karma determines birth as a sthavar organism. The
sthavar organisms are of five kinds ï¿½ (i) trees and plants, (ii)
earth bodied organisms, (iii) water bodied organisms, (iv) air bodied
organisms, and (v) fire bodied organisms.
23. Gross (Badar) Naam Karma. Gross
Naam Karma determines that the body will be of gross type.
24. Micro (Sukshma) Naam Karma. Micro
Naam Karma determines that the body will be of micro type.
25. Developed Body (Paryapta) Naam
Karma. This Karma determines that the body is well developed and is not
deficient in any way.
26. Undeveloped Body (Aparyapta) Naam
Karma. This Karma determines that the body is under developed and is
deficient in some way.
27. Solitary Body (Pratyeka) Naam
Karma. A solitary body is controlled by one soul. Bodies of all
organisms except some plants and vegetation are of solitary type.
28. Ordinary Body Naam Karma. This Karma
causes an ordinary body to be formed. An ordinary body is owned by more
than one soul, for example algae has ordinary body.
29. Stable Naam Karma. Stable Naam
Karma ensures that the body constituents like fluids; blood, bone, flesh
etc. are stable and balanced.
30. Unstable Naam Karma. Unstable Naam
Karma develops a condition in which the body will fall short of one or
more of the above constituents.
31. Beauty Naam Karma. This Karma determines
that the body shall be good looking, beautiful or handsome.
32. Ugly Naam Karma. This Karma makes the body
33. Lucky Naam Karma. Lucky Naam Karma
generates body conditions where luck favours. This happens only in
34. Unlucky Naam Karma. Unlucky Naam
Karma generates body conditions where luck does not favour. This happens
only in humans. Both lucky and unlucky Naam Karma operate with
other Karmas to produce the particular result.
35. Good Voice Naam Karma. This Karma makes
the voice of the organism good at hearing or melodious.
36. Harsh Voice Naam Karma. This Karma makes
the voice of the organism harsh at hearing.
37. Attraction Naam Karma. This Karma
determines that the body of the organism shall be liked by others.
38. Repulsion Naam Karma. This Karma makes the
body so that it is not liked by others.
39. Fame Naam Karma. This Karma makes the body
such that others regard the organism as virtuous.
40. Defame Naam karma. This Karma makes the
body such that others regard the organism as unvirtous.
41. Morphology Naam Karma. This Karma ensures
that the organs and body parts of the organism shall have appropriate
size and right location.
42. Tirthankar Naam Karma. Tirthankar Naam
Karma ensures that the body shall be worshipped by others as Tirthankar.