15. Human, Hellish, Subhuman and, Celestial are said to be Non-natural conditions. free from miseries arising from the effect of Karmas are termed Natural.


֝ ׾ֵ֯ ֳִ߳״ӕ֤ l

֢׾ ֤ ׾ֳꋝ ll 16 ll


ֈ ם֤ ׸ ֝ ֈ l

׾ָ֟ ׾ֳ֐ ִ֤ ll 17 ll 㴴


16-17. Human souls are of two .kinds; born in Work-region or in Enjoyment-region. Hellish souls should be known to be of seven kinds,- because of the regions.

Sub-human souls are said to be of fourteen kinds. Celestial souls (are) of four kinds. Their detailed account should be known from (the scripture) Loka-Vibhaga.



In the latter half of the 14th and the three gathas following it, have been described the modifications of the substance, soul. Of these: modifications, the natural one is the modification. in the pure and liberated condition of the soul. Non-natural modifications are impure conditions which arise through the activity of the Karmic matter.

With reference to the conditions of existence, the Non-natural modifications are divided into four kinds:-

Human, Hellish, Sub-human and Cele ial.

Human souls are of two kinds:-

(a) Born in Work-Region These souls have and to earn their livelihood by follow-different; operations, such as military. agricultural, and commercial.

b) Born in Enjoyment-Region. These souls live in a condition of life where there is all enjoyment with but any work, business or effort, Cundakundas Niyamasara


Hellish Souls., These souls -have-to ,stay in one or other of the1 seven nether regions, according to the effect of their evil karmas. They always have a very bad thought-paint, sense perception and transformation there is no enjoyment or pleasure at all ( Vide-Tatwarthadbigama Sutra, the Sacred Books of the Jainas, Volume II Chapter III Sutras l to 6 ).

Sub-human Souls. Excepting the Human, he Hellish and the Celestial souls, all others from the one- sensed to the five-sensed living beings, are called sub-human souls or Tiryancha.

They are called Tiryaneha, from the word fryak, crooked, because they: adopt crooked through-activities. They are in a very low position as regards their body, enjoyment, etc., have little knowledge, and have multifarious grave demerits. The fourte in kinds of Sub-human, Souls referred to in Gatha 7 are as follows:-

(1) Fine One-sensed ..

(2) Gross One-sensed ..

(3) Two-sensed ..

(4) Three-sensed ..

(5) Four-sensed ..

(6) Irrational five-sensed

(7) Rational five-sensed

Each of ese-seven may, be

(1)   Develolopabl -(able or

(2)   Non ceve-


and they are thus divide into

into 14 groups.




( Vide Gommatasara Jiva Jani, Chapter II Gatha 72 ).


Celestial Souls or Devas. They are called Deva, from the root Div to shine, because they always amuse themselves with their heavenly acquisitions and have a shining heavenly constitution, which is technically called Vaikriyika Sharira or Fluid body.

These celestial bodies can assume any form they like Their body has no flesh, blood, or bone, there are no filthy excretions from it, and it is lustrous.

These beings form four groups :-

(a) Residential ( Bhawana Vast ),

(b) Peripatetic ( Vyantara ).

(c) Stellar ( Jyotishka ).

(d) Heavealy ( Vairiianika )

(Vide Tatwartha dhigama Sutra by Mr. J.L. Jaini Chapter IV ).


֤ ꐐֻ֍ פ ־ָ l

ֳ֕־֤ ם֤֓ ll 18 ll


18, From the practical point r of view, a mundane soul causes ( the bondage 6f ) material Karmas ^ad experiences ( their results ); but from the (injure) real point of view the soul creates ( and ) experiences thought-activities arising through the ( effect of } Karmas.



When we think of soul as a substance quite free and distinct the material Karmas, we find that the pure real point of view, it causes and experiences its own pure , thought-activities, peace, etc. When we think of a mundane soul which is in bondage with Karmas, we find that from the impure real point of view, it causes and experiences its own impure thought-activities, anger, pride, greed, pain, pleasure, etc. These impure thought-activities arise in soul, through the operation of deluding Karmas; they are not the souls own pure and teal thought-activities. Whenever any impure thought- activity appears in a mundane soul, the Karmic matter is itself attracted towards the soul and bound with it. Thus the soul does not really cause the bondage of the Karmas and is from the practical point of view, said to be the causer of Karmas. When any material Karma which was bound some time before comes into operation and disturbs the thought-activity of the soul, it is then that the soul experiences rain or pleasure. Thus the soul, in reality, experiences its own impure thought-activity; but from the practical point of view only it is said to experience the results of material Karmas.


۟֋ ߾ ׸ 㾾ֳםֵ֤֕ l

ֵֵ֕֝ ߾ ӕ ן ׾ ll 19 ll


19. From the substance point of view ( all ) souls are free from the modifications mentioned before; but from the modification-point-of-view souls are possessed of both .( the Natural and Non-natural modifications ).




Non-Soul ( AJIVA. )

Ӭ׾ֵ֯ ֐ֻ֤ ׾ֵ֯ l

Ӭ ֵָ ָ֝ ׾ֵ֯ ll 20 ll


20. The substance matter is of two kinds; in the form of an atom ( Paramanu ) and in the form of molecules ( Skandha }. And the molecules are of six kinds and atom ( is ) of two kinds.


֣ ֣ l

פ ָפ פ ll 21 ll

־֤֤ߵ ם֤ ֣״פ Ӭ l

פ ׾֝ ֯ߕִֻ֤֟ߵ ll 22 ll

ֵ֟־ִ֤ߵ Ӭ״פ ׾ֵ֝ l

֣פ םֵ Ӭ ֈ׾ֵ ll 23 ll

ן Ӭ ־ꐐ ־֐֝ ֝ l

۾־ָߵ Ӭ פ ֹפ ll 24 ll ֈ l


21-24. Gross- gross, gross, gross-fine, fine-gross, fine, and fine-fine are the six kinds, earth, etc.

Solids like earth, stone, consist of gross-gross molecules ( Liquids ) like ghee, water, oil are gross. Shade, sunshine, etc , consist of gross-fine molecules.

Objects of the four senses ( of touch, taste smell and hearing ) are of fine-gross molecules. Karmic molecules, in the condition of being bound up with soul are fine. Those which are unlike these are of fine-fine molecules.

ֈֈ ָן ֵ l

Ӭ֝ ֝ ֤ ָ֯֝ ll 25 ll


25. That which is the cause of the four root matters ( earth, water, fire and air ) should be known as cause-atom. ( Karana Paramanu ). The smallest possible part of a molecule should be known as effect atom ( Karya Paramanu ).


פ ִ֕ ӟ פ ꕗ l

׾ֳ֐ ָ֝ ׾ֆ֝ ll 26 ll


26. That substance which ( is ) the beginning, the middle and the end by itself, inapprehensible by the senses, and ( is ) indivisible, should be known as an atom.



In Gathas Nos. 20-26 is described the substance Matter, It is called Pudgala, because it unites Pooryati and forms into molecules and galati dissolves into atoms; also because it changes in its attributes of colour, smell, taste and touch.

An atom is the smallest possible part of matter. It cannot be divided further.

Those atoms which cause the formation of four root matters: earth, water, fire and air, are called cause-atom. When any molecule is dissolved into the smallest possible atoms, the atoms so obtained are called effect-atoms. By the combination of atoms in different proportions, various kinds of molecules are formed (vide Gommatasara Jiva Kanda Gathas 594.)

In gathas 21-24 are mentioned the six prominent divisions of material molecules :-

Gross-gross are solid objects, which when separated or broken asunder, cannot unite themselves without the help of some third object, such as paper, wood, cloth.

Gross are liquid objects which when once separated have the capacity of again combining together, without the intervention of any other object, such as water, milk.

Gross-fine are those objects which are visible to the eye but cannot be grasped by the hand such as shade, light, sunshine. ,

Fine-gross are those objects which are not visible to the eye, but are apprehensible by the other four senses, such as air, sound, smell, taste.

Fine are those molecules which are not cognizable and perceivable by any of the five senses, such as karmic molecules.

Fine-fine are those molecules which are composed of at least two ultimate atoms ( Paramanu ) and do not fall into the category of the first five kinds.


ָֹ֐Ӭ ־֐ l

׾־֐״פ ם֤ וִֵ֝ ־ֵ֛֯ ll 27 ll


27. That which possesses one taste, color, and smell, and two touches is of natural attributes. Those tangible to all ( senses ) are in Jain Philosophy said to be of non-natural attributes.


םָ־ꌏ ׸ִ ־֯֕־ l

Ӭֹ ׸ִ ׾־ֵ֯֕ ll 28 ll


28. The modification which is independent of other objects is the natural modification (Svabhava-Paryaya); and- modification in the molecular form is the non-natural modification, (Vibhava Paryaya).


ꐐֻ֤ և ָ֝ ם֓ l

ꐐֻ֤ע ־֤ פ Ӭ ll 29 ll


29. From the real point of view an atom is said Matter substance; but from the other ( i.e., p:acticals point of view) the term Matter substance has been applied to a molecule.






In reality an indivisible and the smallest possible particle of matter, i.e. an atom is the real matter substance. Its attributes are the natural attributes of matter. Such an atom must have five attributes :-

(1) any one of the five colours;

(2) any one of the two smells;

( 3 ) any one of the five tastes;

(4) any one of the two touches, i.e., roughness and smoothness;

(5) any oue of the two touches, i.e., coldness and heat.


As the modification of an atom is independent of all other objects it is called natural modification.

When two or more atoms combine together a molecule is formed. A molecule is said to be substance Matter format be practice point of view. Attributes and modifications of molecules so formed are known as non-natural attributes find modifications. Atoms are never apprehensible by the scnse, while molecules may be tangible tp the senses.


ִ֝ם״֢ ִִִ֬ ךפ ߾֯㐐ֻ֝ l

֐ ֵ ߾֤־֤־֝ ll 30 ll


30. The auxiliary causes of motion and rest to soul and matter (are called) the medium of motion, and medium of rest (respectively). - (That which is1 the auxiliary cause of ) giving space to all the substances, soul, etc , (is) space.


ִֵ־׻ֳ ׾ֵ֯ ן׾ֵ֯ l

ߤ ӏꕕ־׻Ӛִ֝֯֯֝ ll 31 ll


31. Practical time is either of two kinds, instant and wink (avali) ; or of three kinds (past, present and future). Past (time is) equal to the number (of the liberated souls) who have destroyed their bodily forms, multiplied by numerable winks.


߾֤ 㐐ֻ֤sӟ֐ ׾ ӯ֤ ִֵ l

ֵ ן ָֽ ֻ ll 32 ll


32. The instants of the practical time are infinite times (of the number of) atoms, which again are infinite times (of the number of) souls. (Time-points) which are packed full in the universe, are (called) the real Time.


߾֤ߤ֝ ׾ּ֍ָ ֻ l

ִפֆ ֈֵ֯֕ ן ll 33 ll


33. That by the help of which, all substances, soul, etc., are altered in their own modifications, is Time. The four substances; the medium of motion, (the medium of rest, space and time)- have ( only) their own natural attributes and modifications.


ם ֻ ۟֍ֵע l

םק וִֵ֝ ֵ ֤֢ ll 34 ll


34. Excepting Time, (the other five) of these six substances,- ( are known ) as Extensive substances, (Astikaya) Extensive substances occupy many spatial, units, as mentioned in Jaina scriptures


ӏꕕӏꕕ֝ӟ֤֯ ן l

ִִ֬ ߾ ӏ֤ ll 35 ll

ֵ ־ ӟֵ l

ֻ ֵ֢ ֤֯ ll 36 ll 㴴


35-36, ,The atoms of matter are numerable, innumerable and infinite. Verily there are innumerable points of space in . medium of motion, medium of rest and in each individual soul.

The same (innumerable number of spatial units are) in the universe; and in the other, (non-universe) (there are) infinite (number of spatial units). There is no extensiveness in Time; therefore it has one spatial unit (only).


In Gatha No. 9 six principles were mentioned. Out of those the two, i.e., Soul and Matter, were dealt with in gathas 10 to 29. In Gathas 30-86 the remaining four principles have been explained. They are auxiliary causes to the main functions of Soul and Matter.

Medium of motion, is an essentially auxiliary cause of-the motion of Soul and Matter.

Medium of Rest is an essentially auxiliary cause of the static condition of Soul and Matter.

Space is that which-gives room to all substances, including Soul and Matter.

Time is the auxiliary cause of bringing about modifications, in all substances, including Soul and Matter.

Out of these six principles, space is the biggest, having infinite-dimensions all round. Within space there is the universe- which contains all the other five substances, which cannot exist beyond space.

Of the medium of motion and rest, single, immaterial substance pervading t whole of the universe. -

The units of time (each of which is an immaterial and individual substance) are very closely packed up in the universe. They are innumerable in number.

Soul and Matter, being infinite, are found everywhere in the universe, in their various gross or fine forms. In connection with this subject, it is necessary to define and explain what a spatial unit (Pradesha) is.

Spatial unit is (hat part of space which is occupied by the smallest indivisible particle of matter. It is a unit, generally employed in measuring the dimensions of substances in the universe. If we measure the universe taking a spatial unit as our measure, then we find that there are innumerable spatial units in it. The medium of Motion and the medium of Rest are co-extensive with the universe and have thus a similar number of spatial units. Souls are found in different bodies of different dimensions in their mundane state, but still each one of them has the capacity of extending throughout the whole universe Thus the spatial units of each soul arc equal in number to those of the universe, innumerable Matter exists in the universe either in the form of atoms or in the form of molecules. Molecules are composed of either numerable or innumerable : or infinite number of atoms. The-spatial units of matter are thus numerable, innumerable or infinite.

Space substance is infinite in dimension and has thus, an infinite number of spatial units.

All the five substances, except time, occupy more than one spatial unit. -They are therefore called the five extensive substances, Pancha-Astikayas.

The points of time are also innumerable. Each one of these points has its own separate and independent existence. Though each one of them i s connected with another, it is never combined with it. There are innumerable spatial units in the universe, so. the number of points of time as well is innumerable., As each point of time occupies only one spatial unit, and not more than one in any case, it is called not-extensive substance, Akaya-Dravya.

In the universe there are only innumerable spatial units, how then, it may be asked, can it give space to an infinite number of atoms and molecules. The explanation is simple. The material atoms posses the capacity of compressing an infinite number; of themselves into one molecule, which may not occupy more than one spatial unit.. Take the case of light. The space in a room may be occupied by the light of one lamp and also by the light of as many lamps: as may be placed there.

In Gatha 31 Past time is equal to numerable winks multiplied by total number of liberated souls.

As a matter of fact 608 mundane souls are liberated within every period of 6 months and 8 instants. This process has been going on continuously and uniformly since eternity. If we reduce 6 months and 8 instants into winks and divide by 608, we obtain the average time for one soul to obtain liberation, i e-, numerable winks. The number of, winks thus obtained is constant and does not vary. The number of past liberated souls is infinite and as shown: above it increases by 608 within the period of every 6 months and 8 instants. Thus we arrive at the conclusion that the length of past time is infinite and it increases by the constant number of winks ( vide Gommatasara by Mr. J- L. Jaini, Jiva Kanda Gatha 578.)


8 Avalis or Winks = 1 Kashta.

16 Kashtas = 1 Kala.

32 Kalas = 1 Ghatika.

60 Ghatikas = One day and night or 24 hours.

1 Ghatika = 24 mintes.


㐐ֻ֤ ע׾ָ ן ם l

ֳ־ ߆ ֐־ەֵ ll 37 ll


37. The Matter substance (is) material; all the rest are immaterial. Soul (has) consciousness as its nature, all the rest are devoid of the attribute of consciousness.


Pure Thought Activity ( Shuddha Bhava )


߾פ֓ ִִ֤֯֝ l

׬ִ㲳־֐֯֕֋ פ ll 38 ll


38. The external principles, soul, etc., should be renounced. Ones own soul, absolutely free from all the attributes and modifications, caused by the impurity of Karmas should be realised.


ֻ ־֚֝ ֝־ֳִ֝־֚֝ l

׸ֳ־֚֝ ߾ ׸֚֝ ll 39 ll


39. ( From the real point of view ), there are in the soul, no stages of ( impure ;) thought-activities Vibhava Swabhava Sthana, neither there are degrees of regard and disregard; nor grades of feelings of pleasure, nor degrees of the feelings of pain.


ךפӬֽ֝ ֵכ֝ ֤֚֝ l

֐ֽ֝ ߾ ֚֝ ll 40 ll


40. In soul, there are no stages of duration bondage, (Sthiti Bandha Sthana); neither (there are the stages of Karmic nature ( Prakriti Sthana ); nor (are) the degrees of the molecular bondage (Pradesha Sthana) nor are the grades of fruition bondage) ( Anubhaga Sthana ), nor are the degrees operation of Karmas ( Udaya Sthana ).


ևֳ־֚֝ ֵֈִ־֚֝ l

ֳ־֚֝ ִ֝ ־֚֝ ll 41 ll


41. (In soul there are ) neither the stages of destructive thought-activities, ( Kshayika Bhava ), nor the degree of destructive subsidential thought-activities ( Kshay opashamic Bhava ), nor the grades of operative thought activities ( Audayika Bhava ) , nor the degrees of subsidential thought activities ( Aupashamika Bhava ).


և־ӳִ֝ ևִָָָ l

֕ם֕߾ִ֐֝-֝ ߾ ן ll 42 ll


42. , In soul ( there is ) neither wandering in the four conditions of life ( gati ), nor ( are there ) birth, old age, death, disease, and sorrow, nor are there the stages of bodily materials ( Kula ) , nuclei ( yoni ), soul-classes (i Jiva Samasa ) and soul quests


ם֧ ם֧ םִִ ם֌ םָֻӲ l

߸֐ ם֧ םִ םֲֵ ll 43 ll


43. Soul (is ) turmoil-less, bodyless; fearless, independent and faultless; without attachment, free from the activities, ( of mind, body and speech ). devoid of delusion and free from ignorance.

ܝ֣ ߸֐ םֻ ֵֻ֤םִ㌍ l

ם֌ִ ם֌ םִ֝ םִ֤ ll 44 ll


44. Soul ( is ) possessionless, free from attachment, blemishless, devoid of all defects, desirables, angerless, priceless ( and ) without lust.


ָ֝֐ֱ֬ ߯֝ֆֵפֵ֕ l

Ӛ֝ ֝ ־ ߾ ן ll 45 ll


45. Colour, taste, smell, touch, conditions of female, male, and common-sex inclinations, etc., ( six kinds of bodily ), figures, (and six kinds of ) skeletons; all these are not found in the soul.


ִִֹ֐Ӭ ֢ ֐ִ֧ l

ִ֝ػ֐֐ ߾ִםקӚ֝ l 46 l 㴴 l


46. Know the soul to be, devoid of taste, colour and smell, not cognizable (by the senses ), possessed of the attribute of consciousness soundless, incomprehensible by any outward sign and one having no describable form.


׸ֵ ֬ ־ִۻֵ ߾ ׸ ן l

ִִָָ֕㌍ ֻ׍ ll 47 ll


47. Just as liberated souls ( are ) free from oldness, death and birth, and are crowned with the eight attributes; so ( are ) mundane souls ( from the pure real point of view. )


ָ߸ ׾֝ ؝פ םִֻ ׾㬤 l

֐ ֬ ߾ ֤ ll 48 ll


48. Just as liberated souls, residing at the top-most of the universe are bodiless indestructible, independent of senses, free from ( karmic ) filth, and pure, so the mundane souls ( also ) should be considered ( from the pure real point of view. )


־ ־ ־ֵָ ֛ ם֤ l

־ ֬־ 㬤ֵ ֤ ߾ ll 49 ll

49. From the practical point of view, all mundane souls have been described as possessing all the aforesaid conditions; but from the pure, real point of view they also ( are ) of the same nature as liberated souls.



The universe is full of souls. They are of two kinds:-

Liberated and Mundane.

Liberated souls are those which are quite free from karmic dirt and have no possibility of ever appearing again in the conditions, which arise from the bondage of the karmic matter with the soul. They are all-powerful, all-knowing, all perceiving, all-blissful, and absorbed in their own real and pure nature. These liberated souls always maintain their individual existence and abide at the topmost of the universe.

Mundane souls are those souls which are in bondage of karmic matter. It is on account of this matter that they exist in the universe, in different conditions of life, and experience innumerable kinds of pain and pleasure. These souls are so avaricious, that their worldly wants are never satisfied. Whatever pleasures they enjoy, are sensual, so they cannot satisfy their desires. It is a matter of daily experience that the more the desires of a mundane soul are satisfied, the more they are multiplied in every direction. On one side these souls experience the fruits of their past karmas, which shed off after fruition; on the other side, at the same time, they bind fresh good or evil karmas, on account of their multifarious impure thought-activities. This process has been going on since eternity and will go on as long as the soul does not identify and realise itself and does not adopt proper measures to walk on the path of liberation. It is due to these simultaneous operations of fruition and , bondage, that souls transmigrate from one condition of life to the other.

It should be noted, that there are 8 main kinds of Karmas:-

(a) Knowledge- obscuring Karma ( Jnana-varniya Karma ) is that matter which obscures the knowledge-attribute of the soul.

(b) Conation obscuring Karma (Darshana-varniya Karma ) is that matter which cbscures the conation attribute of the soul.

(c) Feeling Karma ( Vedaniya Karma ) is that Karma, by the operation of which, mundane souls come in contact with agreeable or disagreeable objects, which in their turn cause the feelings of pleasure or pain in the Soul, according to their various degrees of attachment and aversion therein.

(d) Deluding Karma ( Mohaniya Karma ) is that karma which obscures tne attributes-of right-belief and right conduct of .the soul.

(e) Age-Karma ( Ayu Karma ) is that karma which causes and determines the sojourn of a soul into a particular body.

(f) Body-making Karma (Nama Karma) is that karma, the operation of which cause condition of existence, formation of different (kin4s of bodies and the change from one to another condition of existence.

(g) Family-determining Karma (Gotra Karma) is that karma by operation of which a soul ; is to take birth in a high or a low family.

(h) Obstructive karma ( Antaraya Karma ) is that karma which- obscures the infinite power of the soul.


Out of these 8 karmas Nos. [a], [b], [d] and [h] are known as the destructive ( ghatiya ) karmas; because they destroy the manifestation of the real and essential attributes of the soul The manifestation of these attributes in mundane souls varies inversely to the proportionate decrease ,of the forces of these four destructive karmas.

The remaining four, i,e., [c], [e], [f] and [g] are called non distinctive karmas ( Aghatiya Karmas ). They are so called, because they do not obscure the real attributes of the soul; but effect only the external environments of the soul. As mundane souls are in bondage of these 8 karmas, they forget their real flutter And never realise their true-self and wander in different conditions of existence, distressed, discontent and yearning for sensual pleasures.

In order to avoid all this worry and to obtain real and eternal peace and happiness, it is necessary to get rid of the fifth of these karmas.

Thus It is necessary for a mundane soul, longing for eternal; happiness and salvation, that it should identify and realise itself. Identification means, knowing the true nature of itself and the karmic matter, which are two substances entirely different from each other.

Real point of view is that Which deals only with the true and pure aspect of a substance respective of its relation with other substances.

Practical point of view is that which deals with a substance, having regard to its relations with other substances.

When we. look at mundane souls from the practical point of view, various kinds of conditions and modifications are found in them; but when we think Of, them from the real point of view, we find that there is no distinction at all between them and the liberatedsouls, i.e. the mundane souls are in reality as free as the liberated souls from all these conditions which arise from, and depend upon the bondage of karmic matter with soul. Whenever any mundane soul taking the real point of view into consideration identifies itself as juice free and Separate from matter, and realises itself as such, passions decrease and peacefulness increases. By this process of self identification and self-realization, the past-karmas already in bondage with the soul, shed off without fruition and before due time, and the inflow and bondage fresh karmas gradually stop. Thus

the soul following this path, gradually improves all round and sometime is able to ultimately, free itself from these : worldly conditions and it self becomes pure arid perfect (Siddha Paramatma ).

Gatha 39 Impure thought-activities, Swabhava Sthana here means all the thought-activities of except the real and the pure thought-activities.


Gatha 40. 1. Stages of Duration bondage, Sthiti bandha Sthana.

2. Stages of karmic nature, Prakriti Sthana.

3.                 Degrees of molecular bondage, Pradesha Sthana.

4.                 Degrees of operation of karmas, Anubhaga Sthana.


Bondage of karma is of 4 kinds, having reference to

1. Prakriti, the nature of the karmic matter, whether it is knowledge-obscuring, or conation-obscuring etc.

2. Sthiti, the duration of the bondage, within which period they will gradually shed off.

3. Anubhaga, the mildness or intensity of fruition, at its maturity within its duration.

4. Pradesha, the quantity of the karmic molecules drawn towards, and bound to the soul.

The first and fourth, i.e. the Prakriti and Pradesha are determined by soul vibrations caused by their actions of mind, body and speech.

Thus the nature and the quantity of the karmic molecules bound to the soul, vary according to the quality and intensity of the soul-vibrations and so there are different stages of karmic nature ( Prakriti Sthana ) and different degrees of the molecular bondage ( Pradesha Sthana. )

The remaining two, i.e. the Duration and the fruition of karmic bondage are determined by passions, anger, pride, deceit and greed, etc.

Thus the duration and fruition off karmic molecules bound to the soul vary according to the mildness or intensity of; the passions and so there are different stages of duration bondage ( sthiti bandha Sthana) and various grades of fruition bondage ( Anubhaga Sthana ).

Udaya Sthana. When the karmic molecules already bound to the soul come into operation, they manifest their mild or strong fruition, i.e.. the effect. So there are different degrees of the operation of the karmas ( Udaya sthana ) as well.

Gatha 41. Thought-activities of soul caused by operation of Karmas are of four kinds:-

1. Subsidential thought-activity. (Aupashamika Bhava). This arises by the subsidence of the deluding ( Mohaniya ) Karmic matter.

2. Destructive-thought-activity ( Kshayika Bhava ). It arises from the destruction of any of the four destructive ( Ghatiya ) Karmas.

3. Destructive-subsidential thought-activity ( Kshayopashamika Bhava ). It arises by the partial destruction, partial subsidence and partial operation of any of the destructive Karmas.

4. Operative thought-activity (Audayika Bhava). It arises by the operation of any of the Karmas.

In reality, the thought-activities of a soul are innumerable, so naturally there are various gradations in all the above-mentioned thought-activities, according to the subsidence, destruction and operation, etc., of the Karmas.

Gatha 42. 1. Nucles (yoni) is the place whereto the mundane souls transmigrate, after leaving the previous body. The process of formation and development of the new external body begins there. Nuclei are of various kinds, according to their nature, structure, etc.

They are eighty-four lakhs in number.

2- physique (Kula) means natural constitution. Its characteristics , vary according to the, kind f the material molecules of which the external bodies are made. The total number of the kinds of physique, is 1975,000,000,000,00.

Soul-classes ( Jiva ; Samasa ).

Those common characteristics,, by which mundane souls, though of marry distinctions and kinds,, may be distinguished by being collected into groups, are called soul-classes.

Their main divisions are -14 which are given in commentary Gatha 15-17

Soul-quests ( Margana ) are conditions, forms and qualities, etc., by means of Which or amongst which souls are searched for. : They are fourteen in number as follows:-

l-: Condition of existence ( Gati ).

2. Senses ( Indriya )

3.                 Embodiment ( Kaya ).

4.                 Vibratorya activities (Yoga )

5.                 Sex inclinations ( Vada ).

6.                 Passions (Kashaya)

7.                 Knowledge ( Jnana;).

8.                 Control (Samyama).

9.                 Conation (Darshana).

10 Thought-paint (Leshya)

12. Right belief (Samyaktva)

13. Rationality ( Sanjnitva ).

14. Assimilation ( Ahara ).

For detailed knowledge of all: these technical terms consult Gommatasara Jiva Kanda and Karma Kanda translated by Mr. J.L. Jaini, S,B.J. Vols. V and VI.

㾾֐֤־ ָ־ ָ־״פ l

֐ִ֤֤ ӟָ֓ ll 50 ll

50. All the aforesaid conditions relate either to foreign substances or foreign (modifications; hence ( they ) should be, renounce. Internal principle, is ones own substance, soul. ( It only ) should


׾־ָߵ׳ם־ - ׾־ەִֵ֧ ִ֢ l

ֵ׾ִ׾ֲִ׾־ەֵ פ ֝֝ ll 51 ll


51; Conviction (in things ascertained as they ) alone without ( any:) perverse motive ( is ) right belief, ( Samyak Barshana. ( Knowledge) front doubt, ( Samshaya), perversity ( Vimoha ) and Vaccilation ( Vibhrama ) is right knowledge (Samyak Jnana).


ִֻ׻ִ֝֐֜׾־ەִֵ֧ ִ֢ l

׬֐ֳִ־ ֝ ֤֟֓֝ ll 52 ll


52.: Conviction, from wavering ( Chala ), impurity ( Mala )t and non-steadfastness ( Agarha ) alone ( is ) right belief. Correct understanding ( Adhigama ) of what principle are worth renouncing and what are worth realising, ( is ) light knowledge.

ִ֢ ם״֢ ו֝ ֵ֝ ׸ l

ӟָ ם֤ ִ֝ ֵ֯ ll 53 ll


53. The external causes of right belief are the Jain scriptures and the persons who know them; while the destruction, etc, of right-belief-deluding Karma are said to be the internal causes.

ִ֢ ֝֝

׾֕פ ꌏ פ ָ l


ִ ָ ־֌״ ll 54 ll


54. Listen, ( just as ) Right Belief and Right knowledge are the ( causes of ) liberation, ( so ) is Right Conduct. There-fore I shall describe Right Conduct from ( both ) the real and the practical points of view.


־ֵָ֓׸ ־ֵָ פ ־ָ֓ l

םֵ֓֝֓׸ ־ָ֓ פ ם֤֓ ll 55 ll ӓֵ l


55. Right conduct from the practical point of view, is to practice austerities from the practical stand-point, while Right Conduct from the real point of view is to observe austerities from the real stand-point.



Right-belief, Right Knowledge together with Right Conduct were described as the path liberation in Gatha 3.

Belief in order to be called Right Belief must be free from perversity and falsity of motive. Real motive -6f very mundane soul bent upon spiritual advancement is the realization of the self and the attainment of true and perfect peace,- freedom and happiness. AH other motives which do not lead towards this goal, but rather mislead the soul towards worldly pleasures, which are in reality -the causes of misery, are false and perverse. It is also necessary that right- belief should be free from the defects of wavering, impurity and non-steadfastness. la wavering condition of right belief, its substance remains quite sound, but only the form is slightly disturbed as the surface of an ocean is disturbed by waves, to illustrate which is generally quoted the example of a person, who worships Shanti Natha in preference to the other Tirthankaras for acquiring peace, plenty and comfort.

Impurity here implies the following five defects :-a) Doubt (Shanka), b) Desire of sense pleasures (Kamksha), c)- Disgust (Vichikitsa), 4) admiration of wrong believers (Anyadrishti samstava.)

Non-steadfastness. This condition arises when right belief is not quite fixed in true nature of things. For example worshipping in ones own temple in preference to the temple built by others. A person who has a steadfast right belief knows that it does not make the slightest difference, whether you worship in your temple or in one .built by your neighbour.

The external cause of right belief is to study the Jaina Scriptures and to attend upon those who know them fully well, with the object of understanding the principles from them. The internal cause of right belief is the subsidence, or destructive-subsidence, or destruction of the right belief-deluding karma and of the four error-feeding (anantanubandhi) passions. (For details see Gatha 26 Gommatasara Jiva Kanda by Mr. J. L. Jaini S, B. J, Vol V.)

Right knowledge should always be free from doubt, perversity and indifference. A soul possessing right knowledge has clear and correct knowledge of the essential principles and has the capacity of discrimination between what is worth renouncing and what is worth realising.

Along with these two, i.e., right belief and right knowledge, right conduct is an essential factor for the attainment of liberation; because neither any one the three, nor any two of the three can constitute the path of liberation. Right conduct has been described here as being of two kinds. When austerities, etc., are practised from the practical point of view, with the aim of attaining real right conduct, i.e., self-absorption, they are said to be practical right conduct. Being absorbed h> ones own true nature is the real austerity and the same is the real right conduct.


Practical Right Conduct (Vyavahara Charitra )


֕ם֕߾ִ֐֝-֝և ֝։ ߾֝ l

ָםֵ֢֝-׸ִ ֜־֤ ll 56 ll


56. Thought-activity free from ( all ) undertakings ( injurious to any of ) the mundane souls (which are) known as existing in (any of the various) physiques, nuclei, soul-classes, soul-quests etc., is the first vow ( non-injury ) Ahimsa.


֐ ֝ ֳ֯׸ִ l

֕ ֵ ׾פ־ֵ l 57 l


57. A saint, who renounces thought-activity leading to telling falsehood, on account of delusion, attachment and aversion is ( said ) to observe always the second vow, ( truth ), Satya.


ִ ֵָ ה ָ֢ l

פ ֳ־ ןפ־֤ פ ll 58 ll


58. He, who renounces the thought-activity of picking up articles belonging to another, lying in a village, a town or a forest, ( is said ) to observe the third vow ( non-stealing ), Achaurya.


ۓ ӓֳ־ ם־֢֤ l

֝׾־ەֵ֯׸ִ ߵ־֤ ll 59 ll


59. He, who having seen the beauty of a woman, is not moved by a desire for her; or whose thought-activity is free from sex-animate feeling ( Maithuna Sanjna ), ( is said to observe ) the fourth vow ( chastity ), Brahmacharya.


־ ӣ֝ ֐ םֳָ־֝֯㾾 l

ӓִ־֤״פ ם֤ ׸ֳָ ll 60 ll


60. The carrier of the load of ( right ) conduct, i.e., a saint, who having first formed the idea of being unconcerned with all worldly attachments, renounces them is said to observe the fifth vow of possession-lessness, ( Parigraha Tyaga. )


ִ֐ פ ֻӟ ִ֯֝ l

֓ ִ֝ ׸״֤ ll 61 ll

61. A saint, who walks upon a trodden path, free from living beings, in day time, after seeing ( carefully ) a distance of four arms length ( two yards ) a faced, ( is said i to observe carefulness in walking ( Irya Samiti ).

㝝֍ָ֯؝ֵ֤֯ ֵ֝ l

׸ד֢ ָ֯ ״֤ ֤ ll 62 ll


62. He, who having renounced backbiting, ridiculing, talking ill of others, self-praising and harsh words, speaks what is good for himself as well as for others ( is said ) to have carefulness in speech ( Bhasha Samiti ) .

׸ָ֝ ֢ l

פ ָ ֢ ֳִ ֝״֤ ll 63 ll


63. He, who calmly takes food, which prepared not by, himself nor that which he made others prepare for himself, nor that prepared by others with his approval, and which is wholesome, free from living-beings, and given by another ( with devotion ), is said to have carefulness in eating ( Eshana Samiti ).


꟣ևӛև ׾֐ ֵ֟֯׸ִ l

֤־֝ם֌֝״֤ פע םק l 64 l


64. ( A saint who has ). acted with care in picking up, and pulling down books, and jug ( Kainanclala ),.etc,, is said, to have carefulness in lifting and laying down, (Adana-nikshepana Samiti).


ֳ״֤֯ ָָ l

ָפ֐ և״֤ ll 65 ll


65 (A saint, who) discharges his excrement, etc., in a place which is secret, free from all living brings, and where there is no obstruction on behalf of anybody, ( is said ) to have carefulness in excreting (Pratishthapana Samiti ).

ִָֻ֝֐֧և ־֝ l

׸ָ ֝ ־ֵָ ׸ ll 66 ll


66. Renunciation of passionateness, delusion, animate-feeling, attachment and aversion, and other impure thought-activities, is from the practical point of view, called control of mind ( Mano-gupti ) .


߸֢֕֓֍פֵ֝ ־ l

׸ָ ֵ֐ ׻ֵפםֵע־ֵ֝ ll 67 ll

67. Renunciation of censurable gossip relating to women, state, theft, food, etc., which cause the bondage of evil Karmas, or refraining from telling falsehoods, etc., ( is called ) control of speech, ( Vachana-gupti ) .


Ӭִָ֝֔ ֍֝ ָ֤ߵ l

ֵ׍׸םֵ֢ םק ֵ֐ע ע ll 68 ll


68. Renunciation of bodily movements, such as binding, piercing, beating, counteracting, expanding, etc., is called control of body. ( Kaya-gupti )


ֵפםֵ֢ ֝ ֝ ֝ l

׻ֵפםֵآ פ ll 69 ll


69. ( From the real point of view ) know, that abstaining from attachment, etc., is control of mind; and freedom from falsehood, etc , or silence is control of speech.


ֵ׍׵םֵ֢ ֈ֐ ָ߸ l

ևםֵ֢ ָ߸ע ע םק ll 70 ll


70. ( From the real point of view ) refraining from bodily movements, non-attachment to the body, restraint of body or renunciation of causing injury, etc., is called control of body.



From the real point of view, self-realisation is the path to liberation; but in order to reach the stage of self-realisation it is necessary that certain rules of conduct should be followed and practised. These rules are divided into ( 1 ) Laymens rules of conduct, and ( 2 ) saints rules of conduct. The rules of conduct to be observed by a layman, only serve as a means to the partial control of his passions. If he wants to make further progress and attain perfection, he must adopt the rules of conduct laid down for saints These rules practically consist in the renunciation of all worldly possessions and occupations.


The practical right conduct to be observed by saints is of 13 kinds :-

Five vows :-

1. Vow of non-injury.

2. Vowoftnith.

3. Vow of non-stealing.

4. Vow of chastity.

5. Vow of possessionlessness.


The saints have to observe these rules fully, without any blemish or transgression, so that their thought-activities may remain pure and undisturbed, and they may be able to apply themselves to self-realisation.

6. Carefulness in walking.

7.                 Carefulness in speaking.

8.                 Carefulness in eating.

9.                 Carefulness in lifting up and laying down.

10.             Carefulness in excreting.


Three kinds of control :-

11. Control of mind.

12: Control of speech.

13; Control of body.


֑֝ևָ ֻ֝֝ևָ֐ l

۟ֆ֤ֆ ׸ ׸ ן ll 71 ll


71. Worshipful Lords ( Arhats ) are those who are entirely free from all the ( four ) destructive Karmas, arid are possessed of the highest attributes, Omniscience, etc., and crowned with the thirty-four extraordinary glories, ( Atishaya ).



When a soul, following the rules of conduct laid down for the saints, as given in previous Gathas, realises the self and advances, on, till it reaches the with spiritual stage of vibratory omniscient ( Sayoga Kevali ), it is then that the soul is called Arhat or the Worshipful Lord. In this stage the .soul is still in the physical body and. reveals the Truth


ֲֽӬ ֐ִ۝ֵ ָ l

֐ך ם֓ ֬ ׸ ן ll 72 ll


72. those (souls ), who have destroyed the bondage of the eight Karmas, are possessed of the eight great attributes, abide at the topmost of the universe and are the most exalted and indestructible, are Perfect Souls ( Siddhas ).


ӓִָ֓֐ ؓפ֤ן֤ם֧֝ l

߸ ֐ӳ߸ ֵ׸ ׸ ן ll 73 ll


73. Those ( saints ), who are possessed of five kinds of conduct, who have trampled down the fury of the elephant of five senses, who are firm in their determination, and who are profound in virtue are ( called ) Heads of the order of Saints, ( Acharya ).


ֵ֢֝ӕ ו֝֍ֵֵ֤֯֟ l

ם֌ֳ־ ֵ֕ ׸ ן ll 74 l


74. Those ( saints ), who are brave, possessed of the three jewels, are preachers of the categories enunciated by the Conqueror ( Jina ), and are endowed with the thought-activity of desirelessness, are ( known ) as the Preceptors ( Upadhyaya ).


־ָ׾ִ֯֌ ֈ۾ֵָָ l

ם֐ӣ םִ ׸ ן ll 75 ll


75, Those who are free from all ( worldly ) occupations, are always deeply absorbed in four kinds of contemplation ( Aradhana ) , and are possessionless and delusionless, are ( said ) to be the Saints, ( Sadhus ).



According to Jaina Philosophy there are 14 spiritual stages of thought-activities, which a soul, desirous of being liberated and of attaining perfection has to pass through. .The first stage is of wrong belief; the second and third are the intervening progressive stages of thought-activities between wrong belief, and right belief of the 4th stage.

A soul which enters the 4th stage is said to have reached the thresh-hold of liberation. At this stage, the soul has got only right belief. As soon as that soul begins to follow the practical vows of a layman, it is said to enter the 5th stage. Again when this very soul, rising higher up, renounces the world and observes the vows fully and wholly, it is said to have entered the 6th and 7th stages, where it is known as a saint. While a saint remains in these two stages and improves .his qualifications, so that he has the capacity of controlling the whole order of saints and supervises their general conduct, he is said to be the Head of the order of saints or an Acharya, and as such he follows and practises the five kinds of conduct as given in Gatha 73.


They are as follows:-

(a) Conduct, of right belief ( Darshanachara ) performance of all those duties which keep right-belief firm.

(b) Conduct of knowledge ( Jnanachara ) minute and detailed study of the scriptures, with the view of increasing right knowledge.

(c) Conduct of observing saintly character, (Charitrachara ). Thirteen kinds of rules of conduct have been described in Gathas 56-70.

Observing those rules regularly and flawlessly with the idea realising the self is called Charitrachara.

(d) Conduct, of austerities ( Tapachara ) is the proper and regular observance of twelve kinds of austerities (Tapas ) as fasting, etc., (vide Tattwarthadhigama Sutra, Chapter IX, Sutras 19-20.)

(e) Conduct of soul-force ( Viryachara ) means the development of soul-force and repulsion of the Karmic forces with the view of attaining liberation An Acharya, as defined above, himself practises and observes all the above-mentioned, five kinds of conduct, and instructs the saints of his order to do the same. Any saint of the order who is in the 6th and the 7th stages, is well versed in Jaina Scriptures, and is capable of teaching and instructing other saints of order, is called the preceptor (Upadhyaya).

All other saints who are neither Acharyas nor Upadhyayas are known as Sadhus. They may be in any spiritual stage from the 6th to the 12th stages, where delusion is absolutely destroyed. From the 8th to the 12th, all are the progressive stages of meditation. In these stages a saint is deeply absorbed in meditation and self-realisation, and there it is impracticable for him to observe and fulfil the main and special duties of an Acharya or an Upadhyaya

A saint, after destroying the Delusion Karma ( Mohaniya ), reaches the 12th stage, and there finally destroys the three reaming destructive Karmas, i. e., knowledge-obscuring, conation-obscuring and obstructive Karmas, by dint of meditation and self-realisation. Then he enters the 13th stage of Vibratory Omniscient ( Sayoga Jina ), where he is known as Arhat or the Worshipful Lord. The Worshipful Lord proclaims Truth to the world. When the same soul or the Worshipful Lord is about to be entirely freed from Karmas and his vibratory activity has ceased, He is said to have entered the 14th stage of Non-vibrating omniscient Lord ( Ayogi Jina ). During the very short period of this stage, the soul destroys the remaining four Non-destructive Karmas, I. e., feeling ( Vedaniya ), body-making Karmas (Nama), family determining ( Gotra ) and age ( Ayu) Karmas. Then the soul is finally free from all the Karmas, and has accomplished all that was to be accomplished. Such a soul is known as a Perfect Soul ( Siddha ). From the above, we note that a soul, when it observes and follows the 13th rule of conduct, remains, either in the condition of an Acharya, Upadhyaya or a Sadhu and the attainment of the condition of being on Arhat or a Siddha is an outcome of the observance of the rules of Right, Conduct. The Arhat and the Acharya, Upadhaya and Sadhu are said to be Mahan-Atmas ( Great souls ). All the above five, i-e.. the Arhats, Siddhas, Acharyas, Upadhayas, and Sadhus are called the five supreme Dignitaries Pancha Parameshthi). It is only these five Dignitaries, who are worshipped by the Jainas in general.


׸ֳֵ־֝֋ ־ֵָ פ ׸ l

םֵ֓֝ ָ ־֌״ ll 76 ll


76. From the practical point of view, ( all the previously mentioned ) meditations constitute Right Conduct; that ( which is known ) as Right Conduct from the real point of view will be described further on.







ֳָ־ ן׸֢ ֤֝֯֕ֆ l

ָ ӟ ߝ ll 77 ll


77. I am neither hellish, nor sub-human, nor human, nor am I in the celestial condition. T am neither the doer, nor do I make others do, nor am I the approver of the doers.


֐֚֝֝ ֚֝ ߾֚֝ l

ӟ ߝ ll 78 ll


78. I am neither in any of the Soul-quests, nor I am in any of the Spiritual stages nor do I belong to any of the soul classes. T am neither the doer, nor do I make others do, nor am I the approver of the doers.


ֻ ֹ ָ l

ָ ӟ ߝ ll 79 ll


79. I am neither a child, nor young, nor old, nor the cause of any of them. I am neither the doer nor do I make others do, nor am I the approver of the doers.


֐ ָ l

ָ ӟ ߝ ll 80 ll


80. I am neither attachment, nor aversion, nor delusion, nor the cause of any of them. I am neither the doer, nor do I make others do, nor am I the approver of the doers.

֝ ֵ ״ l

֝ ָ ӟ ߝ ll 81 ll ӓֵ


81- I am neither anger, nor pride, nor deceit, nor greed. I am neither the doer, nor do I make others do , nor am J the approver of the doers.


׸ֳ ֕֟ פ ׸ l

פם״֢ כ֤֝ ־֌״ ll 82 ll


82. By practising self- analysis, (a soul) becomes equanimous and thus ( gains ) Right Conduct. In order to fortify this ( conduct ) I shall speak of repentance, etc.


ֵָ֝֝ ֐֤߳־־ָ ׍ l

֝ ֵפ פע כ֝ ll 83 ll


83. He, who leaving aside (all) forms of speech and getting rid of ( impure ) thought-activities, such as attachment, etc., meditates upon his own soul ( is said from the real point of view ) to have repentance ( Pratikramana ).

ָև ּ ׾ָ ׾ l

כ֝ և כִ֝ֆ ִ ll 84 ll


84. He, who avoiding (all sorts of ) transgressions particularly, is absorbed in self-contemplation is said to have repentance; because he himself is the embodiment of repentance.


ֵָ ֵָ פ ףָ־ l

כ֝ և כִ֝ֆ ִ ll 85 ll


85. He, who avoiding ( all sorts of ) disinclination towards conduct, is absorbed in self-conduct, is said to have repentance, because he himself is the embodiment of repentance.


֐ ׸֢ וִ֝֐ פ ָ־ l

כ֝ և כִ֝ֆ ִ ll 86 ll


86. He, who avoiding the wrong path, firmly walks in the right path of the Conquerors ( Jinas ) is said to have repentance because he himself is the embodiment of repentance.


ֳֻ־ םֻ ׸ִפ l

כ֝ և כִ֝ֆ ִ ll 87 ll


87. A saint, who avoiding all thorny thought-activities, enjoys the modifications of only an unblemished thought-activity, is said to have repentance; because he himself is the embodiment of repentance. .


֢ עֳ־ ן֐ע֐ l

כ֝ և כִ֝ֆ ִ ll 88 ll


88. A saint, who avoiding uncontrolled thought-activities, is absorbed in the three-fold control ( of mind, body and speech ), is said to have repentance; because he himself is the embodiment of repentance.


֝ פ ִ㌍ l

כ֝ և ו֝־ָםק ll 89 ll


89. He, who avoids (both) the thoughts of pain and ill-will, and entertains righteous and pure thoughts is said to have repentance in the aphorisms delivered by the Conquerors (Jinas).