״֓֯פ־ 㾾 ߾֝ ׾ֵ ׾ָ l

ִ֢֯פ־ ׾ֵ ן ߾ ll 90 ll


90. (Impure) thought-activities, (such as) wrong belief, etc., have been experienced before since eternity by a mundane soul, (but) pure thought-activities such as right belief, etc , have never been experienced by this soul.


״֤֓֝֝֝֓׸ և םָ l

ִָ֢֝֝֓ ־և כ֝ ll 91 ll


91 . He, who having completely renounced Wrong Belief, ( Wrong ) Knowledge and ( Wrong ) Conduct, meditates upon Right Belief, ( Right ) Knowledge and ( Right ) Conduct ( is said to have ) repentance.


ִֆ ֤ ۴ ך פ ם־ָ l

ִ ִ֝ ִֽ כ֝ ll 92 ll


92. Soul is a supreme category, Saints absorbed in it destroy the Karmas; therefore self-concentration only is the repentance of the highest order.


֝םֻߝ ׸֐ և ־֤֝ l

ִ ִ֝ ־פָ כ֝ ll 93 ll


93. A saint absorbed in self-concentration, renounces all defects. Therefore self-concentration only constitutes the repentance of all transgressions.



۝֤ כ֝ l

֓ ־և

֤ פ כ֝ ll 94 ll

94. He, who having understood the modes of repentance, as related in the scripture known by the name of Pratikramana Sutra meditates upon it, is then said to have repentance ( from the practical point of view ).



In Jaina Scriptures the following six essential duties have been prescribed for a saint :-


1. Repentance ( Pratikramana ).

2. Renunciation ( Pratyakhyana).

3. Praising the Worshipful Lords ( Stuti )

4. Obeisance to the Worshipful Lords, ( Vandana ).

5. Practising of equanimity, ( Samayika )

6. Relinquishment of bodily attachment ( Kayotsarga ).


From the practical point of view, a saint is said to make repentance, when he recounts his sins and transgressions committed during the performance of his daily routine, and makes penance for them in accordance with rules laid down in the scripture called Pratikramana Sutra. This kind of repentance is of a lower degree compared to the repentance described in Gathas 83 to 93 from the real point of view. Practical repentance is only a step to reach the real repentance which consists in directing the pure thought-activity of soul towards the concentration and realisation of the pure self. This kind of repentance causes the shedding of Karmas in a greater number and quantity than practical repentance, and has been termed Real repentance. Thus, for a saint, bent upon attaining liberation, it is essential that he should regard Real repentance as the direct cause of liberation, and should treat practical repentance only as an auxiliary cause to Real repentance.







ִֵֻ֕֯֝֐ֵָ ׍ l

֝ ֵפ ֓֌֝ ll 95 ll


95. He, who having given up all the forms of speech and having detached himself from ( all ) future ( thought-activities ), good or bad, meditates upon his own soul, ( is said ) to have renunciation.


ֻ֝֝־ ֻ֤֝־ և l

ֻע־ פ ؓ֟֋ ֝ ll 96 ll


96. That which is by nature all knowing, all counting, all powerful and all blissful is I. A right knower should realise himself as such.


םֳֵ־ ׾ 㓓և ָ־ l

֝פ פ ־ פ ؓ֟֋ ֝ ll 97 ll


97. That, which never gives up its own nature and never assumes any aspect of anothers nature; but knows and perceives all, is I. A right knower should realise himself as such.


ֵכ׽פ֐ֲ֤֯Ӭ ە֤ l

פ ؓן֕ ֟ פ ףָ־ ll 98 ll


98. The soul, which is free from ( four kinds of ) karmic bondage by karmas ( Prakriti ), by duration ( sthiti), fruition intensity ( anubhaga ) and molecular ( Pradesha ), is I. (A right knower ) should realise himself as such and should remain absorbed i a that thought-activity only.


ִآ ׸֕״ םִִעִ׽ l

ֻӲ֝ ֤ ָ ll 99 ll


99. I renounce attachment and absorb myself in non-attachment, and the soul only is my support; I give up all the rest. ( A right knower should realise himself as such. )


֤ ֕ ֝ ֤ ֝ ׸ l

֤ ֓֌֝ ֤ Ӿָ ll 100 ll


100. Soul only (is) in my knowledge, soul (only) is in ( my ) belief and conduct, soul only (is) in ( my ) renunciation and soul ( only is ) in the stoppage of karmas and in pure, conscious-attentiveness ( A right knower should realise himself as such).



ָפ ߾ ߾פ ֵ l

פ ָ ֕פ ߸ ll 101 ll


101. Mundane soul is killed alone, is born alone, dies alone and alone becomes perfect after being liberated from karmas . ( A right knorwe should contemplate as such ).



֤ ֻ֤֝֝֌֝ l

־ ־ ӕֻ֌֝ ll 102 ll


102. My soul is ever one, eternal, and having knowledge and conation as ( its ) differentia. All the other thought-activities are foreign to me, ( because they arise out of souls ) connection with other ( substances ).



؍ד ׸ ־־ ן׾ ָ l

ִև ן׾ ״ ־ םֵָָ ll 103 ll


103. Whatever wrong conduct is in me, I give up with three-fold activity ( of body, speech and mind ); and practice equanimity ( Samayika ) which is all ( pure ) and formless in three ways.


ִ ־ֳ ֕ ׾ l

֋ ׸ ִ כ֕֋ ll 104 ll


104. I have equanimity towards all living beings and I have no ill-feeling towards any of them. Giving up all desires, I resort to self-concentration.


ם֌ֵ ӟ ־׵֝ l

ֳֵָߤ ֓֌֝ ll 105 ll


105. He, who is free from passions, has controlled his senses and is brave, enterprising and afraid of birth and rebirth ( is said ) to practise happy renunciation.


և ߾֍֝ ם֓ l

֓֌֝ ֌פ ׸ ӕ֤ םִֵ ll 106 ll


106. Thus, the saint who is constantly engaged in distinguishing between soul and material karmas, can regularly pursue renunciation with certainty.



Practical Pratyakhyana relates only to the avoidance of those thought-activities and actions which are likely to arise in a mundane soul in future and cause disturbance in the observance of vows without transgressions and in the performance of essential duties. Renunciation (Pratyakhyana ) thus signifies a resolution to avoid particular actions and thought-activities in future. This has been dealt with in gathas 101-106. This kind of renunciation, although a great check for fresh bondage of evil Karmas, is not by itself pure renunciation. It is only an auxiliary cause to the practice of real renunciation which is .self-absorption. In real renunciation, the soul takes shelter in the pure nature of its own self, and is not allowed to be obsessed by any other idea which does not relate to itself; In this kind of renunciation, a saint realises himself to be all knowing, all powerful, and all-blissful; and thinks that there is no distinction whatsoever between his soul and a perfect and liberated soul When he is thus absorbed in his own self, he himself is really Right Belief, Right Knowledge, Right Conduct, Right Renunciation, and pure conscious thought-activity, all personified.


This real renunciation is described in gathas 95-100. In gatha 103 the author has referred to the practice of equanimity (Samayika) in three ways, which are the following:-


(a) Lowest way ( Jaghanya ). In this stage a saint resorts to an undisturbed solitude, and calmly and cheerfully withdraws all his thought-activities leading to mental disturbance, and meditates upon practical Right Belief Right Knowledge, and Right Conduct. For illustration, he thinks of the nature of meditation ( Bhavana), etc. This way of meditation serves only as a stepping stone to-the next higher way.

(b) Middle way ( Madhyama ). In this stage, the saint withdraws his thought-activities from all the external objects, and is mainly concerned with different aspects and attributes of soul itself. It is a kind of meditation only, and a stepping stone to the highest way.


(c) Highest way ( Uttama ). In this stage the saint withdraws his thought-activities from all sorts of wavering contemplation about soul, and becomes entirely and steadfastly absorbed in his own self. It is self-realisation and in this condition he enjoys true peace and happiness It is pure thought-activity, without any Sort of attachment or aversion, and so causes shedding off of past karmas in large quantity. It is real equanimity and it alone is real renunciation.







֍֍ ׾־֐֯֕֋ פ׸ l

֝ ֵפ ִֵֻ֝֝ פ ll 107 ll


107. A saint, who meditates upon soul as free from quasi-karmic matter (No-Karma), and karmic matter, and devoid of non-natural attributes and modifications, ( is said ) to have confession ( Alochana. )


ִֻֻ֝Ӕ ׾ֵ֛ߍ ־㬤 l

ֈ׾״ ׸ ֻֻ֝֌֝ ִ֋ ll 108 ll


108. Nature of confession is, here, said to be of four kinds in the Scriptures, ( a ) confession ( Alochana , ( b ) eradication ( Alunchhana ), ( c ) non-deformity ( avikritikarana ), and ( d ) purity of thoughts ( Bhavashuddhi ).


פ ֝ ֳִ־ Ӛ׾֢ ׸ִ l

ֻ֝״פ ֝ ָו֤֝ ֋ ll 109 ll


109. Know him. who, having fixed his thought-activity in equanimity, realises his soul, as observing ( the practice of ) confession (Alochana.) Such is the teaching of the supreme Conquerors.


ִ ִ֓֟ ֍ߵ֯׸ִ l

ߝ ֳִ־ ֻӔ״פ ִק ll 110 ll


110. Independent and equanimous thought-activity of ones own soul, capable of extirpating the root of the tree of karmas, is said to be the eradication ( Alunchhana ).


֤ ֝ ׳֝ ־ ׾ִֻ֐םֵֻ l

ֳ֕֟־֝֋ ׾ֵ֛ߍ ע ׾֝ ll 111 ll


111. He, who realises his soul as free from karmas and as an abode of pure attributes, obtains non-deformity ( avikriti karana ) in equanimity.



ִֵֻ֤֝׾־ەֳֵ־ ־۬ ע l

׸ ־֝ ֻ֤֯׸ ll 112 ll


112. Freedom of thought-activity from lust, pride, deceit, and greed, etc., is purity of thought (Bhavashuddbi.) So has been preached to the deserving souls by the perceivers of universe and non-universe.



This chapter confession ( Alochana ), has been dealt with from the real point of view only.


Confession ( Alochana ) from the practical point of view means full and voluntary acknowledgment of ones own faults and transgressions to the Head of the order of saints. It is not pure, but good thought-activity. It is only an auxiliary cause to the real confession. It can not destroy karmas in as great a number and quantity as quite free from all foreign and impure thought-activities, is the real confession. In this condition, all the four kinds of confession as given in gatha 108, are observed simultaneously. Withdrawal of thought-activity from a fault or defect, which a saint has to acknowledge before the Head of the order, is the real confession, ( Alochana ) ; and it exists when he is absorbed in his own pure self. At the same time, his pure thought-activity causes the shedding off of karmas, which were bound to his soul, on account of the defects of transgression, which he has to acknowledge, before the Head of the order, and of other karmas previously accumulated. This process is known as the eradication of the karmas ( Alunchhana ). In the condition of self-absorption, it is self-evident, that there can be no attachment or aversion of any kind in the mind of a saint, which may mar the natural beauty of his soul. That is, why, it is said that real confession includes non-deformity, (Avikriti Karana).


Again it is quite apparent that in self-realisation, soul is practically free from passions and desires, such as lust, pride, anger, etc. So purity of thought ( Bhava Shuddhi ) also exists simultaneously with the other three in real confession. The main object of the author is clearly to emphasise that a saint should not rest content, only, with practical confession, but if he wants to make any real spiritual progress, he should practise real confession; which only is the cause of liberation from karmic bondage.







֤״פ߻ӕִ֯׸ִ ם֐ ־ l

פ ֵה ־ָ ֵ־ ll 113 ll


113. Thought-activity of observing (five) vows, (five kinds of) carefulness, character and self-control; or attentiveness to the restraint of senses, is expiation ( Prayashchitta ). It should be practised constantly.


פ֐ֲ־֌ֵ֯߳־֝֋ ם֐ l

ֵۓ ם֤ םֵ֐ؓ֟ ם֤֓ ll 114 ll


114. Beingengaged;, in the contemplation of destroying (or subsiding), etc., ones own ( impure ) thought-activities, anger, etc., as well as, meditation upon the attributes of one s own soul, is said to be expiation from the real point of view.


ִֵ ֝ ִ֧֕־ ֵ l

ӟ ֵפ ׾֋ ll 115 ll


115. ( A saint ) verily, conquers the four kinds of passions ( thus ), anger with forgiveness, pride with self humility, deceit with straightforwardness, and greed with contentment.


ی ֝ ֯֝ ד֢ l

ָ ם֓ ֵۓ ll 116 ll


116. A saint who is c6nStant!y absorbed in the supreme knowledge, comprehension or consciousness of his own soul, ( is said to ) have expiation.

Kundakundas Niyamasara


׍ ם֋ ָ־ָ֓ ֝ ־ l

ֵۓ ֝ ֍֝ ֵ ll 117 ll


117. What more need be said, know the complete observance of the best austerities by great saints to be expiation alone. It is the cause of destruction of various karmas ( in larger number and quantity ).


ӟ֝ӟֳ־ ִەֆӤ l

־ָ֓ ׾֝פ ֵۓ ־ ִ ll 118 ll


118. Group of meritorious and demeritorious karmic molecules accumulated ( by a soul ), during its infinite ( number of previous ) Jives, is destroyed by the observance of austerities; so ( practising ) austerities ( is ) expiation.


ֹֻӲֳ֝־ ־ֳ־֯׸֝ l

֌פ ߾ ִ ֝ ־ ll 119 ll


119. A soul, with the thought -activity of being under the shelter of its own ( true ) nature, is capable of renouncing all ( other foreign ) thought-activities. So self-concentration is the complete ( expiation ).


ֵָ֝֝ ֵ֤߳־־ָ ׍ l

֝ ֵפ םִֵ םִֵ ll 120 ll


120. He, who avoiding good and bad forms of speech, and being free from ( impure ) thought-activities, such as attachment, etc., meditates upon his own soul, ( is said ), as a matter of fact, to observe the rule ( of expiation ).


ֵևԯָ ףָ־ ׸ ֝ l

֝֐ ֵև ם۾ֵ֯ ll 121 ll


121. He, who discarding the idea of the durability of other objects, such as body, etc., meditates upon his own soul, with concentrated. mind ( is said ) to have a withdrawal of attachment from body ( Kayotsarga ) . (It is also expiation )







ֵ֝ꓓָ׍׸ ׸֢ ߵֳֵָ־ l

ֵפ ֝ ִָ ll 122 ll


122. He, who giving up the movement of uttering words, realises his self, with non-attached thought activity, ( is said to have supreme equanimity ( parama-samadhi ).


ӕִ؝ִֵ֟־ ִ֕֝ ㌍֝ l

ֵև ֝ ִָ ll 123 ll


123. He, who while observing self-control, vows and austerities, realises his self through righteous concentration ( Dharma-Dhyana ) and pure concentration ( Shukla Dhyana ) (is said ) to have supreme equanimity.


؍ פ ֝־ ֵ֍ ׾ד֢ֈ־ l

ִֵ֝֯ ִָ֤ ִ֝ ll 124 ll


124. What is the good of residing in forest, mortification of body, observance of various fasts, study of scriptures, and keeping silence, etc., to a saint, who is devoid of equanimity ?


׾ָ ־־֕ ן֐ׯؤפ l

ִև և פ ׻֝ ll 125 ll


125. He, who is detached from all injurious actions, observes threefold control ( of body, mind and speech ) and restrains his senses, ( is said to have) steadfast equanimity according to the preaching of the omniscient.


ִ ־ֳ ־ָ l

ִև և פ ׻֝ ll 126 ll


126. He, who is evenly disposed towards all living beings, mobile and immobile, (is said to have) steadfast equanimity, according to the preaching of the omniscient.


۝ ӕִ םִֵ ־ l

ִև և פ ׻֝ ll 127 ll


127. He, who is drawn close to his Soul during the observance of self-control, vows and austerities ( is said to have ) steadfast equanimity according to the preaching of the omniscient.


֐ ׾֐؛ ֝ן l

ִև և פ ׻֝ ll 128 ll


128. He, in whom attachment and aversion do not create any disturbance, ( is said to have ) stead-fast equanimity,. according to the preaching of the omniscient.


֝ ֕פ ם֓ l

ִև և פ ׻֝ ll 129 ll


129. He, who always refrains from painful ( Arta ) and wicked ( Raudra ) concentrations (is said to have } steadfast equanimity, the preaching of the omniscient.

㝝 ־ ֕פ ם֓ l

ִև և פ ׻֝ ll 130 ll


130. He, who always refrains from meritorious and demeritorious thought-activities ( is said to have ) steadfast equanimity, according to the preaching of the omniscient.


؟ ֕פ ם֓ l

ִև և פ ׻֝ ll 131 ll


131. He, who always refrains from risibility, indulgence, sorrow, and ennui ( is said to have ) steadfast equanimity, according to the preaching of the omniscient.


Ӕ ֵ ־ ֕פ ם֓ l

ִև և פ ׻֝ ll 132 ll


132. the, who always refrains from disgust, fear, sexual-inclination, etc., ( is said to have ) steadfast equanimity, according to the preaching o-the omniscient.


ִ ㌍ ֝ ֋פ ם֓ l

ִև և פ ׻֝ ll 133 ll


133. He, who always practices concentration righteous or pure ( is said to have ) steadfast equanimity, according to the preaching of the omniscient.





آ և ־֐ ִ֝ l


פ ע ו֝ ֢֝ ll 134 ll


134. A saint or a layman, who entertains devotion for right belief, right knowledge and right conduct ( is said ) to have devotion leading to liberation. This has been said by the conquerors.

ꌏӐֵ֯׸֝ ֳ ם։ ׯ l

פ ֳָآ ־ֵָ ׸ ll 135 ll


135. He, who knowing the various attributes of the Liberated Soul entertains supreme devotion for them, is from practical point of view, said ( to have devotion ).


ꌏ֯ ֝ ׾։ פ ם־֢߳ l

߾ ־և ֵ֐ ۝ֵ֯֝ ll 136 ll


136. A saint, who keeping himself on the path of liberation entertains devotion leading to liberation, realises his, soul, through it, as full of independent attributes.


ֵ֤߯׸ָ ֝ ӕ֤ l

ֳע֕ ׍ ll 137 ll


137. A saint, who having renounced attachment, etc., is absorbed in himself, ( is said ) to have devotion for meditation. Who else can have such meditation.


־׾ֆֳ־ ֝ ӕ֤ l

ֳע֕ ׍ ll 138 ll


138. A saint, who having got rid of all foreign thought-activities, is absorbed in himself, ( is said ) to have devotion for meditation. Who else can have such meditation ?

׾־ָߵسם־ ׸֢ ֟֓ l

ӕפ ֝ םֳֵ־ ll 139 ll


139. Natural thought-activity ( of a saint ) who having given up perverse motive, contemplates upon the principles, enunciated by the Conquerors, is meditation.


פו֝־׸ ։ ־ָآ l

ם־פ־֝ ִ ֹ ־ָآ ll 140 ll


140. The greatest Conquerors, Rishabha and others being thus absorbed in supreme devotion for self-meditation have attained the perfect bliss of liberation; therefore practise supreme devotion for self-meditation.







פ ־

֝ן ־ l


ם־פ֐ ע ׯ֕ ll 141 ll


141. He, who does not depend upon others, is said to perform independent action. ( This action itself ) is capable- -of destroying karmas, and, so,: it has been described as the path, of liberation.



־ֵ ן ־ l

ן ע ֆ ן

םֵָ־ פ ם֕ ll 142 ll


142. He, who does not depend ( upon others ) is called avasha ( Independent ) . The action of an Avasha should be known to be Avashyaka ( Independent action ). This is the reason, the way and the ( Ideal, *-. ) liberation from material bodies. It is the derivation ( Nirukti ) ( of the word avashyaka ) .


ּפ ִ֝ ־ פ ־ l

ִ ־ֵֻ֌֝ ll 143 ll


143. A saint, who engages himself in evil thought-activities, and depends upon other ( objects,) does not therefore possess the distinctive feature of Independent Action.


ָפ ӕ֤ ֻ ־ ־ l

ִ ־ֵֻ֌֝ ll 144 ll


144. A saint who .engages himself in good thought-activities, also depends upon other (objects) and therefore, his action ( too ) does not possess the feature of independence.


֐ֵ֯֕֝ ד֢ և ׾ ־ l

ֵָ֭־֐ִֵ֝ ן ׸ֵ ll 145 ll


145. Even he, who meditates upon the attributes and the modifications of substances, is not independent, such has been said by the saints, who are free from the darkness of delusion.


׸֢ ָ־

֝ פ םִֻ־ l

־ פ

ۭ֝ ־ ll 146 ll


146. He, who having given up foreign thought activities realises his soul as full of pure attributes, depends upon himself aloe. His action only is said to be Independent Action.


־ և ־ פ ףָ־ l

ִ֝֐ ӯ㝝 פ ߾ ll 147 ll


147. If you want independence, fix your steadfast thought-activities in ( the realisation of ) your own souls nature; it is only through this, that the quality of equanimity ( Samayika ) can be fully developed in a soul.

־֋ ߝ ־ֽ פ ָ֤ ִ֝ l

㾾֍ ִ ־ֵ ll 148 ll


148. A saint, who is devoid of independence, falls off the Right conduct. Therefore, one should pursue independence in proper order as said before.


־֋ ִ֝ פ ӟָ֯ l

־ֵָ֯ߝ ִ֝ פ ll 149 ll


149. A saint occupied with independent actions, is ( called ), internal Soul ( Antaratma ), while he, who is devoid of independent action is ( known as ) External Soul ( Bahiratma ).


ӟָ֯ ּ l

֯ ּ և ӟָ֯ ll 150 ll


150. He, who devotes himself only to the ring or muttering of words. is called the Bahiratma ( External Soul ); but he, who does not restrict himself only to the uttering of words, is said to be the Aataratma ( Internal Soul. ) .


ִ㌍֝۴ ׸֤ ׾ ӟָ֯ l

֝׾ߝ ִ֝ פ ׾֕֝ ll 151 ll


151. He, who is absorbed in righteous and pure concentrations, is the Antaratma; while a saint, who is devoid of such concentration, would be known as the Bahiratma.


כ֝֯פ׍׸ ӟ ם֓ ׸ l

׾ָ֐֓׸ ִ֝ ׽ פ ll 152 ll

152. That saint, alone, who following the real Right Conduct ( occupies himself ) in his ( essential ) duties, such as ( real ) repentance, etc., remains steadfast in the observance of the passionless conduct, ( Vkaraga Charitra ).


ִֵֵ֝ כ֝ ִֵֵ֝ ֓֏֝ םִֵ l

ֻ֝ ִֵֵ֝ ־ ֝ ֕ֈ ll 153 ll


153. Doing repentance by mere words; practising renunciation and observing vows, only by recitation and making confession by speech alone, should all be known as included in the study of ( Swadhyaya ).


פ ֌פ ֤

כ֝ؤ ִֵ֝ l

ע׾ߝ և

֧ ֵ־ ll 154 ll


154. If you have the capacity of practising repentance, etc., in the form of self-concentration, then do, practise as such; and if you are not capable of doing it, then you should have at least, firm belief in that.


ו֝֍ָ֯ כ֝פ ָߌ։ l

־֋ םֵ֍ ם֓ ll 155 ll


155. Having well examined Pratikramana etc. From the scriptures expounded by Jina and having observed silence, a Yogi should always see that his own purpose is sewed.


֝֕߾ ֝֍ ֝׾ ֬ l

ִ ֵ֝׾־֤ ֐ִָ֯֋ ە֕ ll 156 ll


156. There are various kinds of ( mundane ) souls, karmic bondages are of multifarious varieties, and Labdhis ( Acquisitions of knowledge, etc., ) are of different kinds. Therefore, one should avoid entering ( mere ) verbal controversies with ones own co-religionists or those professing other faith.


֬ ם

֢֝ l

֝ ֝ם

ӕ և ָآ ll 157 ll


157. Just as a person getting hold of some treasure, enjoys its fruits in his own native place; similarly a right knower giving up the groups of all foreign objects, enjoys the treasure of self-knowledge.


־ ֝֯׸ ־ֵ ։ l

ִ֢֯פ֝ כ֕ ֻ ֤ ll 158 ll

157. All ancient great men, by having thus practised ( Avashyaka-Independent Action ) and passing through the spiritual stages of Perfect vow ( Apramatta Virata ), etc., have become Omniscient.




֝פ פ ־ ־ָ֋ ֻ ֐־ l

ֻ֝֝ ֝פ פ םִֵ ֝ ll 159 ll


159. It is, from the practical point of view only, that the Omniscient Lord, perceives and knows all; from the real stand-point, the Omniscient perceives and knows his own soul only.



In the Commentary under Chapter V, it has been explained that there are six essential daily duties, prescribed for a saint. They are called the Shadavashyaka Karma of a saint. In this treatise the Learned Author, has mainly dealt with these duties from the real point of view.


Vide Ch. V for Pratikramana.

Ch. VI for Pratyakhyana.

Ch. IX for Samayika.

Ch. VIII for Kayotsarga.


The word Avashyaka, which included the six essential duties, detailed in Chapters V, VI, VII, IX, X has in this Chapter been used in its etymological sense. The word Avashyaka has been derived from Avasha which means independent, thus the action of an independent saint is called an Avashyaka karma, or independent action.

A really true and independent saint must refrain from all good and bad thought-activities. At the time it is necessary for him not to engage himself in the flickering thought-activities concerning various attributes and modifications of all the six substances ( Dravyas ). He should devote his whole attention to the realisation of the pure nature of his Own Self. It is only in this condition of self-absorption, that a saint is said to perform Avashyaka Karma ( Independent Action ).

If a saint or a layman merely observes his respective duties and vows, without having self-absorption as his real aim, he falls far short of the standard and cannot be called the real follower of the path of the Conquerors, He is known as a Bahir-Atma or External Soul, while ^ saint or a layman who believes in this Avashyaka Karma of self-absorption tries to work up to that, and does not restrict himself merely to the observance of external formalities, is called an Antar-Atma, Internal Soul.

The seeker after truth should first scrutinise minutely and carefully the principles laid down in the Scriptures by the Conquerors, and being convinced

of their truth, he should follow them calmly and peacefully, and should avoid all verbal wrangles or controversies with his own co-religionists as well as with those professing other faiths. Seekers after liberation should thus follow in the footsteps of their ancient great spiritual Leaders, who by practising Avashyaka or independence have attained Nirvana.


־ ּ ֝ ֻ֝ם ֝ l

פֵֵָ֟֯ ּ ־ ll 160 ll


160. Just as light and heat exist simultaneously in the sun, so it should be known that conation ( Darshana ) and Knowledge ( Jnana ) exist simultaneously in an Omniscient soul.


֝ ֵָ פי ֵֵ֯ l

ֵָ֯ פ ע ֝ פ ll 161 ll


161. If any one argues that really knowledge illuminates other objects only, conation illuminates soul only, and the soul illuminates itself and other objects; ( continued ).

֝ ֵָ և ֝ ֝ ׳֝ l

פ ָ֐ֵ ֝״פ ۝֤ ִ ll 162 ll


162. If knowledge illuminates others only, then it means that conation ( which is said to know soul only ) is different from knowledge; thus it is said that conation has no concern with other objects.


ֵָ և ֝ ׳֝ l

פ ָ֐ֵ ֝״פ ۝֤ ִ ll 163 ll


163. ( If ) soul illuminates other (objects only), then conation would be separate from soul, because, it has been said, that conation has no concern with other objects.


֝ ֵָ ־ֵָ ֝ ִ l

ֵָ ־ֵָ ֝ ִ ll 164 ll


164. From the practical point of view, (just as) knowledge illuminates other ( objects ), so does conation. From practical standpoint ( just as ) soul illuminates other objects, so does conation ( also ).

֝ ֵ֯ םֵ֓֝֋ ֝ ִ l

ֵ֯ םֵ֓֝֋ ֝ ִ ll 165 ll


165. From the real point of view, ( just as ) knowledge illuminates the self ( only ), so does conation. From the real standpoint ( just as ) soul illuminates the self ( only ), so does conation ( also ).


ֹ ꓔפ ֻ ֻ ֐־ l

և ֝և ؍ ֝ ll 166 ll


166. (From the real point of view), omniscient Lord realises the nature of the self only, but not the universe and the Non-universe. If one argues like that, what blame can be laid upon him ?


ִִ ֝״ֵָ ֐ ־ l

֓ ֝ ֓֌ִ؝פ ll 167 ll


167. That knowledge, only, which knows material and immaterial, conscious and non-conscious, the self and all ( other ) substances, ( is known ) as direct and beyond the cognisance of the senses.


֝֐֯֕֋ ӕִ l

ꓔ ִ

ָꌏפ ll 168 ll


168. He who does not conate all the aforesaid substances together with their various attributes and modifications simultaneously; { is said ) to have indirect conation.


ֵֻ ֝և

֝ ֻ ֐־ l

և ֝և

؍ ֝ פ ll 169 ll


169. ( From the practical point of view } an omniscient Lord knows the Universe and the Non-universe; but not the soul. If any one argues like that, what blame can be laid upon him ?


֝ ߾ֹ

ִ ֝ ֐ l

֝ ׾ ֝פ

֤ פ פ׸ ll 170 ll


170. Knowing is the innate nature of a soul; therefore a soul ( always ) knows the self. ( If knowledge ) does not know the soul; (then it means) that ( knowledge ) is separate from the soul.


֝ ׾֝ ֝ , ֝ ׾֝ ֐ Ӥ l

ִ ֵָ֯ ֝ ֝ פ ll 171 ll


171. Knowledge can not exist without soul, nor can a soul be without knowledge; there can be no doubt in this. Therefore just as knowledge illuminates the self and other ( objects ), so does conation (also)


֝ӟ ӟ ֯㾾 ׻֝ l

׻֝֝ ִ sӬ֐ ם֤ ll 172 ll


172. An omniscient does not know or conate by voluntary exertion it is, why he is all knowing and has thus been said to be free from (fresh karmic) bondage.



߾ Ӭ֍ָ l


ִ ם Ӭ ll 173 ll


֯㾾 ־֝

߾ Ӭ֍ָ l

ָ ֵ֝

ִ ם Ӭ ll 174 ll 㴴 l


173-74. Speech arising from thought-activity, is the cause of bondage in a mundane soul; while speech independent of thought-activity cannot cause any bondage in the all knowing ( soul ).

Words uttered voluntarily do cause bondage in a mundane soul; while involuntary flow of speech does not cause any bondage in an all-knowing soul.


֝םꕕ׾ָ ֯㾾 ׻֝ l

ִ Ӭ ֍ ߵ ll 175 ll


175 An omniscient does not stand, sit and walk voluntarily, therefore there is no (fresh karmic) bondage. ( Bondage occurs only in that soul ), which is, operated upon by the deluding karmas and is after some object of senses.


ֈ ֵ ם֝ և ֵ֛֯ߝ l

֓ ־և ֐ ֐ ִִֵ ll 176 ll


176. No sooner does the age karma terminate, than all the remaining karmas also are destroyed. Then immediately ( the soul thus freed ) goes to the topmost of the universe in one single instant only.

ևָָ֝ ָ ֙ەֵ 㬤 l

֝ևֈ־ ִֵ׾ִ֝֓ ll 177 ll


177. ( A perfect soul is really ) free from old age and death. ( It is ) pure, supreme and devoid of the eight karmas. It possesses the four-fold nature of being all-knowing etc., ( i.e.. al1 collating,- all blissful and all powerful ), ( and is ) indivisible, indestructible and inexhaustible.


־؝פִִ֝ 㝝֯־םִ㌍ l

ָ֐ִ֝׾ָ ם֓ ֻ ֻӲ ll 178 ll


178. ( A perfect soul is really ) free from obstructions, independent of the senses, unparalleled liberated from meritorious and demeritorious kariaas. ( Again it is } free from rebirths and is eternal, non-transient and independent.


׾ : ׾ ㌏

׾ ߛ ׾֤֕ l

׾ ָ ׾ ֝֝

֟ ם־֝ ll 179 ll


179. Where there is neither pain, nor pleasure, nor annoyance, nor any obstruction, nor death nor birth; there only is Nirvana ( Liberation ).

ם־ פ ֐ ם־ ׾۴ םֵ֧ l

ן֝ ֟ פ ם־֝ ll 180 ll


180. Where there are neither senses, nor is there any calamity, nor delusion, nor astonishment, nor sleep, nor desire, nor hunger; there only is Nirvana,

׾ ׾ ؓ֟ ם l

׾ ִ㌍֝ ֟ ם־֝ ll 181 ll


181. Where there are neither any karmas, nor quasikarmas, nor is there any anxiety, nor painful or wicked concentration, nor righteous or pure concentration; there only is Nirvana.


׾֕פ ֻ֝֝ ֻ ֻ ׾׸ l

ֻפ׽ ֢۟ ֤֢֯ ll 182 ll


182. ( In the state of Nirvana ) are found Perfect Knowledge, Perfect Bliss, Perfect Power, Perfect Perception, immateriality, Isness. ( Astitva ), spatiality (Pradeshatva) and formlessness (Amurtatva).


ם־ִ֝ ֬ ֬ ם־֝״פ ִק l

׾ִ㌍ ֓ ֐֯֕ӟ ll 183 ll

183. Nirvana means the Siddha ( the Liberated), and the Siddha means Nirvana; such has been said (by the Conquerors). A soul, liberated from karmas, goes up to the topmost of the Universe.


֝ 㐐ֻ֝ ִ֝ ֝ ־ ִ֟ l

ִ۟֍ֳֵ־ ֢ ָ ֓ן ll 184 ll


184. Movements of souls and matter should be known as co-extensive with the medium of motion ( Dharmastikaya ). They can not go further, because there is no medium of motion.


םִֵ םִֵ

םק ־ֵ֝ ֢ߋ l

㾾־ָ׾ָ פ

֝ߵ ӟ ִֵ֐ ll 185 ll


185. Niyama ( the path of Liberation ) and the fruit of that Niyama ( i.e , supreme Liberation ) have been described ( by me ), on being prompted by Devotion for Scriptures, ( Pravachana Bhakti ). If there are any inconsistencies ( in the description ), the scholars should remove them and make ( this treatise ) complete.


ֳ־ ؝֤ן Ӥ ֐ l

ֵ֝ ꓓ آ וִ֝֐ ll 186 ll


186. If any ( persons ) find fault with this lovely path ( of liberation ), simply through malice, then ( O disciple ) on hearing their words, do not be lacking in devotion to the path of the Conquerors.


םֳֵ־֝ם״֢ ֋ םִִֵָ l

㬤 ו֤֝ 㾾־ָםִ㌍ ll 187 ll


187. Having understood the teaching of the Conquerors which are free from inconsistencies, I have composed this treatise styled as Niyamasara, with the main object of a self-meditation.



A perfect- liberated soul is absolutely free from all sorts of impurities and it shines forth in its true nature, even when a soul is in the position of an Arhat, though it is still in bondage with the four non-destructive ( Aghatiya ) karmas; but it is free from all the four destructive karmas, which obscured its real attributes. As long as the non-destructive karmas are not exhausted, the soul of the Lord Arhat remains in a highly refined physical body ( Parama-audarika sharira ). The Omniscient Lords, being possessed of vibratory activities, move about and preach Truth to the world.

Both the Siddhas and the Arhats are possessed of pure conscious attentiveness ( Shuddha Upayoga ), which includes both perfect conation and perfect knowledge. On account of the total destruction of the knowledge-obscuring and conation. obscuring karmas, both knowledge and conation exist and work simultaneously, just as light and heat exist in the sun and work simultaneously. In the case of souls, who have not attained omniscience, conation precedes knowledge; both do not work simultaneously. Natural .knowledge and natural conation, as described in Gathas II and 13 respectively, are the innate attributes of a soul; in other words they are the perfect knowledge and perfect conation, as found existing and working simultaneously in the omniscients.

In the pure and perfect conation and knowledge of the omniscients all knowable objects are reflected, without any effort, whatsoever, on the part of the omniscient souls. Thus when it is said that from the real point of view, the omniscient soul knows the self only, it means that the soul knows the self together with the reflection of all the objects in the Universe and Non-universe simultaneously. It is only a mode of expression to say, that from the real stand-point, the omniscients know the self alone. As practical point of view deals with a substance having regard to its relation with other substances; wherefore i; is also quite true to say that from the practical point of view, the omniscients know all. It is merely another mode of expression. All includes the self as well. Thus from whatever point of view, we consider, we arrive at the conclusion that an omniscient soul knows the self and all other substances simultaneously.

Soul is a sudstance. and knowledge and conation are its two innate attributes. Substance is nothing else but another name given to the sum total of its attributes and modifications. A substance cannot function independently; whatever is done by it, is done solely by virtue of its attributes and modifications.

When one says that soul conates and knows the self and all other substances, it has to be admitted that perfect conation and perfect knowledge also conate and know the self and all other substances at the same time.

Every luminous substance illuminates both itself and all other objects within its range. Conation and knowledge illuminate both themselves and all other objects.

If knowledge be assumed as not knowing the soul, then it will never be possible for any one to know the soul and it will be sheer nonsense to talk of soul, self-knowledge, self-realisation and self-concentration. In other words, path to liberation and liberation itself will become quite meaningless.

In Gatha 171, it has been laid down that neither knowledge can exist without soul nor can there be a soul without knowledge. It is so; because knowledge being the attribute of the soul, it can never exist independently. If it is said that knowledge does not know the self, then it means that it is quite separate from soul, which it is not. Therefore knowledge knows both the soul as well as all other objects.

It is a well known principle of Jainism that delusion, attachment and aversion, etc., are the main causes of karmic bondage with the soul. The Omniscient Lord having already destroyed the deluding karma Mohaniya), it is entirely impossible that any impure thought-activity such as desire, etc., should arise in Him. Owing to the destruction of the knowledge-and-conation-obscuring karma, and attainment of perfect knowledge and conation, every knowable object is automatically revealed to Him, and nothing remains which he may desire to know, The action of a vibratory omniscient, ( Sayoga Kevali ), in moving about, and preaching Truth, etc, are not volitional; they are due to the operation of the remaining four non-destructive karmas. They are in a way like the reflex actions of the nervous system.

When the Lord Arhat, on the termination of His age karma destroys all the remaining karmas, he is absolutely liberated from all the material bodies, fine or gross. He is pace, perfect independent, free from rebirth, all blissful, has accomplished all that was-to-be accomplished, and as such ascends directly upwards by force of nature and there abides at the summit of the, Universe. He is-then called a Siddha ( a perfect liberated soul ). This condition of a Siddha is known as Nirvana. The word Nirvana according to the Jaina doctrine means extinguishment of all foreign thought-activities, desire, attachment, aversion, etc., and the attainment of the souls own pure individuality together with all its pure and natural attributes and modifications.