The author points out that not only riches, family, kingdom and other outer things, but even the thought-activities of delusion and attachment which are due to the operation of deluding-karma, do not apportion to the soul. A righ-believer should always consider himself to be above any attachment, and centered in his own pure consciousness.


ן ִ ִ ֤ 㕳פ ֡ ״֌ l

ִ ִִ֢ ִֵ ׾ֵֵ ׾ן ll 42 ll

ß ִ ִפԬ֟ ֵ ƴ: l

ִ׮ִԴ֟ ִֵõ ׾ֵ֖: ן ll 42 ll


42. The mediums of motion, etc., are not mine. I am only the attentive one. The knowers of the pure soul call me as having no concern with (substances, such as) mediums of motion.



The soul with its special quality of consciousness knows itself and all the other substances (Dravyas), which are knowable; but being one with itself, it cannot lose itself in the other knowable, which have a separate existence. Philosophers variously believe that all is knowledge, or all is the soul, or there exist no different and individual souls, or mater, space, time, and modes of motion and rest. The many-sided (Anedkanta) Jaina philosophy differs from these one-sided (Ekanta) views. One soul can neither be other souls, nor it can be other non-soul substances. This fact is clear to the experience and realization of every wise man.


״֌ ֻ 㬤 ִև ֵֹ l

׾ ן ֕ ד־ ָ״֢ ׾ ll 43 ll

ƴ: ֻ Ԯִֵ֖֮: ֤s l

ß ִ ד֤֮֟ ִָ֡ׯ ll 43 ll


43. I (am) one (i. e., myself) really pure, full of perfect conation and knowledge, always immaterial. Another (i. e., the non-self) is never mine in any wy, even to the extent of an atom.



This Gatha explains the essence of this chapter. It shows what is Samaya Sara. A right-believer must realise himself as being quite pure and in reality a store of all knowledge, all-conation, all-happiness, all-peacefulness, without any connection with any particle of matter or with any attribute of matter, such as, colour, smell, taste and touch. This knowledge and belief of his own identity with an Omniscient, Omnipotent, Limitless Consciousness leads to real self-meditation and self-concentration, which is the only true pah of liberation and happiness, from the real point of view. This is self-absorption (Sva-Samaya).



Soul and Non-soul (Jiva-Ajiva).


ίִֵӟ ָ־פ l

߾ Ε־ ֹ׾ן ll 44 ll

ִ֮֮֟֕ӟ ß ָ֟־פ: ד֟ l

߾ִ֬־֮ ֣ ιֵן ll 44 ll


44. Some ignorant persons, who do not know (what) soul (is), and yet declare other (than soul to be the) soul, describe soul as (if it were identical with) attachment (to worldly objects), and (as) Karma.


ξָ Ε֌ ן־ִӤ־ ߾ l

ן ξָ ׾ ߾ע ll 45 ll

ίָꬵ־֮ ߾δӤ֮־ ߾ l

֮֮ ֣sָ ׯ ߾״ן ll 45 ll


45. Others consider the intense or mild action of the feelings of attachment as soul and others (consider) quasi-Karmas as soul.


㤵 ߾ ξָ ״֓ן l

ן־ִ֢Ӥ ƾפ ߾ ll 46 ll

ֈ ߾ִָ֯ Ԯ״֓׮ l

߾΢ִӤֳ : ־ן ߾: ll 46 ll


46. Others (consider) the operation of Karma as soul, (and others consider that) soul is that which is (the result of) the intense and mild qualities of the fruition of Karmas.


߾ ׾ ֻ ׾ ߾ִ״֓ן l

ξָ ӕ ߾״֓ן ll 47 ll

߾Գֵ ׯ ֻ ד֕߾״֓׮ l

ίָ ӵ ߾״֓׮ ll 47 ll


47. Others believe soul to be both the soul and Karmas combined together, and some believe the soul to be the result of the combination of Karmas.


׾ ׾ ָ֯ ֤ן 㴴 l

ָ־֤ ֓־֤ פ˔ ll 48 ll

׾֬ ׾֬: ָ֮֟ ֤ן Ԭ: l

ָ֟־פ: ׮ֵֿ־פ׳: וק™: ll 48 ll


48. Thus, in many ways, (persons) of perverse intellect call the soul other (han itself). (Such persons) re therefore classed by the knowers of Reality as (those who) describe the non-soul as soul.



Gathas 44 to 48 describe a few wrongs an perverse views about the nature of soul. Practically all that is said in these views can apply to a mundane, imperfect, impure soul, while as a matter of fact this weak deluded embodied soul is a miserable shadow of the great life which the SOUL in reality is.

Karmas are matter made up of very fine karmic molecules. Physical bodies are formed of physical or Aharaka molecules, and are also matter. Attachment, etc., all passionate thought-activities and their mild or strong characters are due to the effect of deluding karma, which is also matter. The operation of all Karmas or its mild or strong fruitiness also material.

Thus, he who believes these matter-born and material cuases and effect to be of the essence of soul cannot be a true knower and seer of the reality of the SOUL.

The object of emphasizing the reality of the soul is that if we clearly understand our true nature, much of the bitterness, selfishness, cruelty, injustice, narrowness, crime, immorality, sin and suffering will be removed; we shall rise hgh above our impure and contaminating surroundings, and in our daily worldly lives shall be enabled o conduct ourselves so that ultimate liberation will be assured, and the world will be turned into a stage for the attainment of Godhood.


־ ־ ֻ֤֯׸ִ֯ l

׻ו ֵ ߾ ן ן ll 49 ll

־Գ־: ֻ֦֯׸ִ׮¯֮: l

׻ו֮֟: ߾ 㓵ӟ ll 49 ll


49. (It is) said by the Perfect Conqueror that all these conditions are produced by the operation of material Karmas. How can they be called souls?



The conditions contemplated by the last Gathas are quite material and the soul is fire of all material impurities. Its pure reality, in tis real essence, has already been discussed in the first chapter.


ν׾ ׯֵ ־ ִֵֻ ו ׾ן l

㓓פ ן ׾ִ֯֓ ll 50 ll

™׾׬ִׯ Ӿ ִֵֻ ו֮ ן 1

õ ֤㓵֟ :״ן ׾ִ֯֓õ ll 50 ll


50. The Conquerors say (that) all he eight kinds of Karmas are all material. What is called pain is the (resulting) fruit of their maturity.




Pain, disappointment, disease, death, etc., are material from the real standpoint, because they are the result of karmic matter. Here the operative thought-activity of the soul is also called material, as being the result of material Karma. All the impure conditions of a mundane soul are due to the operation of eight kinds of Karmas. Their fruition, on maturity, is what we all pain, because the soul is thereby obstructed from enjoying true and independent happiness born in the realization of self, shorn of interruptions, for all itme. Only a soul free from the eight Karmas is always happy and perfect. There are eight Karmas of which the following four are called destructive (Ghativya):(1) knowledge obscuring which prevents knowledge, (2) conation_obscuring which prevents conation, (3) deluding Karmas which delude right belief and right conduct, (4) obstructive, which prevent the manifestation soul-powr. The other four are called non-destructive (Aghatiya). They are (1) feeling Karma, which brings about desirable and undesirable objects of pleasure-and-pain-feeling, (2) age karma, which determines the duration of the souls imprisonment in a condition of life, (3) body-making Karma which determines the formation of beautiful or ugly body, (4) family-determining Karma which invests the mundane soul with a high or low position or status. The most harmful of the 8 is the deluding karma, which deludes the soul from right belief and right conduct. One who subdues delusion conquers all the 8 karmas and become a perfect conqueror.


־ָ ִ֤ ֤ ו־ָ

߾ ־ Ε ֤ ־3 ll 51 ll

־ָõ ׿ԟ ֤ ԟ ו֮־ָ: l

߾ ־s־֤֮ ־: ll 51 ll


51. All these thought-activities, attachment, etc., (are) souls. This has been described by the Conquerors as a statement from the practical standpoint.



If a question is reaised: Attachment and all other thought activities having been described in Jain Scriptures as due to the souls modifications whilehere they are said not to belong to the soul, why should there be such different opinions on the same subject? The Acharya answers: Here they have been said to be material and not belonging to the soul, from the real point of view. Only from the practical standpoint, we can ascribe these material and impure though-activities to the soul. Both opinions are correct, but each from its own different standpoint.


ֵ ֤ עֵ ִֻ㤵 ֤ l

־ָ פ ֟ ֤ ֵ ll 52 ll

֕ ֻ ׮ԟ ִֻõ֤: l

־ָ 擵֟ ֡ ׮ԟ: ֕ ll 52 ll


52. From the practical standpoint the remark is made of (his) military forces; the king has gone out (although not ) the king only (but also his military forces are) gone out (with him).



It is from the practical point of view a mere attribution of soul, its base accompaniment. Really otherwise the soul, pure, and in the full possession of its essential self, stands out alone. In common parlance, for instance, we speak of the king going out, though it would not be without many others going out with him.


־ָ Ε־פ ֳ־ l

߾ע ֟ ד ߾ ll 53 ll

ִ ־ָs־ֳ֪֮־֮ l

߾ ן : ֡ ׮׿֟ ߾ : ll 53 ll


53. And similarly from the practical standpoint this has been said in the Scripture that thus non-soul thought activity, attachment, etc., (is) the soul. From the real standpoint the soul in itself is alone.




The soul in itself is alone; it is separate from the impure thought-activity, attachment, etc. in practice, however, it is united wih its own non-self thought-activity, which is the result of the operation of its Karmic matter. Practical standpoint speaks of a thing so as to misrepresent its reality for the sake of explanation to the people in general. As a king may go out with his army, and it may be said that the king has gone out. Literally the words mean that it is the king only that has gone out. The gong out of the armys not expressed into this imperfect, practical way of talking. Similarly the impure thought-activities are called soul, because they are connected with the soul. It we analyse, we shall find the soul as a pure knowing substance, entirely different from these thought activities.


θִִֹӬ ־֢ ִ֧ l

׻ ߾ִק Ӛ ll 54 ll

θִִֹӬִ־֌ ֲִֿ֮

֮ ׻ ߾ִ׮פˆã֮ ll 54 ll


54. Know the soul (to be) without taste, without colour, without smell, invisible, without sound, with consciousness as its attribute, cognisable by no (external) sign and without any material shape.



This Gatha distinguishes the soul form matter, which ahs necessarily colour, smell, taste, touch and a material shape. Material molecules can be visible and known by their figures. The soul on he other hand is the immaterial conscious substance and can only be realised by itself in self-absorption. It is no doubt with some form which in reality has power to pervade throughout the whole universe but owing to the operation of body-sub-class of body-making Karma, it ontracts and expands according to the particular body occupied by it in its mundane condition. Thus it is said to be equal in size to the body which it occupies, but in the liberated condition it retains only a little less than the outline of its last body, because the body making Karma being destroyed contraction and expansion of the soul are no longer possible.


߾ ן ׾ ֬׾ ׾ l

׾ ָ߸ ׾ Ӛ ӑ֤ ll 55 ll

߾õ ß ׯ ֬ ׯ ׯ ïֿ : l

ׯ ָ߸ ׯ ã֮ Ʈ֮ ll 55 ll


55. In the soul, there is no colour, neither smell, nor taste and neither touch, nor materiality, nor body, nor (physical) figuration, nor (physical) constitution.




This Gatha further expands the description of the soul as given in the previous Gatha.

The material body has all these qualities while the soul has none of these.


߾ ן ׾ ֤֕ l

ֵ֓ ִ ӓ׾ ן ll 56 ll

߾õ ß ׯ ׾֪ : l

Οֵ ׯ õ ß ll 56 ll


56. In the soul, there is no attachment, nor hatred; nor is there (ny) delusion, nor Pratyaya (i.e., the assess of bondage, wrong-belief, etc.) neither Karmic matter, and there is no quasi Karma matter also in it.




From the pure real point of view the soul is devoid of all passionate thought-activities due to the operations of deluding Karma. Causes of inflow and bondage of Karmas are wrong belief, vowlessness, carelessness, passion and vibratory activity, through mind, body and speech. All these are the results of the operation of Karmas. So in a real soul, all these ecauses of bondage are absent. Material Karmic molecules out of which Karmas are bound in the form of our Karmic bodies and assimilative or Aharak molecules, out of which physical, fluid and assimilative bodies are formed, are all mater. They can never be soul. Soul is always free from these,


߾ ן ˜

Εֽ֯ ֵ֚ ll 57 ll

߾õ ß ï֬׮ ׮ד֟ l

ά־֮׮ ֮ã֮׮ ll 57 ll


57. In the soul, there is no Varga (i.e., a group of the degrees of a particular attribute in an atom), nor Vargana (i.e., a group of Vargas), nor Spardhaka (i.e., a group of Varganas) whatsoever, neither any degree of attachment or impure thought-activity, nor any degree of fruition.




Varga, Vargana, Spardhaka are all material. Degrees of attachment and those of fruition appear in impure, unbodied souls, but they are entirely due to operation of karmic matter only. The real soul is different and always free from all these impurities.


߾ ן ֽ Ӭ֚ l

ֵ ֽ ֵ ll 58 ll

߾õ ן ׮ד֪ã֮׮ Ӭã֮׮ l

ã֮׮ ã֮׮ ׮ד֟ ll 58 ll


58. In the soul there is no place whatsoever for the souls vibratory activity (which causes infow of Karmic matter,) nor any place for bondage. And there is no place of operation (of Karmas) nor any place of soul-quest what soever.




Margana is a condition in which a mundane soul is necessarily found. There are 4 such sets of conditions.

Gati. Condition of existence: These are of 4 kinds human, sub-human, hellish and celestial.

Indriya. Senses : They are 5touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing.

Kaya. Body :It is of 6 kinds earth, water, fire, air, vegetable and mobile bodies.


Yoga. Souls vibrations :They are of 15 kinds :

1.                Mind Vibration, true.

2.                false.

3.                mixed, true and false.

4.                neutral, neither true nor false.

5.                Speech vibration, true.

6.                False.

7.                mixed, true and false.

8.                neutral, neither true nor false.

9.                Body vibration physical.

10.           mixed with karmic.

11.           fluid.

12.           mixed with Karmic.

13.           assimilative.

14.           mixed with physical.

15.           Karmic.


Veda. Sex :- It is of 3 kinds-masculine, feminine, common.


Kashaya. Passions: - They are of 4 kinds-agner, pride, and deceit and greet.

Janna. Knowledge: - It is of 8 kinds-sensitive, scriptural, visual, mental, perfect, and wrong-sensitive, wrong scriptural and wrong visual.


Samyama. Restraint: - It is of 7 kins-equanimity, recovery of equanimity after downfall, pure and absolute non-injury, slightest delusion, passionless, partial control, and non-control.


Darshana. Conation: it is of 4 Kinds-ocular, non-ocular. Visual and perfect.


Leshya. Thought-paint: It is of 6 kinds-black, blue, dovegrey, yellow, pink and white.

Bhavya. It is of 2 kinds-capacity incapacity of being liberated.

Samyaktva. Right belief: it is of 6 kinds-subsidential, destructive, destructive-subsidential, wrong-belief, downfall, mixed right and wrong-belief.

Sanjna. It is of 2 kinds rational nd irrational.

Alkaraka. It is of 2 kinds taking or not-taking, no-Karmas or assimilative matter.

All these divisions of soul-quests are marked out with reference to the results of the operation of different Karmas. The pure soul hs perfect knowledge, perfect cognition, right belief and pure right conduct these have no reference to any operation of Karmas. Every soul from the real standpoint is free from all these distinctions of soul-quests. Gommatsara Jiva Kanda deals in detail with these 14 soul- quests and Karma Kanda with degrees of vibratory activity, bondae-places and operation-places. (Vide S.B.J. Vols. V and VI.)


ךפ Ӭֽ ߾ ֚ l

׾ƽ ӕִֻ׬ ll 59 ll

ãןֲӬã֮׮ ߾õ ӌã֮׮ l

׾ֿ׬ã֮׮ ӵִֻײã֮׮ ll 59 ll


59. And in the soul (there is) no place of the duration of bondage, nor any place of passioned agitation. And also no plce of mild passionateness nor any place of attainment of restraint.



All these are due to karmic bondage. So far as passions only subside, places of restraint are acquired. But when they are destroyed, the soul in reality is full of perfect restraint.


߾ֽ ֵֽ ן ߾ l

־ ֻ֤ ׸ִ ll 60 ll

߾ã֮׮ ã֮׮ ן ߾õ l

־ ֻ֦õ ׸ִ: ll 60 ll


60. And also (there) are o soul-classes, nor spiritual stages in the soul. Because, certainly all these conditions are caused by material substance (namely, karmic and physical matter.)




Classes of Soul (Jiva Samasa) are 14. They are:

Badara Ekendriya, gross-bodied, one-sensed souls; sukshma Ekendriya, fine-bodied, one-sensed souls;

Dvindriya gross-bodied two

Trindriya three

Chaturindriya four

Asaini panchendriya Irrational five

Saini panchendriya Rational


Each of these 7 is of 2 kindsParyapta with developability viz. the gaining within one Antar-Muhurta, by the soul of the capacity to develop fully the characteristics of he body into which it incarnates; Aparyapta with undevelopability: not so gaining, bu dying within one Antar-Muhurta. The spiritual stages aere fourteen wrong belief, downfall, mixed, vowlss-right belief, parietal vow, imperfect vow, perfect vow, new thought-activity, advanced thought-activity, slightest delusion, subsided-delusion, delusionless, vibratory omniscient, non-vibratory omniscient.

All these stages are ascribed to the soul with reference to delusion and vibratory activity. Both these are absent in a pure soul. The 14 classes also are due to the effect of body making Karma and so they are absent in a real soul. For a detailed description of the soul-classes, and spiritual stages, consult Gommatsara Jive Kanda S. B. J. Vol. V.


־ָ ߾ ƾן ִ֤ߵ l

֚ӟ ־ ֵ֓ ll 61 ll

־ָ ߾õ ־ן Ԫ: l

ã֮ӟֳ־: ד׮ֵֵֿ֮õ ll 61 ll

61. Although from the practical standpoint these are (found) in the soul from colour up to stages of spirituality, yet from the real standpoint (there are) no (such) conditions whatever.



Looked at from the practical standpoint, all these conditions may be said to appertain to a mundane soul, soul in its pru nature is, however, free of, and different from, these.


Ƶ ӲӬ ߸ꤵ ꤾ l

ֵ ן ֡ ׬ ִ ll 62 ll

 ӲӬ ֣Ծ ߸ ӟ־ : l

֓ ־ן õ ׮ ֵ׬ ִ֟ ll 62 ll


62. And the connection with these (conditions) should be known (tobe) the same as (that of) milk (with) water. But all these are not in the soul, because (it is really) full of the attribute of conscious-attentiveness (i.e., perfect conation and knowledge).




All the impure thought-activities and conditions of soul are due to tis being bound by Karmic matter, the effects of which are infinitely more wonderful, mysterious and powerful than electric currents. If this karmic matter is separated from the soul, the soul becomes its pure self, an enlightened Being full of All-Knowledge, conation, happiness and power. But as pure water mixed with milk loses its owners and is allied milk; so this soul, though pure, mixed with Karmic dirt has lost its sourness; and its material conditions are given the name of sou. A right-believer should therefore make a clear distinction between the two, and giving up attachment with what is foreign to him should believe his soul to be potentially possessed of all the attribute of the pure soul.


ӣ ӟ ֤ ן ־ָ l

פ ӣ ֵ ӣ ֤ ll 63 ll

ף µִ Œ ־ן ־׸: l

µ֟ : ӣ ӣ µ֟ ׿֟ ll 63 ll


63. Common people, seeing some one looted, in the way, say, the way is looted, but no way whatsoever is (really) looted.


߾ ִ ֤ l

߾ ו ־ָ ll 64 ll

֣ ߾ Œ l

߾õ ו֮꾵Ծָ: : ll 64 ll


64. Similarly, seeing the Karmic matter and colour of physical mater in the soul, (it) has been said by the Conquerors from the practical standpoint, this colour (is) of he soul.




The expression This road is looted only means that the travelers proceeding by that road are robbed, and not that the road itself is the subject of robbery. Similarly, in common parlance, from the practical standpoint, we speak of mundane souls as black, white, red, one sensed or five-sensed, grows, fine, beautiful,, ugly. This is but the practical point of view. These phrases are not true in their literal sense. The wise know that colour, touch, taste, senses, etc., are attributed of matter only, and cannot properly be predicated of the true soul. From the pure real standpoint therefore, the soul is only itself, pure, perfect and immaterial; and all the qualities of colour, etc., are true of it only from the practical point of view, as in is mundane condition it is bound with matter, and these qualities are rightly predicable of matter.


Ӭֱ Ӛפߵ ִפ l

־ ־ָ ֤֓ ־ן ll 65 ll

Ӭָïֿã֤֮: ִק™ : l

־ ־ָõ ׮ֵֿ֦™ָ פן ll 65 ll


65. Similarly taste, smell, touch, bodily-figure, etc., which have all been described (before), (have been described) from the practical standpoint:thus do the seers of reality preach.




All the conditions produced in souls bound up with karmic matter, as described in Gathas 55 to 60, are ascribed to souls from the practical point of view only. Even the spiritual stages or the gradual increases of puriy are not of the nature of a soul, when it is considered from the rally point of view. The soul is quite free from all these soul classes, soul-quests and stages. They are relations and conditions springing up from its connection with matter.


ֳ֟־ ߾ ָ ן ֤ l

ִָ ן ֤ ll 66 ll

֡ ־ ߾֮ ָã֮ ־ן Ԥ3 l

ָԯ֮ ן ֻ Ԥ: sׯ ll 66 ll


66. In particular incarnations of mundane souls colour, etc., are (found). But in (the souls) liberated from cycle of existence there are no colour, etc., whatsoever.




Colour, etc., cannot be the attributes of a soul. Attributes are always inseparable from their substances, while colour, etc., are only seen in the material bodies, as belonging to matter. As soul is connected with them, they too are ascribed to souls from the practical point of view. When souls are free from material bondage, these vanish like passing sunshine and shade. Had they been attributes, they would not have become disassociated but must have been found in pure souls also.


߾ ־ ־ע פ l

߾֕߾ ע ׾ ll 67 ll

߾ֿ ־ ־ ן ֮ פ l

߾õ֕߾õ ß ׾ֿß sׯ ll 67 ll


67. And also if thou holdouts certainly all these conditions (to be) in the soul, really, then in reality (there) does not remain (any) difference whatsoever between the soul and the non-soul.



The special qualifications of matter are colour, etc, which distinguish it from soul and other immaterial substances. If these attributes be taken to be of the inseparable nature of the soul matter alone will be the existing substance. But that is impossible because the nature of consciousness which is he inseparable nature of soul is evident to all, and is not found in non soul substances.


פ ָ ߾ 㕳 ן ֤ l

ִ ָ ߾ ׾ִ֢־ ll 68 ll

Σ ָã֮ ߾֮ ־ ־ן Ԥ : l

ôָ֟ã ߾ ׯִ֮֟֯: ll 68 ll


68. If (thou believes) colour, etc.,to be (inseparably connected) with mundane souls, then mundane soules will acquire materiality.



This in fact amounts to identifying matter with soul.


ֻ֤ ߾ ֌ 朴֤ l

־ִ֤ ׾ ߾֢ ֻ ֢ ll69ll

˻֦ ߾ßֻ֣ 朴֟ l

׮־ִ֟sׯ ߾֟ 㦻: ֯: ll69ll


69. O thou, of perverse intellect, thus from thy mode of talk the material substance would become soul. And then matter, having attained Liberatoin, will acquire soulness.


In discarding the real standpoint, we lose all distintion between soul and non-soul. For, if the soul is inseparably united with matter and material conditions, in Liberation also it will carry this inseparable matter with it. That is, matter will attain Liberation- Liberation is absolute freedom from Karmic matter. That is, matter will attain freedom from itself. This is absurd. There fore the real standpoint is essential to a proper consideration of soul. The fact is that though we may find colour, ect., and all material conditions in mundane souls, they are not the attributes of the soul. Water may be called dirty by being mixed with mud; but it cannot change it self in to mud. A wise man always knows that dirtiness is a quality of mud and not of water. Similarly a soul may be called impure, angry, proud, bad, good, ect., owing to its connection with Karmic effects, but it is merely saying so in coming mon speech. Really the soul cannot become other than what it is in its own pure nature.

ן ֢׸ ӓ פ ߾ l

֤ ֕ע֤ ֵ֛ߡ ִ ll 70ll

֟׸ ӓ׮ ߾: l

ֵ֤ԯָ: Οֵ ִ: ll 70ll


70. One and two, three and four, and five- sensed souls, gross and developable (Paryapta) and their opposites (fine and undevelopable Sukshma and Aparyapta) (these are) natures (Prakriti) of body making (Nama) Karma.


Ƶ ־֢ ߾ּ ֳ l

ֵ֛ ִֻև ֤ ߾ ll 71 ll

׳ֿ ׮־׮ ߾ã֮׮ ޳׳: l

ן׳: ִֵֻ׳ß׳: ޵֟ ߾: ll 71 ll


71. These classes of souls (14 Jiva samasa) are formed by their own material modification, influenced by their auxiliary causes. How can they be called souls (in reality)?



A mundance soul is entangled in the bondage of the body- making Karma. It is of 93 kinds (vide Gommatasara Karma- Kanda , S . B .J ., Vol . VI.) . The natures enumerated in Gatha 70 are inluded in these 93 sub- classes. Mundane souls are called one-sensed, ect. , Owing to the condition of the physical body as determined by the operation of this body marking Karma and its 93 sub- calasses and innumerable varieties in these 93 sub-calasses. They cannot be of the souls own nature. Thus, from the real point of view, souls are free from all these material conditions .


֢֕ ֢֕ ֤ l

߾ ־ָ ll 72 ll

ֵԯֵ֯ԯ 斴 ֿ֤ l

õ ߾Ӗ: ־ָ: : ll 72 ll


72. In the Scripture the souls are said to be developable, undevelopable, fine and gross , (because ) the souls name is given to the body from the practical standpoint .


Here again the author c lears up a doubt which may be entertained by a student who has read only such Jain scriptures in which the practical point of view is mainly dealt with, and in which all these conditions ares predicated , being conditions of the soul . Though ascribed to souls, souls by their own nature, are really not these. The soul in its pure state is free from the distinction of developability or otherwise .


㤵 ֤ ּ l

ƾן ߾ ִ֓֓ ll 73 ll

Ʈ ֢ ԟ׮ ֮ߴ׮ ã֮׮ l

׮ ֲן ߾ ׮ ׮ִ֮֮֟֓׮ ll 73 ll

16.           . And these spiritual stages which are said (to be) due to the operation of deluding Karmas , how can they be souls ? They are always said to be devoid of (pure) consciousness .


Commentary .

The so-called 14 spiritual stages are not the souls real pure conditions. They are not found in liberation, in pure souls. They are due to the bondage of souls with deluding Karma and to vibrations caused by the operation of body- making Karma. Shri Kund Kunda Acharya has done great good to seekers of Truth by pointing out the key of knowledge, for whosoever understands things only from practical point of view cannot acquire right belief (vide Gatha 14) . One- sided view means wrong belief. In this second chapter, the author has refuted all the views of wrong-believers who described soul in different ways; and has proved that it is a real substance quite apart from all impure thought activities. It is potentially God. This belief that I am God is a cause of attaining Godhood by concentrating ones attention upon ones Godhood itself .

The Author reiterates again and again the primary distinction between the Living and the non- Living . The two contradict each other. The one can never lose its own aattributes and acquire the essential and special attributes of the other . The one can never become the other. The Living can in no way poossibly become tho non- living. The non Living can never become the Living. The Living and it alone has Life, Consciousness, Attention, knowledge and therefore moral and spiritual responsibility. The non- Living is incapable of Life, Consciousness, Attention and knowledge. The non Living substance, Matter, alone has touch, taste, colour, ect. , Forming the infinite variety of the objects of the Univerese. The non Matter Soul can never have touch, taste, colour , etc., etc., the attributes of Matter and of it alone. Indeed, the Soul Pure Soul may be said to b;e the Monarch of Siddha shila , the Abode of the Liberated, at the top of the Universe, and of the Whole Universe nd non- Universe only from the point of view of its Omniscience. The Vibration, the Delusion, the Cololur and mundane existence of the Universe is certainly Matter and it alone. Is Matter not thus a full and true paraphrase of Satan, as the theological coception of Evil , Sin, Temptation, Deslluastion, Weakness , Sosrrow, ect., ect.- the ever pressent and seemingly so powerful an antithesis of God ? In the aspect of Jainism as insisted upon by the Great Saint Kunda- Kunda in the first century B . C., in this book, God versus Satan becomes Pure Soul versus Matter. The tempter, seducer, deluder and Jailor of Soul. Our mundane condition is a child of Matter. The deluded Soul is bound with all its variety and attraction and might is absolutely incapable of becoming anything but Matter itself, of of making soul anything but the Soul itself. Indeed here, the Holy Preceptor Kunda-Kunda rushes up to the highest highest heights of pure monism of Vedsanta, but is not captured by it. In glorifying the Soul and in insisting upon its independence of and entri es freedom from Matter, he never forgets in the least the equal independence of and entire freedom from soul,of Matter. The two are there. Both are mighty in their separate, individual natures. It is only a deluded person, who mistakes their temporary union and resultant mundane life as altering the true inner nature of either of the two. The thing to remember is that all mundane life is Matter-born, Matter. All its variety is Matter. This should be clearly realise. The Soul is different and quite distinct from this; beautiful net and coil and dance of matter, PraKriti, of the Samkhya school of Philosophy. The spectator may be engrossed in the dancer, nut he is not the dancer. The king may be in prison; but the King is not prison, nor is the prison the King. And neither can ever become the other. The two aaare entirely different; and any view to lthe slightesty degree contrary to this, spells delusion, mistake perversity or wrong belief. The right believer knows the unbridgeable gulf between the two and realises the Soul as a susreme, essential, primary, eternal, indestructible reality.




The Ethic of Action.


־ פ ׾ ָ ֤־ ׯ l

־ פ ֪ ߾ ll 74 ll

־֮ ע ׾ֿӟָ ֟îֵ꾤Եָׯ l

Ζ֮ ־֟ פ ֢ԟ ߾ : ll 74 ll


74. And so long as he does not know the special difference between the two (i.c., the pure) soul and the (thought) inflow (in the form of anger, ect.) ; till then he is ignorant. (Such a) soul indulges in anger, ect. (as being one with them) .

Commentary .

This chapter contains the refutation of the wrong belief which takes the thought- activities of anger, pride, deceit, greed, etc., to be the souls own actions and the soul to be their actor. So long as a soul does not recognise its own true nature which is passionlessness, it identifies itself with the passions of anger, etc. Yet an ignorant man, the deluded mundane soul, can never realise his true SELF as being really devoid fo all thought- activities and full only of his own (Parinamika) thought- activity. The ignorant man indulges freely in anger, etc. He is subjected to inflow of karmas, owing to this peryerse belife, and suffesrs the miseries of mundane existence.


פ ֧ӟ ӓ֡ פ l

߾ Ӭ ֤ ֻ ־֤ ll 75 ll

פ ֢Դ֮õ õ : ӓֵ ־ן l

߾õ Ӭ ֟: ֻ ־Ԥ׿׳: ll 75 ll


75. In the soul indulging in anger, etc., the accumulation (the soaking) of Karmas takes place. Thus has the bondage of the soul been described by the Self-seeing.


Commentary .

Bondage is of 4 kinds (1) Parkriti (nature) which varies according to the particular king of Karmic molecules which combing with the soul according to the chartacter of the vibrations of ming, sppeech of body, which produces the inflow; (2) Pardesha (molecular), according to the less o more number of Karmic moleculas bound at each instant; (3) Sthiti (duration) , the duration of bondage is determined b;y the degrees of passions ; (4) Anubhaga (fruition) . the kind of fruition, mils of strong, is determined by the degree of intensity of passions. Deluding Karma is the chief cause of bondage, which results in mundane wanderings and sufferings. It is of 28 kinds. (Vide Tattvartha Sutra, Chapter 8, by Mr. J. L. Jaini, S .B. J., Vol II .) Out of them wrong belief (Mithyatwa), and the foru errorfeeding passions (Anantanubandhi kashaya) bring about such bondage as is the chief cause of sufferings in hellish and sub- human conditions of existence . The souls who have subdued them and become right- believers (Samyak- drishti) bind Karmas owing to other passions, but their bondage is golden, soft and pleasant compared with the galling prick and pain of the iron-thorns of hellish and sub- human bondage. These gilt- caged souls are born in celestial and human conditions of pleasant and agreeable circumstances. This bondage does not hindesr the path of liberation. It is wrong belief and error-feeding passions, which are the main cause of continuous eyele of existences. One who has conquered them must be liberated after sometime, which in the infinity of time is almost nothing. A wrong believer on the other han identifies himself with impre thought- activities as if they were his own actions. A right-believer knows them to result from the passion Karmas. He takes them to be not his own real thoughts. He believes that his real thoughts are pure. Thus ignorance and wrong belief are here shown to be the chief causes of bondage .


և ߾ ί ־ l

֤ פ ׾ӟָ և Ӭ ll 76 ll

֤֮ ߾Ӯ֮֟: á־ ֣ l

֟ ־ן ׾ֿӟָ ֤ Ӭßõ ll 76 ll


76. But when by this soul is realised the special difference between the (pure) soul and the (thought-activity causing) inflow, then (there is) no bondage in that (soul) .


Here is emphasised the fact that the knower of Truth is free from bondage, and that when knowledge of the truth about soul is acquired, bondage, which is the cause of infinite mundane lives, ceases. When a person realises the purity of his soul an knows that the thought-activities causing inflow of karmas are not his, but are due to deluding Karmas bound with his soul, he gives them up, and bondage slackens of ceases. Then he becomes a right believer. totally free from the bondaage of the stong Karmas which are bound by ignorance and deep-rooed wrong belief. A right-believer may be said to be free evern now , because he knows the path, and must follow it so long as he retains the right belief .


֤ ־ ד֢ ־ָߵֳ־ l

㌓ ָ ן ֤ ֵע פ ߾ ll 77 ll

֟ á־ד֟ ׾ָ֯ߟ ־ l

:õ ָ֮ן ֟ ׮־ע ן ߾ : ll 77 ll


77. (When the soul) has known the impurity of inflow-thoughts and (their ) contrariety (to the soul) and (their being) causes of mundane misery, then the soul turns back from them .


Commentary .

A wrong believer who indulges in impure thought- activities does not recognise them to lbe foreign to his own inner essence. A right- believer knows that anger and other passions are impure, quite contrary to the nature of his soul, and also that they are the causes of physical sufferings, and that if they do not delude him from Himself, he cannot suffer trouble in the four canditions of exisstence. From the moment that he thus believes them to be his real enemies, his intimacy with, and friendly attitude to wards them, ceases and he determines to be freed from them as soon as possible Right belief spells vicotry over the passions; wrong belief and error-feeding passions are at once brought under control . Though a right- believer, without vows in the 4th spiritual stage, and with on,y partial vows in the 5th stage, has passionate activities of the life of a layman, his right belief makes his knowledge right, and his right knowledge leads to right conduct. He is alive to the weakness of his conduct and tries to strengthen it as far as possible. His practice of self-realisation commences from the time he becomes a right-believer. He right belief is indeed a form of self-realisation. The practice of self-realisation is the real conduct. It produces purity which shortens the duration of passion-breeding Karmas and weakens their strength, By gradual practice, when the vowless soul subdues the partial-vow-preventing passion (Apratakyanavarna Kashaya) he adopts the vows of a layman. There are eleven grades of the house-holders life. So far as he weakens the operation of other passion, he advances higher in these classes. When by the practice of self-realisation he subdues the total-vow-preventing passions (Pratyakyanavarana Kashya he becomes a saint with full vows. Thus really,. Self-knowledge and self realisation bring about complete freedom from all-deluding Karma, and when the deluding Karma is destroyed,. He becomes an Omniscient within one antar muhurta and is the adorable of all animals, men and celestials as the Ideal Perfection of Peace and Bliss.


״֌ ֻ ִִ ִ֤ l

Ƶ ך ד֟ ־ ֵ ״ ll 78 ll

ƴ: ֻ 㫿 ׮ִԴ֟: ֤֮Ԯִ: l

ô֮ ã֟ßדß: ־Ԯ֮ ֵ ֵ״ ll 78 ll


78. I (am) certainly the one, pure,. Unattached to the non-self, full of perfect conation and knowledge; fixed in that (pure soul) and absorbed in that, I shall lead all these (anger, etc.) to destruction.



A right-believer having fully understood his soul to be not the real actor of anger, etc., realises himself as having an individuality distinct from all souls and non-souls, quite pure, with non attachment to any one and full of its own real attributes o conation, knowledge, peace, power and happiness. This self-realisation weakens the forces of Karmas, which affect passionate thought-activities. This self-realisation or absorption also destroys the deluding Karma and makes the soul; free from all sorts of bondage. It is there fore necessary to practise self-realisation.


߾ֲ֫ ά ֓ ָ l

ֱ ֤ ֵ֢֤ ll 76 ll

߾׮ֲ֫ ά ׮֟ß֣ οָֿ l

:׮ :ֱ׮ ֟ ׮־֢ԟ 공: ll 76 ll


79. Knowing these (anger, etc.,) which are bound to the soul, as transitory, impermanent, helpless, and painful (now) and pain-producing (in the future), (a right-believer) turns back from them.



A right believer correctly aualyses his soul as distinct from anger and other impure thought-activities. The right-believer contemplates that this his passion is due to the passion Karma bound to the soul; that this impure thought an last only for a limited time. It is not eternal; it is born and it dies, i.e., it is bound top the soul,. And then on maturing operates and is shed off; and no forces or circumstances can then prevent such shedding off. It is itself painful when it operates, and it causes the bondage of undesirable Karma, the operation of which results in pains for the future. The right believer sees that this soul is his own, is lasting, is a place of complete shelter,. Happiness and joy now and for evermore. This self-analysis frees him from his enemy anger, etc., and he acquires a closer grasp of his own self. Thus when self-contemplation begins the self-realisation is gained.


׸Ӵ ֵ ׸ִ l

פ ֤ פ ƾפ ll 80 ll

ֿ ׸ִ ֿ ֣ ׸ִ l

꟣ִ֟ ֮ן ־ן ֮ ll 80 ll


80. And the soul; does not (primarily) cause modification of Karmic matter and similarly modification of quasi-Karmic matter. He, who realises this, is the knower.



He alone is a true knower who realises that the root cause of Karmic and quasi-Karmic bodies is matter itself which is unconscious and quite different from the conscious soul and that he is not an actor or doer or producer of them. It is a natural and scientific process that whenever impure thought-activities are present in a soul, Karmic and quasi-Karmic matter will automatically flow in and will unite with the previously existing Karmic and quasi-Karmic matter respectively. The bondage of Karma does not depend or follow the wishes of the embodies soul. No such soul would ever desire the bondage of evil Karmas; and good Karmas will not flow in simply because of his wishes,. If his thought-activities are not such as to invite the inflow of good Karmas. Thus soul; is not really the binder of Karmas. A right believer does not wish for impure thought-activities; but being not sufficiently strong in soul-power he is subjected to anger; etc., through the operation of Karmas, leading to fresh bondage. A right-believer knows all this and does not identify himself with these thoughts and Karmas. He always believes his soul to be the doer and producer of his own soul modifications only.


֤ ֵ ֋ l

ִ֤ ׸ִ פ ƾפ ll 81 ll

֟ ֟: l

ִԤ߮ ׸ִ֮ ֮׮ ־ן ֮ ll 81 ll


81. The soul has been called the doer of meritorious and (demeritorious) thought-activities (from practical stand-point); but it (is really) not the doer (of them) by any means whatsoever. He who knows (this) is the (right) knower.



An impure soul, engaged and engrossed in material pursuits, is subjected to good or bad thoughts owing to the operation of passions and vibratary activity; so it is said to be the doer of these thoughts,. Which are not pure. From the real standpoint, the soul is a pure conscious being without any desire, or regard for, or attachment do, any good or bad thing, whatsoever. He is merely the knower of all; conditions like a mirror which, though showing fire burning in it, is not burnt because there is no fire in it, but merely a reflection of it. Similarly the souls real; nature is to know and be one with himself and to know all other things as they are. He who finds this key to right knowledge is a man with right knowledge.


׾ ׸ִפ פ ֕פ ָ֯֕֋ l

ӟ ׾ ֻ ׾ ll 82 ll

ׯ ׸ִן ֟㟯֪ ֵָ֯Ե l

֮ ֮֮ׯ ֻ ֻԮ׾ִ֑ ll 82 ll


82. And the knower (Himself) certainly knowing material Karmas of many kinds neither modifies, nor assimilates, nor is transformed into the form of non-self-substance.



The possessor of right knowledge knows the souls character, it not being the doer of deeds. Material; Karmas flow into an embodied soul by themselves, having found an auxiliary cause in the vibrations and passions which already exist in the mundane soul. The root cause of Karmic bondage is matter of Karmic molecules. The material; Karma itself modifies into Karmic bondage and is assimilated by old Karmic bondage existing in a mundane soul. Soul being immaterial does not modify itself in any way into the material Karmas. The right-knower understands all kinds of activities of matter and believes that soul; cannot acquire any attributes, which are special to matter. In mundane life soul has vibrations and passions due to past Karmas. They become only an auxiliary cause for the inflow and bondage of fresh Karmic matter. In the pure nature of soul there are neither vibrations nor passions. So from the pure real standpoint, Soul is neither the root nor the auxiliary cause of Karmic bondage. A right-believer, fixiing his thought on this real standpoint, realises himself as not being the doer of any actions which are non-self, but knows that he is the knower, devoid of all attachment whatsoever.


׾ ׸ִפ פ ֕פ ָ ֕֋ l

ӟ ׾ ִ֯׸Ӵ ׾ ll 83 ll

ׯ ׸ִן ֟㟯֪ ֵָ֯Ե l

֮ ֮֮ׯ ֻ þ׸ִִ֮׾ִ֬ ll 83 ll


83. And certainly the knower, knowing his own thought-activity of many kinds, neither modifies, nor assimilates, nor is transformed into the form of non-self substance.



A right-knower knows that there are pure and impure thought-activities of soul. These thought-activities are all modifications of the souls consciousness. He knows that these modifications of soul or of consciousness are not material. He further knows that his own consciousness, though similar, is distinct from the consciousness of every other individual soul. He therefore takes his conscious thoughts as his own but does not identify himself with any other soul or with the non-soul substances to which those thoughts may relate. He believes that matter modifies into its own material modifications and each soul modifies into its own individual; consciousness. Soul and matter cannot modify themselves into one another. Soul wills always remains soul, matter will remain matter. From the pure real standpoint a right-knower knows that soul is capable of only pure, peaceful and blissful thought-activities, and he should therefore realize them in order to achieve self-absorption.


׾ ׸ִפ פ ֕פ ָ ֕֋ l

ӟ ׾ ֻδֱִӟ ll 84 ll

ׯ ׸ִן ֟㟯֪ ָ֑֯Ե l

֮ ֮֡ׯ ֻ ֻԱִ֮ӟ ll 84 ll


84. And certainly the knower, knowing infinite (kinds) of fruition of material Karmas, neither modifies, nor assimilates, nor is transformed into the forms of non-self substance.



In this world mundane souls reap the fruits of their past Karmas in the form of pain and pleasure and other conditions of body-formation, etc. A right-knower knows that as soul is really free from material bondage, so it is also free from different kinds of fruition. Neither riches nor calamities produce any deep effect on the mind of a right-knower. He is neither overflowed with pride and joy on gaining a desired object, nor is he downcast with sorrow and grief on separation from agreeable and connection with disagreeable objects. He believes true happiness to be his own nature and independent of all other things. He is satisfied with the feeling which fills him in the state of self-realisation. Thus he does not identify himself with the Karmas, and is absorbed in the nature of his soul, altogether unaffected by Karmas.


׾ ׸ִפ פ ֕פ ָ ֕֋ l

ֻ֤ ׯ ׸ִפ ֋ ־ ll 85 ll

ׯ ׸ִן ֟㟯֪ ֵָ֯Ե l

ִֻ֦ׯ ֣ ׸ִן þԾ: ll 85 ll


85. Similarly matter-substance also is shaped into its own modifications, (it), neither modifies, nor assimilates nor is transferred into the forms of other substance.



Just as from eternity a soul is bound with Karmic matter, and binds fresh Karmas, and reaps the fruits there of, without however itself becoming matter, or something other than what it really is; so matter though externally bound with soul, and always changing into new Karmas by the mundane souls vibrations and passions forms the souls bodies, etc., yet it never becomes other than itself, i.e., mere lifeless, innocuous matter. Matter can never modify into soul, or the vice versa. The Jain doctrine does not subscribe to the view that all matter and soul etc., have their origin in one Great Soul or Creator, or that the soul has no real separate existence, and that all its conscious activities are due to modifications of lifeless matter only. According to Jainism both soul and matter are real. Each one of the infinite with its own separate existence and destiny, according to its own actions and spiritual progress. The eternal union of soul and matter or the bondage of soul by Karmic matter means mundane existence; their separation, liberation. Nothing is annihilated; neither matter, no soul; both are eternal in their nature and attributes.


߾֯׸ִ ֢ ֻ ׸ִן l

ֻ״֢ ߾ ׾ ׸ִפ ll 86 ll

߾֯׸ִ ԟ ֻ: ׸ִן l

ֻ׮״֢ ֣ ߾sׯ ׸ן ll 86 ll


88. Material molecules are transformed into Karmas (of 8 kinds) by reason of the (mundane) souls thought-activity: similarly the (mundane) soul also is transformed (into its impure thought-activity) by reason of (operation of) Karmic matter.



Though the soul and matter are two separate substances, they both act and react upon each other in the mundane phase of their existence. For example, the thought-activity of a potter becomes the cause of the formation of a pot; and a pot becomes the cause of the thought in the potters mind of building similar pots. The real cause of a pot is clay, the matter of the pot itself. But the thought-activity of the potters mind becomes an auxiliary cause. So the old Karmas become the auxiliary causes of modification of souls vibrations and passions. The mundane soul, bound with Karmic matter, becomes affected by their operation of old Karmas, with impure thought-activities and vibrations, which become auxiliary causes of inflow of fresh Karmic molecules and of their bondage with soul in the form of Karmas. This fact of mundane life must be fully understood; so as to leave on room for the deluded belief that the Soul can in any way become one with these thought-activities, passions and vibrations.


׾ פ ߾ ߾ l

΋״֢ ׸ִ ׯ ll 87 ll

ׯ ן ֮ ߾: ֣ ߾֮ l

ήꮵ׮״֢ ׸ִ ֮ ׯ ll 87 ll


87. The soul never produces the attributes of Karmic matter; similarly the Karmas (never produce) the attributes of soul and of the modifications of these two, know each one to be the auxiliary cause of the other.



This emphasises the view stated in the previous Gatha. Every substance is a combination of its own attributes. All its attributes with all its modifications are inherent in that substance. The common attribute of individuality (Aguru-laghu) keeps each substance separate from all the other substances. It prevents any substance or group of attributes and modifications from becoming another substance or group of attributes and modifications. One substance can never become another. They experience mutual and auxiliary actions and interactions. Space locates substances. Time gives duration, newness, oldness, continuity, change or permanence. Dharma helps the movements of souls and matter; Adharma, the cessation of movements. Mighty matter invests the potentially Almighty Soul with the Karmic and other bodies, and thus makes the Monarch, the Lord of the Universe, act the comedy and tragedy of endless cycles of an earthly existence. The Almighty Soul itself owns and masters all; other substances by his knowledge of them. All; substances possess the attribute of knowability.

The great Samsara is really a drama of two principal actors; matter is an auxiliary cause of producing impure thought-activity of attachment, hatred, pain, and pleasure etc., while the mundane souls impure thought-activities become causes of modification of matter into Karmic bondage, formation of food, houses, clothes, pots and different articles. A right-knower knows the true nature of the phenomena of the universe.


ָ ֤ ֋ ־ l

ֻ ־ֳ־ ll 88 ll

ָ Ο þ ־ l

㤻Ӯ ־Գ־֮ ll 88 ll


88. For this reason, really the soul is the doer (of its modifications) by its own thought-activity. And is not the doer of all the modifications caused by Karmic matter.



Every substance modifies only into its own forms; the soul therefore modifies into its own thought-activities. It cannot cause the modification of material forms. Karmas bound to mundane souls are caused only by the material Karmic molecules.


ֵ֓ ֤ ίִ פ l

ꤵפ ΢ Ο ll 89 ll

׮ֵֵֿ֮ïִִ֮֟֟ ן l

ꤵ֟ ß ֮ ֟ ֮֟ ll 89 ll


89. Thus from the real standpoint the soul really causes or is the doer of (its own modifications). Again know (that) the soul also enjoy its ownself.



The soul being the conscious being; always modifies itself into its own consciousness. As a sea being fretted by the winds or merely ruffled by a mild breeze changes into and is the case of its own waves but not of the blowing of the wind; so the soul whether subjected to operation of passions of otherwise performs its own impure or pure conscious thought activities. The real standpoint emphasises the fact that ever substance is the modifier of its own forms only.


־ָ ֤ ֻ פ ׾ l

ꤵ֤ ֻ ׾ ll 90 ll

־ָõ ֟ 㤻 ן ׾ִ֑ l

֓ ־Ԥ֟ ˻Ԯ׾֬ ll 90 ll


90. And the (mundane) soul from the practical standpoint does (or produces) many kinds of material Karmas and it also enjoys (the material fruits of) material Karmas of many kinds.



Just as a potter considers himself to be the doer or producer of a clay pot, and enjoyed of it by using it or selling it; so form the practical point of view the (mundane) soul is said to be the binder of Karmas, the doer or causer of other inanimate things, e.g., clothing, houses, utensils, etc., and the enjoyer of sense-objects or sufferer of pain of account of his having or not having retain things. The potter has only been an auxiliary cause of the clay matter of the pot acquiring the form of the pot, but from the practical point of view he is rightly described as the maker of the pot, He could not obviously make one grain of sanj or earth, or which the pot is made. But accident or nature may have taken a million years or more to make the clay-matter of the pot. Thus from the practical standpoint the potter makes the pot and enjoys it, by looking at its beauty or getting its price. The pure soul cannot make or cause one slightest thrill of anger, pride, deceit or greed, ridicule, jest, sorrow, fear, disgust, like, dislike, or sexual inclination. These are material; conditions, independent of the pure soul. But the mundane soul which wears his Karmic body of matter, is by means of it, continuously attracting and shedding matter of Karmas. Thus from the practical; point of view, the soul may be said to be the producer of Karmas and the enjoyer of the fruits there of. From the pure real point of view, the soul is only the doer of its pure conscious activities and enjoyer of its own natural peace and happiness. The point here, as in the preceding Gathas, is that each substance modifies only within its own attributes and therefore can be said to be the doer and enjoyer of its own modifications.


פ ֻ״ פ ꤵפ ֤ l

׸־פ ֕פ ִ ו־ִ֤ ll 91 ll

פ һ ן ֓ ꤵ֟ ֟ l

׫ε־פ ֕ן ִ ו֮־ִ֟ ll 91 ll


91. If the soul causes this Karmic matter, and enjoys the same, (from the real standpoint also), there results the doctrine that one primary cause can produce contradictory primary effects. (Such is the) right teaching of the Conqueror.