Commentary

Here the author again emphasises the distinction between the real and the practical points of view. The real deals with the Pure real Soul only. The practical with the soul as we find it in practice impure, embodied, mundane, affected by Karmas, passions, pains, pleasure, wrong belief etc., etc. From the practical standpoint this embodied matter-clad soul may be said to cause material Karmic conditions and to reap the harvest sown by it. Should some hasty pupil conclude from this that the soul sometimes can cause non-soul or material conditions, he would be surely mistaken. The Author therefore insists that one substance cannot perform two kinds of quite contradictory actions. Conscious substances can only be modified into conscious, while unconscious substances into unconscious. Every action is but a change in the form of the original thing. The past form is the cause, while the present form is its effect.

 

Ƶ ΢ֳ־ ֳֻ־ ׾ ן ll

״֓פ ׸־פ ן ll 92 ll

ôֳ֟֟־ ֳֻ־ ־ׯ ן l

״֣֤™ ׫ε־פ ־ן ll 92 ll

 

92. Because thus (they) hold both soul and matter-natures (to be caused by the same); therefore the followers of the double doctrine are wrong believers.

 

Commentary.

They who hold the view that conscious soul is the root cause of both the conscious and unconscious material modifications are wrong-believers. Their opinion means identification of soul with matter. They do not recognise the essential, eternal, and ineradicable distinction of soul from non-soul, i.e., from matter. They are closely in touch with material things and material consequences. They cannot see that these worldly things are materials, born of matter and can in no way be caused by the soul, which is conscious, non-matter.

 

ֻ״֢ ֤ פ ί ־ l

ֻ״֢ פ ί ־ ll 93 ll

һ׮״֢ ֣֟ ן ֮֟: ־ l

һ׮״֢ ֣ ꤵן ֮֟ ־ ll 93 ll

 

93. As the soul produces its own (impure) thought-activity by the auxiliary cause of material Karmas, similarly it enjoys its own (impure) thought-activity by the help of material Karmas.

 

Commentary.

Here the author points out the correct view that when material Karmas, such as deluding, knowledge-obscuring, conation-obscuring, obstructive Karmas produce their effects, the thought activities of a mundane soul are of themselves impure, as born of ignorance, wrong belief, passions, etc. When pleasure-feeling Karmas make possible the company of agreeable objects, the being effected in attachment to them by operation of deluding Karmas, is modified into thought-activity of pleasure-feeling. Even the impure thoughts entertained in doing many worldly actions and in enjoying pleasure or suffering pain are not due to the souls them selves. The soul is the ultimate senser, experience, or knower o all thoughts, but it is not the cause. It is the matter-clad impure soul, which is the cause. If these Karmic causes are not present, the soul will always remain pure, performing its own pure modification and enjoying its own pure bliss.

 

״֓ ׾ ߾ִ֕߾ l

׾ָפ ֤ߵ ־ ll 94 ll

״֣֟ ֮׫׾֬ ߾s߾ß֣֖֮ l

׾ָןֵ : ֪ ־: ll 94 ll

 

94. Again, wrong belief (is) of two kinds, (of the nature of) soul, (and of the nature of) non-soul. Similarly wrong knowledge, vowlessness, (souls) vibratory activity, delusion, anger, etc., these conditions (are each of two kids).

 

Commentary.

In order to explain properly the modifications of soul and mater separately, the author has pointed out that wrong belief etc., are each of two kinds. Material Karmas having nature of effecting wrong belief, ignorance, vowlessness, passions and vibrations belong to matter, i.e., Karmic molecules which have flowed into and bound the mundane souls on account of their vibrations and passionate thoughts; while consciousness of soul affected with through of wrong belief, ignorance, vowlessness, passions and vibrations of soul-spatial units belong to soul as their root cause, though they have the operation of material Karmas as auxiliary cause. Just as a mirror shows the reflection of a peacock the modification of clearness of the mirror does no doubt belong to mirror it self, but it is due to the auxiliary cause of the presence of the peacock. Different colours and forms of the body of a peacock appearing in a mirror do not belong to the mirror but to peacock itself which is quite separate from the mirror. Thus we can talk of the mirror peacocks with reference to modification in the mirror and of the animal peacock with reference to its body outside the mirror. Similarly wrong belief etc., should be known. Had there been no operation of Karmas none of these impure modifications would have arisen in the soul.

 

ֻ ״֓ ׾ָפ ִ֕߾ l

֡ ׾ָפ ״֓ ߾ ll 95 ll

餻 ״֣֟ s׾ָןִָ֮֕߾: l

ֵsִ֮׾ָן״֣֟ ߾ß ll 95 ll

 

95. Karmic matter, (as) wrong belief, souls vibratory activity, vowlessness, wrong knowledge, (is) the non-soul. But conscious attentiveness (to) wrong knowledge, vowlessness, wrong belief (is) the soul.

 

Commentary.

 

Wrong-belief-Karma causes consciousness by wrong belief; operation of body-making Karma causes souls vibratory activity; passion Karma causes thought of vowlessness, and knowledge obscuring Karma with deluding karma causes wrong knowledge. So material Karmas which are causes of transferring souls nature are non-soul, while viper modifications nature of soul belong to soul. Therefore each of them is of two kinds, as appertaining to Soul or Non-Soul.

 

֡ և ׸ִ ן֋ִƕ l

״֓ ׾ָפ ־ ֤ ll 96 ll

ֵõ֤֮: ׸ִáֵ Ƶõ l

״ִִ֣֖֮֟׾ָןֳ־ֿ֓ן ֟־: ll 96 ll

 

96. Of the attentive (soul) with delusion, (there are) three thought-activities (from) beginningless time. (They) should be known (to be) wrong belief, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct.

 

Commentary.

The connection of soul with matter is beginningless, ߾ע ӕ.

The (mundane) soul is with Karma. These material Karmas are with soul not as attributes, but as mere associates, like gold and dirt in golden ore. Every instant old karmic matter is shed off and new matter flows into and binds the soul. This process has been going on from eternity. Every particular bondage has its beginning and end. If the soul were pure, it would have infinite knowledge, Power, and Bliss. There would be no need or possibility of its becoming impure or mundane. Wrong belief, wrong knowledge and vowlessness pervert the consciousness of the mundane soul. These are and have been the cause of mundane lives and wanderings from eternity, and would leave it only when by acquiring Right Belief, it acquires Right Knowledge and by pursuit of Right conduct attains Liberation.

 

֡ ן׾ 㬤 ָӕ ־ l

פ ־ ֡ ll 97 ll

ֵá׾֬: 㬤 ׮ָӕ֮ ־: l

ן ־ִֵßõ ll 97 ll

 

97. Conscious attentiveness, (relay) pur and without karmic dirt, (assumes) three aspects in connection with these (three, wrong belief, knowledge and conduct); (and then) attentiveness (is said to be) the doer (or auser) of such thought activity as it then produces.

 

Commentary.

Really the soul is pure. But when it is subjected to the operation of Karmas, it is affected with wrong belief, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct. It is the effect of the material karmas that makes it ignorant of its won true nature. Then whatever thought-activities arise in its consciousness, being effected by wrong belief, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct, the ignorant soul believes that thought-activity to be its own. It is like a crystal, which is transparent and white in colour, but in connection with red, blue, and green matter looks red, blue and green. A causal observer may take it to be a ruby, sapphire or emerald. A right-believer knows the real nature of soul, and believes all the impure thoughts and their effects to be due to karmic matter; while a wrong believer identifies himself with them.

 

פ ־ִ֤ פ ־ l

֢ ׸ִ֤ Ů ֵ ֻ ll 68 ll

ן ־ִ֟ ֢ ־ן õ ־õ l

ԟ ׸ִ֟ ô֮ þֵ 㮤֦ ll 98 ll

 

98. Whatever thought-activity the soul causes, he becomes doer of that thought-activity; owing to that (thought-activity) \karmic matter is itself modified into (8 kinds of) karmas.

 

Commentary.

 

A wrong believer, becoming the doer of his own perverse thought-activity, becomes attached to worldly objects. These thoughts become auxiliary cause, which attract similar karmic molecules to flow into and bind the souls with many kinds of karmic classes and sub classes. Just as water is itself transformed into vapour, by the application of heat, so karmic molecules are by the influence of thought-activity themselves transformed into Karmas. Thus really soul is not and cannot be the doer or binder of material Karmas. In its mundane deluded form it no doubt is the doer of perverse thoughts only.

 

ָ֯ פ ί ׯֵ Ӹ ӟ l

ִ֡ ߾ ָ פ ll 99 ll

ָ֮֟ Ԯִ֮֟ׯ ָ Ԯ : l

Ζִֵ֮ ߾: ָ ־ן ll 99 ll

 

99. The soul full of wrong knowledge takes the non-self (for) the self, and also taking the self (for) the nonself, becomes the doer of karmas (i.e., becomes subject to the bondage of Karmic matter).

 

Commentary.

 

A man with wrong belief does not discriminate between the soul and non-soul; he is engrossed totally in bodily attachment and thus has strong regad for those who seem to him helpful in the enjoyment of sense objects, and has a great dislike for those who are thought to be obstructive to the fulfillment of his desires. He does not know anger, pride, and other impure thought-activities as foreign to his rel and true essence. He identifies himself with these thoughts which are really due to operation of passion-kind of material karmas. Thus he binds Karmas which cause a long and continuous cycle of existences. He thinks that he is the doer of all acts, good and bad, and with this false pride, he is subjected to the miseries of the world. Right belief on the other hand is the sure way of Liberation.

 

ִָ֯ ί ׯ ָ ӟ l

ִ֡ ߾ ִָ פ ll 100 ll

ִָ֮֟Ԯִ֮֟ׯ ָԮ l

ִֵ֮ ߾: ִָ ־ן ll 100 ll

 

100. The soul, full of right knowledge, not taking nonself as self, and also not taking self as non-self, becomes the non-doer of karmas.

 

Commentary.

 

This Gatha explains the reverse of the last. A right believer knows that his soul is pure by nature and the doer only of his own pure thought-activities, whre there is no dirt of any passion. He also knows that impure thoughts, though they are modifications of his own consciousness, yet they are due to operation of deluding karma; the pain to passion is really the effect of Karmic dirt, it does not belong to him. Just as a man in disease thinks that he is ill. A wise man will analyse this feeling and shall find out that he is only conscious of illness, illmness does not belong to him. It is aneeffect of physical modification. His feeling pin r the consciousness of disease is due to his attachment to his body. Here also he is enjoying his own thought-activity of dislike for disease and of attachment for body. Similarly a right believer strongly believes that he is the knower only of karmic effects. All anger, and all thoughts such as pride, etc., are only the paints of karmic Molecules showing in the souls consciousness their non-activities, while a wrong believer indulges in them. A right believer does not bind those Karmas, which cause hindrance to his path of liberation.

 

ן׾ ֡ ׾ֵ֯ פ l

֡ פ ΢ֳ־ ll 101 ll

ס׾֬ ֵ ׫ ן

õֵõ ־ן ֳ֟־õ ll 101 ll

 

101. This attentive soul with three kinds (of wrong belief, etc.,) develops this false notion. I am anger (then) he becomes the doer of that attentiveness (i.e,) of that (false) thought- activity of the soul.

 

Commentary.

 

A wrong-believer being deeply effected by wrong-belief, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct, believes that he is the doer of all the impure thought activities of anger, pride, deceit, greed etc.; thus becomes the doer of this false and perverse thought, and is subjected to strong bondage of Karmas.

 

ן׾ ֡ ׾ֵ֯ פ ִ֤ l

֡ פ ΢ֳ־ ll 102 ll

ס׾֬ ֵ ֟׾ ן ִפ l

õֵõ ־ן ֳ֟־õ ll 102 ll

 

102. This attentive soul with three kinds (of wrong belief, etc.,) develops this false notion I am medium of motion, etc., and (then) he becomes the doeer of that attentiveness (i.e.,) of that (false) thought activity of the soul.

 

Commentary.

Just as a wrong-believer takes thoughts such as anger, etc., to be this own, so he takes the knowable objects also the be his own. It means that whenever a person knows any object, his consciousness in transformed into that form. This transformation is called the knowable thing. A perverse believer thinks this conscious thought to be himself. He forgets that he has the capacity of omniscience. His knowledge can comprehend all the knowable of the universe. Knowledge is an attribute of the soul and the objects, which are known, are quite different from his. The forms reflected in the mirror of knowledge belong to the objects; while perfect knowledge, which simultaneously knows all, that is capable of being known, is an attribute of the soul. A wrong believer forgets his capacity of pure knowledge, and having identified himself with knowable, thinks that he is the knowable. He has not recognised the separate individuality of his own pure self. Thus he is also said to be the possessor of false notion. Here a reference appears to be made to the Vedantist who believes all knowable as not different from his knowledge, and thinks every object as a manifestation of one supreme soul. This attitude ignores the difference between soul and non-soul.

 

ָ ίֵ פ Ӥߡ l

ί ׾ Ӹ פ ֳ־ ll 103 ll

ָ 9֮֟ ן ֤׬ß l

ִ֮֟ׯ ָ ן Ζֳ֮־ ll 103 ll

 

103. Thus the man of perverse intellect mistakes other substances for ones self, and also mistakes the self for the non-self owing to hi perverse thoughts.

 

Commentary.

This sums up the previous Gathas. A wrog-belieer maintains himself as the doer of non-elf modifications, and quite forgets the truth that the soul cannot be the doer of non-soul. His knowledge is deluded and muddled like that of a sot. A drunkard forgets real facts, and mistakes one thing for another. A wrong believer is therefore pitied by all wise men. He has quite forgotten his pure nature, which is full of real happiness and seeks pleasure in different worldly engagements where he is at last disappointed and pained. Thus he binds strong Karmas which cause his wanderings in different conditions of existences.

 

֤ ֓׾֤ ׸Ƥ l

ֻ פ ӓפ ־ע֢ ll 104 ll

ԟָ ׮ֵֿ׾׳: ׸ף֟: l

ֻ ֮ן ӓן ־Ԣ ll 104 ll

 

104. That soul is described by the Knowers of Reality as the doer (of its false notions) on account of this (i.e., wrong belief, etc.) he, who realises this, renounces all wrong notions of becoming (their) doer.

 

Commentary.

 

The Great Saints who know the Truth have declared all those thoughts to be wrong and misleading which identify the activities of non-self with those of the self. He who understands this pint of view properly, abandons these false notions which made him hitherto think that he is the doer of anger, and other impure thoughts. He becomes a right believer and then recognises the pure, peaceful and happy nature of his soul to be his own without any paint of passions and vibrations. He realises himself to be a perfect soul, as a group of inseparable pure attributes.

 

־ָ פ ֛֛פ l

׾׾ ll 105 ll

־ָ ֟ ן ֙֙פ l

׮ ׾׾֬׮ ll 105 ll

 

105. It is form the practical standpoint that the soul produces pither, cloth, chariot (and other) things, senses, and Karmas and quasi-Karms of various kinds in this world.

 

Commentary.

Really all the modifications of matter are caused by matter only. The thought-activity or conscious-activity of mundane souls becomes an auxiliary cause of them. Therefore it is form the practical standpoint that souls are said to be the causes of Karmas, etc., etc. it is wrong to say that the soul is or can be in its true nature the cause of any modifications, excepting its own.

 

פ ָ ׸ ִֵ ִ ꕕ l

ִ֡ ƾפ ll 106 ll

פ ָ ׮ִֵ֮ ֵ֮ ־ l

ô֮ ֵ֮ß ־ן ll 106 ll

 

106. And if that (soul) produces the non-self substances in reality, (then) it becomes one with them. Because (it is) not one with them, therefore the soul is not the doer of them.

 

Commentary.

 

Thought-activities of mundane souls may be said to be the auxiliary cause of karmic modifications etc., but we cannot say that the soul is the root cause of these. If thus were the apse, then the soul would be transformed into non-soul. As this is to possible the soul cannot be the real producer of them.

 

߾ פ ֛ ֛ ־ l

֡ ֤֯ ƾפ ll 107 ll

߾ ן ֙ ֙ ׮ l

ֵ־֤֟ ֵξן ll 107 ll

 

107. The soul does not make the pithier, nor clothe, nor the other things; souls vibratory activity (of mid, body and speech) and conscious attention are the producers (of them), and that soul is the doer of that Vibration and Attention.

 

Commentary.

 

The author here points out that the soul is neither the root cause of material modifications nor an auiliary cause of them, if considered from real standpoint. Mundane souls have got vibratory activities due to actions of mind, body land speech; and passionate conscious thought-activities owing to operation of body making and deluding Karmas. These vibrations and impure thoughts only become bye themselves auiliary causes for transformation of clay into pot, threads into cloth, wood into chair, etc., and for sense activities, formations of physical body, and bondage of Karmic molecules. These vibrations and impure thoughts are, from the practical standpoint, said to belong to souls. But if one sees from the pure real standpoint, one will find no soul affected by vibrations or passions. It the souls them selves become auiliary causes for material modifications, the pure souls will also be subjected to this. But it is not so with pure souls. They have got no virationsor passions. Thus really the soul is neither the auxiliary cause, nor the root cause of material modifications.

 

ֻ֤ ׸ִ ן ֡־ָ l

פ ֤ פ ƾפ ll 108 ll

֤֦ ׸ִ ־ן ֮־ָ׮ l

ן ֮֟ ֮ן ־ן ֮ ll 108 ll

 

108. The soul does not cause the knowledge obscuring and other (karmas) which are conditions of material Karmas. He who knows (this) is the Knower.

 

Commentary.

The author says that the soul has the attribute of consciousness and is therefore the knower only of its own or others modifications. He is not the doer of any sort of material modifications. Really he is neither the doer of anger, pride and other impure thought-activities. In order to understand real nature of soul, a right-believer must know and believe in the true nature of soul, which is above all mundane conditions due to Karmic bondage. Every soul in its essence is quite conscious, peaceful and happy. The realization of this truth is the cause of liberation.

 

־ ƴ פ ֤ ֻ l

פ ß ί ll 109 ll

־ ִֿ ֟ õ ֻ l

֟õ ־ן õ ֟ ll 109 ll

 

109. Whatever thought-activity, good or bad, the soul causes, certainly that (soul) (is) the doer of that (thought-activity.) that (though-activity) of that (soul) is the (thought) karma. And that soul (is) the enjoyer of that (thought-activity).

 

Commentary.

The soul an never be the root cause of material modifications. Even when it is in wrong belief and wrong knowledge, it is the doer of its own conscious thought-activity, which is painted by intense or mild passions. Thought-activity with intense passions is called bad, while that with mild passions is said to be good. In the same way it is the enjoyer of its won pleasing or painful thought-activities. It cannot be the enjoyer of other sees objects, which re material. The soul is the use of its own modifications only. It cannot be said to cause material Karmas.

 

פ l

ִӟ ׸ִ֋ ll 110 ll

ô֮ sôß ן l

s֤֟ : ֟׸ִֵן ִ ll 110 ll

 

110. Whatever attribute (is) in whatever substance, that (attribute) certainly is not changed into another (attribute of another) substance. That (attribute) not hanging into another, how an it cause to modify that other substance?

 

 

Commentary.

 

Each substance is quite separate from another, and so all the attributes of a substance are separate from those of another substance. The common quality of individuality (agrulaghu) in herent in each substance prevents this change from one tribute or substance into another attribute or substance. Thus soul cannot modify matter, nor can matter modify the soul. All modifications of soul belong to souls own attributes; while those of matter to matter only.

They may be auxiliary causes for each others modifications, so long as souls are in bondage of material Karmas. But from the real point of view, soul is neither the root nor the auxiliary cause of material modification or of impure thought-activities.

 

֤ פ ִֵֻ Ů l

ִֵӟ ״ ll 111 ll

õ ֟ ן ˻ִֵ l

ִֵ֤ßô֮ õ ll 111 ll

 

111. The soul does not cause nature of substance or attribute in material Karmas; not causing these two in that (matter), how he (can be) the doer of that (Karma).

 

Commentary.

 

It is a well-established proposition that all cautions are caused by primary causes. Really actions are only modifications of the substances, i.e., of their attributes. The soul is a conscious and immaterial substance, and therefore quite distinct from matter which is a non-conscious and material substance. Neither matter can be the cause of producing the soul or any modification in the souls attributes, nor can the soul be the cause of originating matter or making any modification in its attributes. There fore the soul cannot become the prime doer of karmic molecules or their natures, nor of physical bodies, such as pots, clothes and other material objects. This Gatha also refutes the theory that any immaterial, pure an all-knowing God has cause non-existing universe to have its existence. This universe with all its soul and non-soul substances is from eternity; because nothing is created or destroyed; only modifications are formed and dissolved.

 

߾ Ӭ ֤ ׸ִ l

߾ פ ֵָ֢ ll 112 ll

߾ Ӭõ ™ ׸ִִ l

߾ ֵ֟ ָ֓֡ ll 112 ll

 

112. But seeing the medication of karmic bondage by the (auxiliary) cause of (mundane) souls thought-activity, it is said form the practical point of view that karmas have been caused by the soul.

 

Commentary.

 

Soul in is purity is neither the primary nor the auxiliary cause of Karmic modifications. Mundane souls having wrong belief, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct identify themselves with attachment and hatred towards worldly objects. Owing to these impure thought-activities of such souls, karmic molecules by their own nature flow in and modify into bondage of Karmas, just as water is transformed into vapor by the auxiliary cause of heat from fire or sun. The modification of karmic bondage is primarily caused by karmic material molecules themselves.

 

㬤 ֋ ן ӯ֤ l

־ָ ָפ߾ ll 113 ll

: 㬤 ֖ ׳ן ֻ֟ : l

֣ ־ָ ֮־ָפ ߾ ll 113 ll

 

113. The war conducted by the warrior is waged by the kind: so says the world. Similarly (it is said that) knowledge-obscuring, et., (Karmas) are caused by the soul from the practical standpoint.

 

Commentary.

 

Here the author gives an example from worldly parlance. An army of a king, who is not present in the field, is engaged in fighting. People say that the king is fighting. Really speaking it is wrong; only his men are fighting. Similarly material Karmas are modified by mater only. As soul has association with matter, so it is called the cause of karmic bondage only from the practical point of view.

 

֤פ פ Ӭפ ׸ִ֋פ פ l

֤ ֻ֤ ־ֵָõ ֢־ ll 114 ll

֤ן ן ֬ן ׸ִֵן ן l

֟ ֻ֦ ־ֵָõ ִ֟ ll 114 ll

 

114. The soul produces, causes, binds, cuses to modify and assimilate karmic matter. (This) is (so), speaking form the practical standpoint.

 

Commentary.

 

All modifications of Karmic bondage affect the spatial units of the soul, without the soul being the primary cause; there fore the practical standpoi9nt ascribes all these material activities to the soul. Right believer understands this fact clearly.

 

ֵ ־ָ 㯯֤ע ֻ׾֤ l

߾ ־ָ ־֤֯ ֤ ll 115 ll

֣ ֕ ־ָ ֿ֤֯ ֻׯ֟: l

֣ ߾ ־ָ֤馾꟯֤ ֟: ll 115 ll

 

115. As the King, from the practical standpoint, is said to be the producer of Vices and Virtues (in the subjects. So the soul, from the practical standpoint, is side to be the producer of the modifications of matter (i.e., merit and demerit).

 

Commentary.

If a foreigner visits a country, and finds the people honest, gentle and contented, he speaks well of the King, and if he finds them dishonest, bad and distressed, he ascribes their condition to the King. Similarly the soul is called the binder of good and bad karmas from the practical standpoint. Just as a ruler is the auxiliary cause of good or bad Government and administration: so a mundane soul is the auxiliary cause off bondage of meritorious or meritorious karmas.

 

ִޯֵ֓ ֻ ֈ ן Ӭָ l

״֓ ׾ָ ֵ֕ ꬤ l 116 ll

ִ֮֯Οֵ: ֻ ָ֟ ޵ӟ ӬԸ3 1

״׵ִ֟׾ָ ֵֵ ꛾: ll 116 ll

 

116. Generally four cuses have been said to be the makers of (karmic) bondage. And they should be known to be wrong belief, vowlessness, passions and souls vibratory activity.

 

Commentary.

Really speaking, soul is not even the auxiliary cause of bondage. The wrong belief, etc., which modify the souls consciousness are really the fruition, the resultant, of material karmas called wrong belief, error-feeding and other kinds of passions and body making karmas, an the like. When a white-cloth has been dyed red, the whole and every thread of it produces the effect of redness; similarly the thought-activity of soul being painted by different classes of deluding Karma, etc., may be said to produce the effect of these deluding Karmas. A wise will never take redness as belonging to and an inherent attribute of the white cotton cloth, so a right thinker understands wrong belief etc., not as belonging to pure soul, but only as an effect to he intense or mild fruition-force of karmic molecules bound with the soul. These effects are thus really material, and they, and not the pure soul, are the auxiliary causes of karmic bondage.

 

׾ ֤ ׾ֵ֯ l

״֓פߡΤ ־ ֕ ָӟ ll 117 ll

ָׯ ֵ ֟ ß ֵꤿ׾: l

״֣֤™פԾֵָֿ֮֟ӟ: ll 117 ll

 

117. And again of these (four), thirteen divisions have been described: from delusion up to the end of the (spiritual stage of) vibrating perfect soul.

 

Commentary.

These 13 divisions are the spiritual stages, called Gunasthana one, two, three, or all four of the above bondage-causing-influences are at work in the above stages of the above bondage-causing-influences are at work in the above stages of the spiritual development of the soul.

All four are at work in the first, and the third stages; Mithytva drops out, and Avirata-kashaya-Yoga only appear in the 2nd, 4th, and 5th stages ; in the 6th 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th stages Avirate also is subdued, and kashaya and yoga only remain ; and in the 11th, 12th and 13th stages, yoga only shows itself. The souls vibrations caused by the operation of body-making Karma only determine the kind and quantity of the molecules of the karmas bound, while the degree of passions determines the duration and intensity of fruition. The operation of karmas is the cause of fresh bondage; not the nature of the soul. This operation is nothing but the effect of matter. Matter attracts matter. Thus matter only is the auxiliary cause for modification of fresh karmic molecules into any kinds of karmic bondage.

 

֓ ֻ ֻ㤵ӳ־ Ů l

פ ן ׾ ֤ ll 118 ll

Γ֮: ֻ ˻Ԥӳ־ ô֟ l

פ ן ׯ ֟ ll 118 ll

 

118. From the real standpoint these (are) unconscious (i.e., non-soul), because (they are) produced by the operation of material karmas. Though they cause the karmas, the soul (is) never the enjoyer of them (from the real standpoint).

 

Commentary.

Liberation is the realisation of the souls pure nature. The pure and real nature of soul is to modify into its own pure attributes and to enjoy its own true and independent happiness. It has no passion, no attachment to the non-self; it cannot be said to enjoy worldly pleasures that are dependent upon external objects and are brought about by the operation of material Karmas. A right-believing layman, leading a family life, may be taken to enjoy worldly pleasures; but he does not identify his soul with such seeming sweetness. The real point of view sees a mundane soul also as a pure soul. It sees every substance us separate from the other.

 

֤ ן ֵ֓ Ů l

Ů֕߾ ן ll 119 ll

֟ß ן Οֵ ô֟ l

ô֕߾ ˸ ֿ ן ll 119 ll

 

119. Because these spiritual stages, (the real) causes (of bondage), bind Karmas, therefore the soul (is) not the doer (of them really); but the spiritual stages cause the karmas.

 

Commentary.

In reality the soul is free from thought-activities which cause bondage of karmas. The thirteen spiritual stages due to the effect of deluding and body-making Karmas are the chief causes for taking in and binding new karmic matter. When hot watt burns a persons hand, it is said that hot water has burnt him. But really speaking it is the heat of fire, which has burnt him, not the water which is by nature cold. Similarly from the practical standpoint, it is said that mundane soul binds karmic molecules; but really it is impurity of Karma in operation, which cause the bondage of Karmas. Soul by its nature is neither doer of impure thought-activities or of bondage of Karmas. It shoal be noted that in Tattvarth sutraShri Umaswami has named five kinds of thought pertaining to soul in the first verse of the second chapter. Of them only operative thought activity is said to be an auxiliary cause of fresh bondage. Subsidential, destructive-Subsidential and destructive thought-activities are all souls own qualities produced by the removal of the effect of karmas. The natural thought-activity of shoeless (jivatva) is also soulss own nature.

 

߾ ֡ ׾ פ l

߾֕߾ ִִ֢־ ll 120 ll

֣ ߾õ֮֮ ֵ: sׯ ֣ ֪֮: l

߾ã֕߾õ ִִִ֮֮֮֟֯ ll 120 ll

120. As the conscious attentiveness of the soul (is) not other than itself ; so, if anger also be not other than the soul, then there would result the oneness of soul and of non-soul.

Commentary.

 

The causes of bondage are distinct from the soul. Anger has been mentioned here only as an example. Consciousness is souls own nature which can never be taken away from it .In whatever condition of life the soul may happen to be, it always has consciousness everywhere. Owing to the operation of knowledge-obscuring and onation-obsurig Karmas, its knowledge may be dimmed, and its consciousness may be very feebly exhibited. Anger is not the nature of soul. It is the eject of the anger-passion Karma. It is, therefore, maerial. If one believes anger to be the nature of soul like consciousness, then it will mean that anger is the nature of soul and must be found in the soul at all times and in all condition. We know that pure souls do not have it ; even the sages, saints, and Arhantas have a peacefulness undisturbable by anger. Moreover, ordinary people also do not have anger always. It is present in consciousness only as long as there is the operation of anger Karma which is material. If anger be taken to be the nature of soul, then soul and non-soul will become one, and there will be a wrong identity of tewo different substances, which is impossible.

 

״ ߾ ꡾ ִֵ֤ ߾

εִ֢ ֵ֓ ll 121 ll

״ ß ߾: ׮ִֵ֟ß֣ ߾: l

εִ : Οִֵ֮ ll 121 ll

 

121. Thus in this world whatever is soul, that itself in reality (will become) the non-soul. This impossibility (would result) by identifying (with soul) the causes of physical and Karmic (bondage).

 

Commentary.

Like anger, if other causes of bondage, be taken to be the souls own nature, it would lead to a denial of the existence of pure soul. These impurities only will everywhere be predominant and we could not then postulate a peaceful, happy and conscious soul; normalize real peacefulness and happiness. But this is wrong. Soul can never become non-soul.

 

֡֯ ƾפ l

ֵ֓ ִ׾ ll 122 ll

Σ : ή: s ֵ֟ ־ן ׵֟ l

֣ ß֣ Οֵ: ԯ֮֟ ll 122 ll

 

122. And I (you consider that) anger is one thing (&) the conscious (soul) full of attention (is really) (quite) another (thing); then like anger, the (other) causes (opf bondage), the karmic and quasi-Karmic (matter) also (should be taken to be) other (than the soul).

 

Commentary.

If one cannot believe anger to be the natural quality of soul, then one should be convinced also of all the impurities in the thirteen stages long with karmic and quasi-Karmic matter to be quite distinct from urge soul. Really this is the case from the pure real point of view. Every mundane soul should be considered by thus view to be a pure soul, devoid of any activity of a material nature.

 

߾ ֵ ֬ ֵ ׸ִפ ־ l

פ ֻ֤״ ί׸ִ ֤ פ ll 123 ll

߾ þֵ ֬ þֵ ׸ִ֟ Գ־ l

פ ݤ֦״֤֯׸ִ ֤ ־ן ll 123 ll

 

123. If Karmic matter is not itself bound in the soul, is not itself transformed into Karmic modifications (of 8 Kinds) ; then that (Karmic matter) would become (a substance) incapable of modification.

 

Commentary.

It is the nature of every substance to modify itself into different forms. If it be supposed that matter remains unmodified, there can be no bondage of Karmas with the soul. Pure souls do not possess the activity of binding Karmas. Impure souls, though showing impure thought-activities, yet would near desire to be bund up with bad karmas. If they wish to bind good Karmas, they cannot forcibly transform matter into Karmas, if it does not possess the capacity of modifications. When any substance by its own natur modifies itself into various forms then only an other things by way of external stimulus act as auxiliary causes. If matter has not got the capacity of transformation, it an never be transformed by any one. Thus the proposition that matter is incapable of modification cannot be maintained.

 

և־פ ί׸ִ֟ ־ l

ָ γ־ ֤֕ ִ֡ l 124 ll

ִ־ ֯׸ִִ ־ l

ֳָ־: ֮áן ־ִ֮ܵ ll 124 ll

 

124. And (in case of) molecules of Karmic mater not transforming themselves with Karmic forms (of 8 kinds), there would result the non-existence of the cycle of mundane existence; or the philosophy of Sankhya (would be established).

 

Commentary.

If Karmic matter be taken o have no capacity of modification into forms of 8 kinds of Karmas binding the out, then the soul must remain quite pure ; and there will be an end to the cycle of existences, and the doctrine of the Saukhya philosophy that all souls are pure and inactive will be established. But this is not true. If souls had not been impure and involved in suffering, no religious system would have been needed to preach the doctrine of soul advancement. Thus without maintaining the doctrine of the capacity of modification in matter, it would be impossible to find an explanation for world phenomena. If there is no change, there is no world. There would then be a cessation of all activity. But the is quite contrary to our positive experience and knowledge.

 

߾ ׸ִֵ֤ ֤֮ ־ l

ִֵ֯׸ִӟ ׸ִֵפ ll 125 ll

߾: ׸ִֵן 㮤֦ ֳ־ l

׮ þִֵ֯׸ִִ֮׮ ׸ִֵ֟ן ׵֟ ll 125 ll

 

125. (If) soul causes Karmic matter (to transform) with Karmic forms (of 8 kinds), how then can the conscious (soul) cause transformation in them, (when) they by themselves are incapable of modification.

 

Commentary.

If any one were to say that matter in itself is not possessed of the attribute of modification, and that it is only the soul which affects matter and transforms it into Karmic bondage, he would be in error. No agency can transform a thing, which does not possess the capacity of transforming itself into its own possible forms. Gold has got the capacity of modifying itself into different forms such a bracelets, ear-rings, gold wire, gold leaf etc., and the goldsmiths thought activity and his hands and implements become the auxiliary causes bringing about various changes in its form. Gold has not the capacity of being transformed into iron, and therefore it is impossible to so transform it. Form the real viewpoint, it is the substance itself which modifies itself into its own possible forms. Other substances act as auxiliary causes only. An auxiliary cause cannot transform a substance into its own forms without that substance having the capacity of self-modification. Therefore ala soul by itself cannot bind Karmas. It is owing to the bondage causes of wrong belief etc., that karmic matter itself becomes modified into Karmas.

 

ֵ ֬ ֵ ׸ִפ ƴ֤ l

פ 㕳 ߾ ί׸ִ ֤ פ ll 126 ll

þֵ ֬: þֵ ׸ִ֟ פ׳: l

֪: ־ ߾s׸ִ ֤ ־ן ll 126 ll

 

126. If this soul neither itself is bound by karmas. Nor itself is transformed (modified) into anger, etc., (impureconscious thought-activities), then it (soul) becomes incapable of modification.

 

Commentary.

According to the dictum of Tirthankaras every substance, soul or non-soul, had got the capacity of modification. If one takes the one-side view that the soul has neither such impure thought-activities as anger etc., nor is it bound by Karmas, then the soul also will have to be held as incapable of modification. Jainism refutes this view and says that although operation of Karmas causes the conscious thought-activity of soul to be transformed into anger etc., yet the primary cause of conscious transformation is the capacity of the soul only.

 

ί׸ִӟ ֵ ߾ פ ־ l

ָ γ־ ֤֕ ִ֡˸ 1 127 ll

ί׸ִִ֮ þֵ ߾ פ׳: ־:

ָõֳ־: á֕ן ִֵܵ ll 127 ll

 

127. If the soul were not to modify itself into anger etc., thought-activity, there would result the non-existence of the mundane cycle of existences or the Snkha doctrine (would be established).

 

Commentary.

If the nature of modification is held to be not appertaining to the soul substance, it would follow that the soul remains always as it is, without any change whatsoever, whether pure or impure. And if that were so, the soul will neither take birth in different bodies, or will there be any necessity of addressing it on the doctrine of religion. There ill then be no need for liberation. And then the one-sided Sankhya doctrine, that the soul is inactive and incapable of modification into different thought-activities, ill follow as a logical conclusion. Tirthankaras have however declared that each abstain is possessed of the attribute of modification. If the soul were held to be inoperable of modification it would follow that the soul is also incapable of enjoying its own inherent, everlasting bliss of perfect knowledge and complete power.

 

ֻ ߾ ׸ִˋפ Ƣ l

ִֵ֯׸ִӟ ׸ִ֋פ Ƣ 1 128 ll

ݤ ߾ ׸ִֵן ֟ l

þִֵ֯׸ִ֮ ׸ִֵן ִ֟ l 128 ll

 

128. (If) the Karmic matter of aner cause modification of soul into anger thought activity, (then how (the Karmic matter) causes to transform into anger the soul which by itself (is ) incapable of modification?

 

Commentary.

The position that it is material Karmas only, which forcible changes the thought-activity of the soul into anger, pride etc., is also untenable. One substance cannot camel another substance to act in a manner, which is contrary to its inherent nature. If gold had not the capacity of being melted, no fire could have melted it. The gold malts because it possesses the nature of melting; the heat which melts it is only an auxiliary cause. If any one desired to transform space into soul or matter, it would be impossible to do so, because space does not possess the capacity of being changed into another substance. One substance becomes only an auxiliary cause for change in another substance into its own possible modifications. The primary cause in its hanged is the substance itself. Sol by itself is transformed into impure thought-activities; the operation of material Karmas is an auxiliary cause. This we say form impure-real point of view. From the pure real point of view soul modifies into its natural and pure forms only.

 

ִֵ֯ ׸ִפ Ƴ־ 㬤 l

׸ִֵ֤ ߾ ״פ ״֓ ll 129 ll

Σ þִֵ֟ ׸ִ֟ ֳ־ ־ ׬: l

: ׸ִֵן ߾ ֟״ן ״֣ ll 129 ll

 

129. That the soul itself is transformed into anger thought-activity, (if) this (is) thy wisdom, (then) it will be wrong (that) the Karma matter of anger causes the modification of the soul into anger.

 

Commentary.

The pure soul can only have modifications in itself, retaining its purity all the while, and having no contact of any sort with any material substance. It is the operation of the anger-Karma, already and by the mundane and impure soul unto itself, which brings bout the anger thought-activity. It is wrong to say that pure soul by itself is transformed into anger thought-activity.

 

֕ ֕ ִ֤ l

ֈ֕ ֵ ֕ ƾפ ll 130 ll

ֵ: ֵ֮ ֮ ֟ l

ֵֵ ֵ ֳֵ ־ן : ll 130 ll

 

130. Being affected by anger (Karma) the soul itself (becomes) anger; being affected by pride (Karma), (it beomes) pride; indulging in deceit (it becomes) deceit, and in greed, it becomes greed.

 

Commentary.

A bar of iron when heated becomes red; and a transparent crystal being placed on a red, blue, or green surface looks red, blue or gree. Similarly the soul transforms its thought-activity into anger, pride, deceit, greed brother impure thought-activities when affected by the operation of anger, pride, deceit, greed, or other Karmas bound up with the soul.

 

㇢ פ ֵ֮֡֯ 㬤 l

ָֽ׾ֵֵ ׾ן l 131 ll

: ㌟ ֮ן ִֵ֮֟ 㬤 l

׮ ֬ ָ֣ ׾ֵ֖ ׾֤ן ll 131 ll

 

131. The knows of reality call him the possession-less ascetic, who giving up worldly possessions, realises the pure soul, full of conscious attentiveness.

 

Commentary.

The saint, whose strong passions are subsided and who has got suh a mild operation of perfect-conduct-preventing passions that they cannot disturb the pure thought-activity of self-relisation, is free from all attachment, and fully realises his own pure consciousness.

 

֟ ㇢ ־׬ֵ פ ֤ l

ו֤ ָֽ׾ֵֵ ׾֟ ll 132 ll

: ㌟ ֮þֳ־ ֮ ִ֮֟ l

וִ֟ ֬ ָ֣׾ֵ֖ ׾֤ן ll 132 ll

 

132. The knowers of reality all him a saint, a conqueror of delusion, who has got rid of deluded thought-activity, and how realises the soul possessed of its inherent perfect knowledge.

 

Commentary.

This Gatha refers generally to all who have diverted their thoughts even from all good actions of worship, study, prayer, et., and have modified their thoughts exclusively to realisation of pure self. A right-believing person with good thought paint fan restrain his mind to pure oncentration. He is then the enjoyer of his own pure conscious modification.

 

פ ־ִ֤ פ ־ l

ִ֡ ִ֡ ll 134 ll

ן ־ִ֟ ־ן õ ־õ l

׮֮֟ß ִֵ֮sִֵ֮s׮֮: ll 134 ll

 

134. Whatever thought-activity the soul causes, it becomes the our of that thought-activity. That (thought-activity is) full of (right) knowledge in a soul with (right) knowledge (and is) full of wrong knowledge in one with perverse knowledge.

 

Commentary.

Soul being a substance is subject to constant modifications. He who has subdued wrong belief and error-feeding passions has been freed from the effects of wrong knowledge. Then all his conscious thought-activities are right and he always modified into right thoughts. He ho is under operation of wrong belief and error-feeding passion ahs perverse knowledge, and all his thought-activities will be wrongly directed, away from the path of Liberation.

 

ִ֡ ־ 9˸ פ

ִ֡ פ ll 135 ll

Ζִִֵ ־s׮֮: ן l

ִֵ֮ ׮֮ß ן ô֢ 1 135 ll

 

135. The thought-activity of the perverse soul (is) full of wrong knowledge, by that it binds Karmas; while in the soul with right knowledge, (it) is full of right knowledge and therefore it does not bind Karmas.

 

Commentary.

The author here chiefly refers to that bondage which is the cuse of an infinite cycle of mundane existences, and not merly to a mild bondage in a right-believer who must cast off all his karmas one de even if he will be going on binding them according to rules of bondage in spiritual teats. Thus a wrong-beeliever identifies himself with on-self modifications and maintaining his oul as angry, proud, deceitful, greedy and with other impure thought-activities binds strong Karmas; while a right-believer who is fully convinced of the true nature of soul, as quite equal to the status of a Liberated soul, and without any passions and vibrations, and who hhas found his goal of self-realization, does not bind such Karmas. He is really o the path to liberation and is gradually freeing him self from Karmic bondage.

 

ִֵ ־֡ ִ֡ ֵ֤ ־ l

ִ ִ ־ ־ ִֵ ll 136 ll

ֳִֵ֮־֤˖ִֵֿ֮ ֵ֟ ־:

ô֢ô֕׮֮: ־ ־: ֻ ִֵ֮: ll 136 ll

 

136. As thought-activity of right knowledge only proceeds from a substance with right knowledge, therefore in a right-knower all he thought-activities are of right-knowledge.

 

Commentary.

All actions are cussed according to their primary cusses. All impurities of wrong belief and error-feeding passions have been cast away from the soul of a right-believer. Therefore all his conscious thought modifications must be right. Even a layman with right belief engaged in worldly occupation is never attacked by perverse thought-activity. All his actions are directed to right path. He does worldly actions under the operation of passions, but knows that they are not the actions of his soul.

 

ִֵ ־ ֵ֤ ־ l

ִ ־־ ־ ִֵ ll 137 l

Ζֳִֵ֮־ִֵֿ֤֮ ֵ֟ ־: l

ô֟־ ־ Ζִֵ֮ Ζ׮֮: ll 137 ll

 

137. As from a substance with wrong knowledge, thought-activity of wrong knowledge only is produced; therefore in a perverse soul (all) the thought-activities (are) of wrong knowledge.

 

Commentary.

 

A person, whose consciousness is dimmed by wrong belief and wrong knowledge, is subjected to modifications of his thought activity according to wrong belief and wrong knowledge. He cannot have right thoughts.

 

ֳִֵֵ־֤ ֵӟ ֤ ־ l

εִև֤㡯ε֤ ֵӟ פ ll 138 ll

ִֵ ־ ׾ ׾ ֵӟ l

ִֵ ־ ־ ן ll 139 ll

ֲֳֵֵ֕ӟ ֤ ־: l

εֵß εֵ֟ ֣ ֵӟ ֤: ll 138 ll

Ζֳִֵ֮־֤׮֮ ׾֬ ׯ ֵӟ l

׮֮ß ִֵ֮: ־ ־֣֟ Ӿן ll 139 ll

ֲֳֵֵ֕ӟ ֤ ־: l

εֵß εֵ֟ ֵӟ ֤: ll 138 ll

Ζֳִֵ֮־֤׮֮ ׾֬ ׯ ֵӟ l

׮֮ß ִֵ֮: ־ ־ß֣ ־ן l 139 ll

 

138-139. As from a golden material, ear-rigs and similar thing are made, and room an iron matter only bracelets, et., (of iron) are produced. Similarly in the perverse soul, many kinds of thought-activities full of wrong knowledge are produced and in the soul with (right) knowledge, all the thought-activities are full of (rights) knowledge.

 

Commentary.

All actions are dependent upon their primary causes. Articles made from gold cannot be other than gold, while those of iron cannot be transformed into any other matter than iron. Similarly all thought activities of a rights-believer are right, while those of a wrog-believer are wrong. Even austerities and good charitable actions and calmness of mind in a wrong believer are not in the right directions. His aim is not to get liberation from karmic bondage and to attain infinite bliss natural to the soul, but to acquire different objects of sense enjoyments, and worldly fame here or hereafter. In the same way, a layman with right belief amy perfomduties of a ruler, lead arms, earn moey by trade, engage in arts, agriculture and other industries, and yet his thought activities nnot be called wrong, because they are based upon right belief of his own true self an he knows that his layman duties are due to operation of passion and other Karmas which he knows to be his enemies. He must have just cause for all his worldly pursuits; therefore his all thought-forms are right.

 

״֤֓ ߾ Ο֧֓ l

ӕִ ߾ ׾ָ ll 140 ll

߾ Ο֓ֈֻ֬ l

ֈ֡ ߾ ֈ9 ll 141 ll

ֈ ߾ דֽ l

ִ ֲֵ ׾ָפ־ ll 142 ll

״֣֟õ 椵 ֕߾ִ֢֮֟־ִ֮֬ l

ӵִõ 椵 ֕߾ִ֮׾ָ֢־ִ ll 140 ll

Ζ֮õ 椵 ߾֮ ֻ֟֟ײ: l

֟ ֵֵ: ߾֮ ֵꤵ: ll 141 ll

֮ ꤵ ߾֮ ™: l

֮s֮ Ծ ׾ָןֳ־ ll 142 ll

 

140-141-142. In souls, the belie in wrong principles (i.e., principles as they re not) (is due) to operation of wrong-belief (deluding karma) ; and vowlessness in souls (is due) to the operation of riht-onduct-deluding (Karma). And I souls, the wrong knowledge of the principles (is due) to population of knowledge-obscuring (Karma) ; and the passio-tossed thought-activity of the soul (is due) to the operation of passion (Karma). And the impales of activity of the soul, which (is) good an pursuable, or bad and abandonable, should be known to be due to rise of soul-vibrations (caused by operation of body-sub-class of body making Karma).

 

Commentary.

Thought-ativities, which cause bondage of new Karmas, are not real and natural activities of souls. All the four kinds of activities of wrong belief wrong knowledge, vowlessness and soul-vibrations though motions of mind, body and speech are due to operation o material karmic bondage. Although souls are primary causes of conscious thought-activities, yet the darkness of wrong belief et., appearing in onsciouness is not due to primary cause of souls, but it is the effect or fruition. Strong or mild, of the Karmi molecules themselves. As has been explained in Gthas 116-119, this darkness of Karmas is really the cause of the eight kinds of fresh karmic bondage. From practical point of view only, it is said that primary cause of these impure activities is soul and a patio of Karmas is an auxiliary cause.

 

և־ֵ ӟ l

׸ִ֤ ν׾ ־ָפ־ ll 143 ll

ִ־֟ ֢ l

׸ִ֟sˆ׾֬ ֮־ָפ־: ll 143 ll

 

143. Owing to the (auxiliary) cause (of thought-activity) that which (is) in the form of Karmic molecules is modified into eight kinds of knowledge-obscuring and other Karmas.

 

Commentary.

The impure thought-activities already stated are the auxiliary causes only of the bondage of 8 kinds of karmic classes and of their sub-classes. Primary cause of Karmas are the Karmic molecules themselves of which this universe is full and which have got the capacity of being attracted by souls vibrations and transforming themselves into Karmas with various kids of strong or mild fruition,. When they are bound, their bondage is dependent also for long or short duration on the internists or mildness of passions. They themselves operate on maturity in their due time and then shed off.

 

ֻ ߾־֬ ־ֵ և l

և פ ߾ ׸ֳִ־ l 144 ll

ֻ֟֟ ߾׮ֲ֬ ִ־֟ ֤ l

֤ ־ן Ծ: ׸ֳִ־ִ֮ ll 144 ll

 

144. Certainly, when matter I the form of Karmic molecules binds the soul, then only the soul becomes the cause of its modified thought-activity.

 

Commentary.

The transformation of Karmic molecules into Karmas and the auxiliary cause of this bondage process i.e. the impure thought-activity o soul work simultaneously. Such being the fact of Karmic bondage, a wrong-believing person takes that impure thought activity to be his own actin. He identifies himself with that which is really an effect of Karmas. Thus owing to wrong belief he does not know the true fact. A right believer free from the effects of wrong-beli\f Karma but modifying in other impure thought-activities due to partial vow, or total vow, or perfect right conduct, prevents passions and minor passions, knows that his soul really is not the doer of them. They are not his own pure conscious activities. His nature is to new only, an not to be vowels, or passionful. Had there not been operation of passions, his ouls conscious-activity would not have been subjected to suh impure modifications. Therefore a right knower does not bind Karmas leading to long cycles of births and rebirths. He binds uh-weak Karmas which will not hander the progress of soul-advancement.

 

߾֤ ׸ִ ן ֤

߾ ׾ פ־ ll 145 ll

߾õ ֓ ׸ִ: ֻ ־ן : : l

߾: ֫ 9ׯ פִ֮֯ ll 145 ll

 

145. And if attachment and other thought-activities are produced in the soul (by its working) along with Karmic matter (i.e. by both soul animate being primary auses) ; then soul and Karmic matter both would become attachment, etc.

 

Commentary.

Soul and mater jointly cannot be the primary cause of impure thought activities of soul, for in that case karmic matter will also become conscious. This is impossible. The primary cause of thought-activities is the soul itself, Karmic matter is the auxiliary cause. This statement is her made from the impure real point of view. Form real point of view soul is not the primary cause of any impurity at all.

 

׸ִ ֵפ ߾ ִ֤ l

ꤵ ׾ ߾ ׸ִ ll 146 ll

õ ׯִָ ֵ֟ ߾õ פ׳: l

֟Ԥ׳׾ή ߾õ ִָ: ll 146 ll

 

146. If attachment etc., is produced in the soul by itself, then without the operation of Karmas being auxiliary causes, thought-activity (of impure kind will be produced) in a (pure) soul.

 

Commentary.

Attachment and other impure thought-activities never appear in pure souls. Therefore a soul cannot have them without the influence of deluding Karma in operation as an important auxiliary cause.

 

׸ִ ֻ֤־ ֳ־ l

߾ֳ־ ׾ ׸ִ ll 147 ll

õ ׸ִ: ݤ֦õ γ־ l

֕߾ֳ־׳׾ή : ׸ִ: ll 147 ll

 

147. If the modification into Karmas (of 8 kinds) is (produced) by itself in karmic matter; then there would be modification into (8) Karmas without the (impure) thought activity of the soul being the cause.