Commentary.

Misery and death happen to living beings by the operation of their own demeritorious Karmas. Those who have meritorious Karmas cannot be put to death or made miserable by others Knowing this truth, a right believer must not be grieved if he falls into miseries or is grasped by death. He should not feel enmity towards others who might become auxiliary causes for calamities or death to him. Neither should he feel proud of his piety that he is so careful that he does not cause any injury to others or death to anyone.

 

֤ :֤Ƥ ״ ֢ן l

朴֤ Ӭ֤ ll 271 ll

ןß :֮֟֟ ״ ֢׮ן l

朴ן: ֿ ֑ן ll 271 ll

271. This thought of thine that I cause beings to be miserable (or) happy is foolish-thinking. It makes good and bad Karmas bind thee.

Commentary.

A wrong believer, without understanding the truth, indulges in the perverse thought that he can make others miserable or happy. Owing to this wrong belief, Karmic molecules are attracted to and bound with his soul. This thought has polluted his soul, without doing any harm or good to others. Although the thought of doing good to others will bind good Karmas, yet it is bondage and an obstruction in the path of Liberation.

׌֤Ƥ ֢ ״ ֤֕ l

־־Ӭ Ӭ פ ll 272 ll

:֮֟֟ ֢֮ ״ ִ֤֬־֟ l

֟ ֲ֯Ӭ ޵õ Ӭ ־ן ll 272 ll

272. Thy impure thinking that I cause living beings (to be) miserable or happy, becomes the cause of the bondage of merit or demerit.

Commentary.

The thought of doing injury to others causes bondage of demeritorious Karmas, while the thought of doing good to others causes bondage of meritorious Karmas. Bondage does not depend upon others being miserable or happy through him. A man may attempt to cause harm to another, and the other, instead of being harmed, may gain some benefit thereby, still he, who entertains the thought of doing harm, will never bind meritorious Karmas. In the same way a doctor treats a patient with the good thought activity of saving him and performs an operation. Even if the patient succumbs and dies, the doctor will not be subject to bad karmas, but will bind good Karmas on account of his good thought-activity.

 

ָ״ ߾־״ֵ ֢ ֤֕ l

־־Ӭ Ӭ פ ll 273 ll

ָ״ ߾ֵ״ ֢֮ ִ֤֬־֟ l

ֲ֟֯Ӭ ޵õ Ӭ ־ן ll 273 ll

273. Thy impure thinking that I kill or I give life to living beings, becomes the cause of the bondage of demerit and merit.

Ε֤ Ӭ ֢ ָ ־ ָ l

Ӭִ ߾ ֵ֓ ll 274 ll

ά־֟ Ӭ: ֢֮ ָ֟ ָ֟ l

Ӭִ ߾֮ ׮ֵֵֿ֮õ ll 274 ll

274. Bondage is caused by impure thought-activity, whether you kill or do not kill living beings. From the real point of view this is the epitome of the bondage of souls.

 

Commentary.

A person sitting in a lonely place may be harboring an intention and making a resolve of killing or injuring another. He has not yet taken any practical steps, yet his thought-activity will at the very moment of its conception cause bondage of demeritorious Karmas. One who desires to be free from nondage, must not there fore even think of doing harm to another. He must have a calmmind with no attachment.

ִ׻ֵ Τ ξ ׸ l

߸פ Ε ֕ ־ ll 275 ll

ִֻs sֵ ׸ l

ε֟s־֮ ֢ ֬֟ ֯ ll 275 ll

275. Similarly, whenever there is impure thinking as regards falsehood, appropriation of what is not given, un-chastity, or worldly belongings, demeritorious Karmas are thereby bound.

Ƶ Γꕕ ֓ ӳ ί׸Ƣ l

߸פ Ε ֕ ll 276 ll

֣ׯ ֓ ֟ ί׸Ɵ l

ε֟s־֮ ֢ ֬֟ ޵ ll 276 ll

 

276. Similarly, by thoughts directed to abstinence from stealing, falsehood, unchastity, and possessions meritorious Karmas are bound.

 

 

Commentary.

A man may not come into contact with others, and may not perform any practical actions, yet the fact that he has adopted vows and is determined to observe them, itself causes bondage of good Karmas.

֟ ֛哓 Ε פ ߾ l

֟ Ӭ Ε Ӭע ll 277 ll

ß Οߟ ָ֟־֮ ־ן ߾֮ l

ßß Ӭs־֮ Ӭsß ll 277 ll

 

277. Again, it is with reference to some object that thought activity relating to a thing is caused in the souls. The bondage is not caused by that thing; the bondage is due to the thought-activity.

 

Commentary.

If one has renounced all property, and has absolutely no attachment for it, he cannot be bound by Karmas, even if, clothes, utensils, and treasures are near him, Omniscient Arhants are worshipped by Indras, lords of celestials and their Samosarana, the Great Hall of Audience is superbly decorated by extraordinary superfine jewels, etc., but the Arhants have no bondage because they have no attachment for these paraphernalia. Here ones may question that if only thought-activity is the cause of bondage, why should worldly things be renounced? The answer is plain. Absences of attachment means renunciation; and absence of renunciation shows attachment. If you do not want even a piece if cloth it would without any attachment for it, like the lotus in a pond, is often misunderstood, and anused, or used as a pretext, for all influence in worldly objects by many a religious impostor.

׌֤Ƥ ߾ ״ Ӭ״ ׾ִ״ l

㕳 ֤ ָ ״֓ ll 278 ll

:֮֟֟ ߾֮ ״ ֬״ ֣ ׾ִֵ״ l

־ ן: ׮ָף ֻ ״֣ ll 278 ll

278. I cause souls (to be) miserable (or) happy, I bind them or I release them. This thinking of thine has no meaning. Indeed, it is certainly false.

 

Commentary.

Our efforts to make others happy or miserable and to take them on the right or wrong path are only auxiliary causes. In reality the soul is itself the primary cause if making itself miserable or happy, bound or released.

Ε״֟ ߾ ֕ן פ l

㓓ן ִ ך ll 279 ll

ά־֮׮״֢ ߾ ֮֬ פ l

㓵ӟ ִ ãִֿ ll 279 ll

 

279. If the souls are bound by Karmas owing to (their own) thought-activity being the auxiliary cause, and those fixed in the path of Liberation are liberated. What then is thy action.

 

Commentary.

It is an established and invariable rule that souls themselves are responsible for bondage on account of their own impure thoght-activites and for Liberation by their own fixity in self-absorption. It is useless to maintain that one can make another bound or liberated. Every soul is the master of its own destiny.

 

ֵ ־״ֵ ֢ פ l

. ־׾ ״֓ Ƥ פ ֢ ll 280 ll

ֵ :ֵ״ ֢֮ ֮ן l

־ׯ ״֣ :֟: פ ֢: ll 280 ll

֓֋ ־״ֵ ֢ פ l

־׾ ״֓ Ƥ פ ֢ ll 281 ll

֓ :ֵ״ ֢֮ ֮ן l

־ׯ ״֣ :֟: פ ֢: ll 281 ll

֋ ־״ֵ ֢ פ l

־׾ ״֓ Ƥ פ ֢ ll 282 ll

֮ :ֵ״ ֢֮ ֮ן l

־ׯ ״֣ :֟: פ ֢: ll 282 ll

֓ ־״ֵ ֢ Ӿ פ l

־׾ ״֓ Ƥ פ ֢ ll 283 ll

á: :ֵ״ ֢֮ ֮ן l

־ׯ ״֣ :֟: פ ֢: ll 283 ll

 

280-283. If you think that by your body you cause misery to living beings, you are entirely wrong; because living beings are miserable on account of (their own) Karmas. If you think that by your speech you cause injury to living beings, you are entirely wrong; because the living beings are miserable on account of (their own) Karmas. If you think that by your mind you cause misery to living beings are miserable on account of (their own) Karmas. If you think that by weapons (etc.) I cause misery to living beings you are entirely wrong; because living beings are miserable on account of (their own) Karmas.

 

Commentary.

These four Gathas explain that all living beings suffer on account of the operation of their own demeritorious Karmas. It is therefore wrong to indulge in such thought activities that I can make others miserable by my body, speech, mind or otherwise.

ֵ ֵ Ƥ ״ ֢ן l

ׯ ƾפ ״֓ Ƥ פ ֢ ll 284 ll

ֵ ֓ ֮ ֮֟ ״ ֢׮ן l

ִׯ ־ן ״֣ ֮: פ ֢: ll 284 ll

 

284. by body, by speech, or by mind I cause living beings ( to be) happy. This also is wrong; because living beings are happy by (their own) Karmas.

 

Commentary.

A right believer therefore does not boast that he can make others happy at his own will and choice. He thinks that if he attempts to do good to others he is merely an auxiliary cause. A wrong believer forgets this fact and is proud of his activities of mind, body and speech, if they are directed towards the good of others.

 

־ פ ߾ Ε ן׸긇 l

ִ ׯ ־ ־ ׾ ll 285 ll

־Ԯ ן ߾֮֬־֮ ןֵԒָ׵֮ l

ִ֮ӿ ־Ԯ ޵ ֯ ׾֬ ll 285 ll

 

285. The soul by its thought-activity identifies itself with sub-human, hellish, celestial and human (conditions of existence) and also with many kinds of merit and demerit.

 

ִִ֬ ߾֕߾ λֻ l

־ פ ߾ Ε ί ll 286 ll

ִԬִ ֣ ߾֕߾ λ l

־Ԯ ן ߾: ά־֮ ִ֮֟ ll 286 ll

 

286. Similarly the soul by its thought-activity identifies itself itself with Dharma and Adharma (substances); soul and non-soul and the non-universe and the universe.

 

Commentary.

A wrong believer entertains the false idea that he is a king, a general, a rich, or learned person or that he is very happy or that he knows the whole universe and non-universe. A right believer is always convinced, and feels no pride in agreeable things and no sorrow amidst disagreeable circumstances.

 

ן Ε ִ֤ l

׻֯ן ll 287 ll

׮ ׮ ִ֬־ִ֤֮֮׮ l

s ֵ ׻֯׮ ll 287 ll

 

287. The saints who do not entertain these and such other impure thoughts are not besmeared by not besmeared by bad and good Karmas.

 

Commentary.

Saints in high spiritual stages from the 7th onwards are all deeply absorbed in self-contemplation and are free from any good or bad thought-activity. Those in the 6th spiritual stage of imperfect vows, when not engaged in meditation have the good thought-activities of doing good to others. Laymen in the 5th and 4th stages also are subject to good and bad thought-activities in their different occupations and dealings with others- All these bing Karmas according to their passions.

 

׾ֵ֯ և ƕֵ l

ίֹ ׸ ֵ Ƶ֋ ׸ ll 288 ll

־֟׾ ־֟ Ꟶֿֿ֮֕ l

֟þֹ ׬: ־֟ Ǥ ׸ñן ll 288 ll

 

288. So long as there is an identification of the self with the non-self, or feelings of joy and sorrow, and so long as the realization of the nature of the soul does not shine out in the heart, the soul does actions productive of good and bad karmas.

 

Commentary.

The soul indulges in doing bad and good deeds, so long as it does not recognize its own self and does not give up intimacy with the non-self. A right believer has deep regard for self-advancement and so all his actions are directed to that aim only. All the virtuous practices followed by him are due to his inability to keep himself fixed in self-absorption for want of strong soul power. But he does not identify himself with them.

 

㬤 ־֡׾ֵ Ε ֤ߵ ׾ l

־ ד֢ ־ ׸ִ ll 289 ll

׬Ծֵsׯ ά־֮ ןֿ ׾֖֮ l

֣Դ Ӿ ד֢ ־ֿ ׸ִ: ll 289 ll

 

289. Buddhi, Intellict, Vyavasaya, Determination Adhysvasana, Thought-activity, Mati, Understanding, Vijnana, Discrimination, Chitta, Thinking, Bhava, Emotion, and Parinama, Feelings- all these have only one meaning.

 

־ָ֡ כ֬ ֵ֓ l

ֵֻ֓ ־ן ־ ll 290 ll

־ֵָ: ן֬ ֮ ׮ֵֿ ֵ l

׮ֵֵֿ֮ӻ߮ ׮֮: ֯ן ׮־ִ ll 290 ll

 

290. Thus know that the practical standpoint is contradicted by the real standpoint. Saints absorbed in the real standpoint attain Liberation.

 

Commentary.

All thought activities relating to non-self are as if a hindrance to the path of liberation. Practical standpoint deals with such practices, which have their concern worth body, speech and mind and area not directly leading to self-realization. The practical conduct of saints and laymen is merely an auxiliary cause for self-advancement. When a person takes his stand on the real conduct of self-absorption, which is the path of liberation the practical conduct by itself goes out of consideration. Thus those saints only who are absorbed in the self by the help of the real standpoint can obtain Liberation.

 

״֤ ߡ ߻֟־ ו־ָ ֢ l

Ӣ׾ γ׾֡ ״֓פߵ ll 291 ll

Ο״ן㯟ֵ: ߻֟֯ ו֮־ָ: Ζ֯ l

Ԯֳ֯־s֮ ״֣֧™ß ll 291 ll

 

291. Vows, Carefulness, Restraints, Equanimity, and Austerities are described by the Conquerors (from the practical standpoint). The soul, incapable of Liberation, remains ignorant and a wrong believer, even when following these.

 

Commentary.

There are some souls in this universe, known only to the Omniscients, who are incapable of gaining right belief. While adopting vows and practicing austerities, they remain ignorant of the true nature of the soul.

 

֧ӟ γ׾ֵ֢ άߋ l

֚ פ ֧ӟ ll 292 ll

Ꟗִ֧֮s־֢ß sߵߟ l

֚ ן ִ֧֮õ ֮ ll 292 ll

 

292. A soul, incapable of Liberation, having on belief in Liberation, even after study, derives no good from the lesson, because of want of faith in right knowledge.

 

Commentary.

An Abhavya soul or one incapable of acquiring right belief is known as such only to the Omniscient Arhats. Such a person although he may be well versed in the Jain scriptures and may, even follow the practical conduct of a laymen of a saint, to the letter of the scriptures, yet all this is useless so far as liberation is concerned. It is only the correct knowledge of the real point of view, which is the cause of self-absorption.

 

֧פ ֵ֢פ פ ׾ פ l

ִ ״֢ ֌ֵ״֢ ll 293 ll

֧ן Οן ֵן ֣ ֿ ïן l

ִ ׮״֢ ֻ ԟֵ׮״֢ ll 293 ll

 

293. He believes, trusts, desires, and also follows meritorious deeds for the sake of enjoyment, but certainly not for the destruction of Karmas.

 

Commentary.

This is so because in the depth of his heart there lingers a desire for sense pleasures. His religious actions cause him bondage of meritorious karmas, as a result of which he can reach even up to the 9th Graiveyaka in the heavens. Without the help of true knowledge of real point of view, mere knowledge and conduct cannot lead to self-absorption.

 

ֵָ֤ ߾֤ߤ ׾ l

߾ פ ׸ ־ָ ll 294 ll

ָ֓פ֮ ߾פԮ ׾֖ l

֙˕߾֮ ޵֟ ׸ ־ָ: ll 294 ll

 

294. It should be known that the knowledge of Acharanga, etc., the belief in Jive, etc., and protection of six kinds of living beings is called (right) conduct from the practical standpoint.

 

֤ ֕ ֤ ׸ l

֤ ֓֌ ֤ Ӿָ ll 295 ll

֟ ֻ ִ ִ֮֟ Ԯ ׸ l

֟ Ο֮ܵ ֟ Ӿָ : ll 295 ll

 

295. From the real standpoint the soul is my knowledge, the soul, my belief, and conduct, The soul is renunciation, the soul (is) stoppage (of inflow of Karmas), and concentration.

 

Commentary.

Although the practical standpoint is an auxiliary cause for attainment of the real standpoint, yet the two are quite different from one another. The former is dependent upon substances and circumstances besides the soul, while the latter is quite independent of them and is based only upon the pure nature of the soul and its right realisation. Real path of liberation is self-absorption based on right belief, right knowledge and right conduct.

Knowledge of Jain scriptures, belief in seven of nine principles, and adoption of the conduct of non-injury from a practical point of view, are necessary in order to comprehend the real nature of soul and liberation, for diverting the mind from wordly pursuits and bringing it close to ones own self. But the soul, which does not get real self-absorption, can not proceed an inch on the path of Freedom. Thus the real standpoint so opposed to the practical standpoint, in the sense that without attaining the real standpoint, the practical viewpoint cannot in itself lead to self-absorption.

 

֤֬ߵ ֻ֤ l

פ ָ ֓ ll 296 ll

֬Ԫ: ݤ֦õ : l

֮ ן ׮ ָ: ֻ ׮֟ ll 296 ll

 

296. Adhah-Karma, etc., are the demerits of matter substance. How can the self-absorbed saint be responsible for them, which are always the attributes of the non-self.

 

֤֬ߵ ֻ֤ l

ƴפ ߸ ָ ll 297 ll

֬Ԫ: ݤ֦õ : l

ִ֮֮֟ ή εִ: ָõ : ll 297 ll

 

 

297. Adhah-Karma, etc, are demerits of matter-substance. How can ones approve of things done by another, the attributes of the non-self.

 

Commentary.

Adhah-Karma is the action of preparing food, involving the use of water, fire, vegetables, fruits, etc., where destruction of some living beings is very probable. Laymen are ordained in Jain scriptures to offer to the saints such food only as has been prepared for family and not especially for the saints. The saints without any desire for taste take what is given to them with indifference. Of course they must be satisfied that the food is pure and not specially prepared for them. Saints neither prepare food themselves nor cause others to prepare for them, nor agree to any preparation by others, nor wish that someone may prepare food for them. When the time for taking food arrives they pass on along the houses of laymen. Whoever receive them, with due respect, performs worship and offers a portion of such food as is prepared for his family, they will take it only to deep the body fit for practice of subtly duties and self-realisation. Therefore they are not liable to any bondage of karma, on account of possible injury to living being, etc., caused by laymen in preparing food.

 

֬ ֵ ִֵֻ l

ִ פ ִ֓֓ ll 298 ll

֬ԯ֤׿ ݤִִֵ֤˦ִ l

ִ֮ ־ן ׮ִִ֮֟֓ ll 298 ll

 

298. How can this material thing, whether Adhah-Karma or Uddeshika be of my doing, as it is said to be always devoid of consciousness.

 

֬Ӵ ֵ ִֵֻ l

ִ ָ׾֤ ִ֤֓֓ ll 299 ll

֬ԯ֤׿ ִִֵֻ֤˦ִ l

ִ֮ ׸ ׮ִִ֮֟֓ ll 299 ll

 

299. How can this material thing, whether Adhah-Karma or Uddeshika be of my doing, as it is said to be always devoid of consciousness.

 

Commentary.

If a layman has prepared food (possibly causing injury to living beings) for his own family of specially for a saint and the saint has taken such food, he will not be subject to any Karmic bondage consequent on its preparation, if he is satisfied that he is taking only such food as is pure and is pure and is prepared for the laymans family only the layman is responsible for all the demerit, if any, occasioned by the preparation and offer of food to saints in contravention of rules laid down in Jaina scriptures. If, however, the saint becomes aware that the food is prepared for him and even then the accepts it, his will be responsible for bondage of Karmas.

 

׻ִֵ ׾㬤 ֵ ׸ִפ ִ֤ l

ևפ פ ll 300 ll

֣ ñי: 㬤 þֵ ׸ִ֟ ֪: l

֟sß פ׳֦Ծ: ll 300 ll

㬤 ֵ ׸ִפ ִ֤ l

ևפ ֤ ll 301 ll

֮ 㬤 þֵ ׸ִ֟ ֪: l

֟sß פ׳֤ : ll 301 ll

 

 

300-301. As the quartz-crystal gem being pure does not modify itself into red or other colour; but by red or other substance, etc., it looks colored. Similarly the pure knower does not modify itself into love, etc. But by love and other defects it appears affected.

 

 

Commentary.

Love, hatred and other impure thought-activities are not the souls own natural modifications. Just as the crystal gem is by nature pure and white, and does not ty itself modify into red, blue, black or yellow colour, but when a coloured substance is placed next to the crystal, it reflects the colour of that substance, and its pure whiteness is not apparent. A right believer thus knows that as colour can not be the nature of a crystal gem, so love, hatred, etc., can never be the natural thoughts of the soul. They are impurities of Karmic matter.

 

׾ ִ֤ פ ֳֵ־ l

ִֵ֯ ָ ־ ll 302 ll

ׯ ִ֫ ן ׮ ֳֵ־ l

þִֵ֮֟ ß ־ִ֮ ll 302 ll

 

302. The knower never causes love, hated, delusion or passionate thoughts by himself in himself. Therefore he is not the doer of those thoughts.

 

 

 

 

Commentary.

A right believer always tries to remain aloof from such auxiliary causes as my bring about the operation of passion Karmas and patiently waits the time when he may become quite peaceful and happy.

 

ʵ ʵ ֵ ־ l

׸ִִ ֵ֤ Ӭפ ׾ ll 303 ll

ֵ ־: l

ß ׸ִִ֮ ֤߮ ֑ן ָׯ ll 303 ll

 

303. One identifying himself with such thoughts as proceed from love, hated and passion producing karmas, is bound up again by Karmas, like attachment, etc.

 

ʵ ֵ ־ l

ִ ׸ִӟ ֤ Ӭ֤ ll 304 ll

ֵ ־: l

ִ ׸ִִ֮ ֤߮ ֑ן ׵֟ ll 304 ll

 

304. If one thinks that the thoughts which proceed from love, hatred, passion-producing karmas, are mine, the thinkers binds Karmas like attachment, etc.

 

ίכ ׾ ί֓֌ ׾ l

֤ ָ ֤ ll 305 ll

ίןδ ׫׾ִ֬֯Ο֮ܵ ֣ ׾ִ֖ l

ָ֤ ԟֿ׵֟ ll 305 ll

 

305. Non-repentance (is) of 2 kinds, External, Internal. Non-renunciation also (is) External of Internal. Such being the preaching of the scriptures, the knower is said to be not the doer.

 

ίכ ׾ ־ ί֓ׯ l

֤ ָ ֤ ll 306 ll

ίןδ ׫׾֬ ־ ֣֯Οִ֮ܵ l

ָ֤ ԟֿ׵֟ ll 306 ll

 

306. Non-repentance (is) of 2 kinds, External, Internal. Non-renunciation also (is) External of Internal. Such being the preaching if the scriptures, the knower is said to be not the doer.

 

־ ֓֌ ίכ ־ l

פ ֤ ־ פ ֤ ll 307 ll

־֮ Οִ֮ܵ֯ן ֳ־ֵ: l

Ꟶ֟ ־֢ ־ן ֟־: ll 307 ll

 

307. So long as the soul does not follow external and internal non-renunciation and non-repentance, till then it is the doer. The should be known.

 

Commentary.

External non- repentance is attachment of a soul to animate and inanimate objects. Internal non-repentance is attachment to impure thoughts. External non- renunciation is attachment to external objects, which he wishes to have in future. Internal non-renunciation is attachment towards impure thoughts which he wishes to entertain and indulges in future. External things are auxiliary causes, internal impure thoughts. Thus, a wrong believer being attached to external objects, is the doer of impure thought-activities, and is subjected to strong bondage of Karmas. A right believer has no attachment to any external or internal object, animate or inanimate. He is quite contented with his own souls natural happiness, knowledge and power. He thinks neither of the past nor of future enjoymesnts. He is therefore not subject to bondage of Karmas Right believers in the 4th and 5th stages have got some regard for past and future things, but they know it as a defect due to partial vow-preventing, or total-vow-preventing passion-Karmas and are always bent upon removing it. The most effective remedy is concentration of mind, which they practice and which helps in the progress of right conduct.

To summarise-Bondage is caused by attachment to non-self It is attachment which causes karmic molecules to bind the soul. This attachment is sue to wrong belief and error-feeding passions. Desire for sensual gratification, and wordly pursuits cause this attachment. He who longs after sense-pleasures is always unsatisfied and suffers miseries of mundane lives. After constant thinking and meditation one can attain right belief. Whatever Karmic bondage a right believer in lower stages incure, shall certainly be removed in due time; and he will become the self-absorbed samayasara, the soul-essence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER IX.

Liberation (Moksha.)

 

ִ ׾ ׸ Ӭֵ דָֻ֯כ֬ l

ן־ Ӥ־ ֻ ׾ֵ֤ ll 308 ll

֣ ִ ׿֟ Ӭ֮ דָֻ֯ןֲ֬: l

߾ Ӥþֳ־ ֻ ׾֮֕ן õ ll 308 ll

և ׾ פ ӓפ ־פ ־Ӭ l

ֻ ׾ ָ ־פ ll 309 ll

פ ׯ ׯ 㓵֟ ԲӬ l

ֻ ָ ָ: ֯ן ׾ִִ ll 309 ll

 

308-309. As a person, bound in shackles from a long time knows their harshness, mildness and (their) duration. If he does not break them, he is not released from karmic bondage, and even after a long time that person does not obtain Liberation.

 

־Ӭ ֵֵ֯כ׼ߵ֡γ l

ӟ׾ ӓפ ӓפ ־ꕕ פ׾㬤 ll 310 ll

ԲӬ֮ Τ֯ןãִ֮֟ l

֮֮ׯ ӓן ӓן ־Ԯ פ ׾ֿ㬤: ll 310 ll

 

310. Similarly, even knowing the quantity, the nature, the duration, and intensity karmic bondage (the soul) is not liberation. If (it) becomes pure, it frees itself from all (Karmas).

 

Commentary.

Here is a refutation of the view that a soul which is aware of its karmic bondage can be liberated by the mere knowledge of it. Unless one makes efforts for Liberation, he cannot be liberated, just as a person in shackles cannot be freed from his bondage merely by knowing that he is in bondage. He must, in order to be free, adopt measures for breaking off the shackles. Right conduct is indispensable to right belief and right knowledge, in the path if Liberation. Just as a person who knows the right way to ascending a hill cannot reach it, if he does not take the trouble of ascending the hill; but if he ascends along the right path to the right point, he is sure to reach his destination, at some time, without fail. In the same manner a right believer must begin to follow the three- fold path of Liberation which is in one word called Self-absorption.

 

Ӭ ד֮ӟ Ӭ־֬ ־פ ׾ִ l

Ӭ דӟӟ ߾׾ ־פ ׾ִ ll 311 ll

֣ Ӭ דӟֵ֮ Ӭֲ֮֬ ֯ן ׾ִִ

֣ Ӭ דӟֵ֮ ߾sׯ ֯ן ׾ִִ ll 311 ll

 

311. As one bound by shackles does not get freedom, by merely thinking of the bondage. So the soul also does not attain Liberation by merely thinking of the (Karmic) bondage.

 

Commentary.

A person may pay close attention to the scriptures, in which the nature of Karmic bondage is explained, but he cannot get rid of karmas, upless he adopts self-absorption.

 

Ӭ הֵ Ӭ־֬ ־פ ׾ִ l

Ӭ הֵ ߾ ӯ־פ ׾ִ ll 312l l

֣ Ӭ׿־ Ӭ֮ ֬ß ִן ׾ִִ l

֣ Ӭ׿ ߾ ֮ן ׾ִִl l 312l

 

312. As one bound in shackles attains freedom after having broken the bondage, similarly the soul attains Liberation by breaking the bondage (of Karmas) .

 

Ӭ ׳ֵ֢ Ӭ־֬ ־פ סִ l

Ӭ ׳ֵ֢ ߾ ӯ־פ ׾ִ ll 313 ll

֣ Ӭ ׳֢ Ӭֲ֮֬ß ֯ן ׾ִִ l

֣ Ӭ ׳֢ ߾: ֯ן ׾ִꟖִ ll 313 ll

 

313. As one bound in shackles attains freedom by cutting the bondage, similarly the soul attains Liberation by cutting the bondage.

 

Ӭ ֵ Ӭ־֬ ־פ ׾ִ l

Ӭ ֵ ߾ Ӿ־פ ׾ִ ll 314 ll

֣ Ӭ ㌟ Ӭֲ֮֬ß ֯ן ׾ִꟖִ l

֣ Ӭ ㌟ ߾: ֯ן ׾ִꟖִ ll 314 ll

 

314. As one bound in shackles attains freedom by throwing aside the bondage, so the soul attains Liberation by throwing aside the bondage.

 

Ӭ ־ ׾ֵ֤ ί ־ l

פ ׾ִ פ ll 315 ll

Ӭ֮ þֳ־ ׾ֵ֖֮֟: þֳ־ l

Ӭ ֟ ׾ִꟖ ן ll 315 ll

 

315. And having known the nature of bondage and his own true nature, he who does not indulge in bondages, achieves Liberation from Karmas.

 

 

 

Commentary.

Self- analysis, self-discrimination and non-attachment are necessary for the path of Liberation. First of all, a wise man must know the true nature of soul and non-soul, the nature of Karmic bondage, and its injurious effects upon the soul, and then realise that his one-ness with his own self would bring peace, happiness and freedom.

 

߾ Ӭ הן ֻ֌ ֵ֋ l

֔֋֤ ה ִ֢־ ll 316 ll

߾ Ӭֿ ֣ ה þֳֻ֟ ׮ֳִ֕ l

Ζ֔ ה ִ֮֮֟֟: ll 316 ll

 

316. Thus the soul and bondage disunite, each having its own real essential nature. And they fall apart, being chiselled by the chisel of self-discrimination.

 

Commentary.

Material Karmas and soul are mixed together like milk and water. Their individual nature can only be discriminated by taking their differentia into consideration. Differentia of soul is pure consciousness, free from any obscurity or passionate and impure thought-activity. From real point of view it is quite pure, all knowing, all perceiving, all-powerful, all peaceful an all-happy. The operative effects of karmas ans other physical conditions are all material. By constant practice, this self-discrimination makes the soul quite pure, peaceful, and happy like all other liberated souls.

 

߾ Ӭ הן ֻ֌ ֵ֋ l

Ӭ ꤾ 㬤 ίֵ ב֢־ ll 317 ll

߾ Ӭֿ ֣ ה þֳֻ֟ ׮ֳִ֕ l

Ӭֿ־: 㬤 ֟ ߟ־: ll 317 ll

 

317. When the soul and bondage disunite each having attained its own real essential nature, the bondage should be given up ; and the pure soul should be realised.

 

ב֯פ ί ֋ ב֤֯ ί l

֋ ׾ֳ֢ ב֢־ ll 318 ll

ʟ ֟ Ζֵ ʟ ֟ l

֣ Ζֵ ׾ֳ֌ß֣ Ζֵ ߟ־: ll 318 ll

 

318. How is the soul realised? The soul is realised by self-discrimination; as by self-discrimination (they, i.e., soul and bondage) are separated so by the same self-discrimination (the soul) should be realised.

 

֋ ב֢־ ֤֓ l

ξ ־ ֕׸ ֤ ll 319 ll

Ζֵ ߟ־ ֿ׵֟ s ׮ֵֿ֟: l

ξֿ ־ß ִ ָ ן ֟־: ll 319 ll

 

319. The soul which should be realised by self-discrimination is certainly I from the real stand-point. Whatever thoughts remain over, they should be known to be other than mine.

 

֋ ב֢־ ֓ l

ξ ־ ֕ ָע ֤ ll 320 ll

Ζֵ ߟ־ ™ s ׮ֵֿ֟: l

ξֿ ־ß ִ ָ ן ֟־: ll 320 ll

 

320. The seer which should be realised by self-discrimination, is certainly I from the real standpoint. Whatever thoughts remain over, they should be knows to be other than mine.

 

֋ ב֢־ ֤ ֓ l

ξ ־ ֕ ָע ֤ ll 321 ll

Ζֵ ߟ־ ™ s ׮ֵֿ֟: l

ξֿ ־ß ִ ָ ן ֟־: ll 321 ll

 

321. The knower which should be realised by self-discrimination is certainly I from the real standpoint. Whatever thoughts remain over, they should be knows to be other than mine.

 

Commentary.

A right knower bent upon self-realisation should contemplate that the object of self-realisation is no other than himself. I am the pure soul, I realise myself, through my own discrimination, for myself, alone, from my own soulness. All other than my ownness is foreign to me. I am I, They are they, I am no other, they are not me, this meditation should continually be practiced. It will result in drawing away attention from else, where, and in concentrating it upon the pure soul. Thus self-realisation will appear and will naturally procure self-absorption. When the pure soul will be realised, all kinds of thoughts about soul or others will disappear. The soul will sink deep into the depth of its own pure nature, where there are no wavering thoughts. Immersed in the deep and vast ocean of soul-happiness, sweet as nectar, unruffled by any waves or currents of wavering thoughts or passions, the self-absorbed soul enjoys bliss indescribable, and inconceivable.

 

ִ ֕ ֤ ־ ָꤵ ־ l

֕״ ןֵ ֵ ӟ ίֵ 㬤 ll 322 ll

ִ : ֟ ־Ԯ ָꤵ֮ ־֮ l

ִ״ן ֮֓ ֮֮֮֟ 㬤 ll 322 ll

 

322. What wise man, knowing all thoughts to result from operation of non-self (i.e., Karmas) and realising the pure soul, can utter the words This is mine.

 

Commentary.

A wise person is fully convinced of the pure nature of his soul, and, leaving all attachments realises his own self and attains real happiness. Although in practical conduct when dealing with others, he may say This body is mine, this cloth is mine, this family is mine, this property is mine, this cloth is mine, this family is mine, this property is mine, these impure thoughts are mine, yet he knows that what he says is only from the practical point of view.

 

֤ ξָ פ פ l

֕s ׾ ע ״ ׾ָ֓ӟ ll 323 ll

ßָ֤֮߮֯֬ ן : ־ן l

֬ ׯ ן ֮ ׾ָ֓ ll 323 ll

 

323. He who commits theft and other sins becomes afraid that he may not be arrested by anyone as a thief, (when) moving among the people.

 

פ ξָ ־֤ ִפ l

׾ ו ד֮ ֕פ ׾ ll 324 ll

Ꟶָ֮֯֬ ׮:ß ֤֮֯ δן l

ׯ õ ֬ ד֮꟯֪ ד֟ ll 324 ll

 

324. He who commits no offence certainly goes about fearlessly among the people. The fear of being arrested never arises in him in any circumstances whatsoever.

־ָ ֕״ l

ָ־ָ ֕״ ll 325 ll

ָ֯֬ ֬s ֿ׵֟ l

: ׮Ըָ֬ ׮:s ֬ ll 325 ll

325. Similarly, the soul, which is gulity, fears that it may be shackled but one which is not guilty has no fear of being shackled.

׬֬֬ ׬ָ֤׬֤ ּ l

ξ֤֬ ֻ פ ξָ ll 326 ll

׬֬׬: ׬ִָ֟׬֟ ֣Դ l

ίָ֟֬ : ֻ ׵֟ ־ָ֟֯֬: ll 326 ll

 

326. Attainment (Sansiddhi) ; self-devotion (Radha) ; accomplishment (Siddhi) ; achievement (Sadhitam) ; and devotion (Aradhitam) (arae) synonymous. The soul, which is devoid of self-devotion, is certainly guilty.

 

Commentary.

Aparadha means without radha or self-devotion. In common parlance Aparadha means fault of offence. From the real point of view, Shri Kundakundacharya reduces the word to its ultimate root- meaning, making fault of offence equivalent to being devoid of devotion to the self. Real truth whether it is belief, knowledge or conduct is one, self-absorption. All else is error of one kind or the other. Our lives on earth or in heaven may be the purest and the highest. But that is of no avail. Any lapse from this condition of pure self-realisation is necessarily a fault, an Aparadha which becimes the cause of the inflow and bondage of Karmic matter. From this pure point of view, good and bad are equally undesirable, equally mundane and worthy of renunciation. The souls safety lies in itself. Safety here does not lie in numbers. It lies in loneliness. The meditation of oneness of loneliness (Ekatva Anupreksha) , has this teaching for its highest meaning. The soul must realise its full independence by realising that it accomplishes its aim only when, and in so far as, it is absorbed in itself. Then alone, matter is important and the non-self stands aloof, incapable of attacking the soul or attaching itself to it. Any intermission of this self- devotion is the immediate passport to the mundane wheel going on once again.

It may be noted that this position is very much like the Sankhya account of Purusha and Prakriti. Prakriti, maatter, has no power over the Purusha, soul, But as soon as the soul turns its eye towards her, she begins to dance at once, and by making the soul identify itself with her, draws it into the witching toils of her instinction grace and thus makes it wandesr is Samsara. But the distinction is this. The Purusha never in any way draws Prakriti to it. It, for ever, remains separate from Prakriti. The union is only apparent and a child of indiscrimination . In Jainism the soul is the doer, the responsible creator of its own thought-activity, which actually draws matter to inflow into the soul and become assimilated with it by the presences and operation of the passions and of feelings of love, hatred, etc., the Liberation from Karmic matter is also a deliberate act of the soul itself. There is no automatic liberation, like the automatic stoppage of the dancing Prakriti when the Purusha withdraws his fascinated eye from its fatal loveliness.

 

כ כָ ׸Ƹ ָ ֵ֢ߵ l

Ӥ ֹ Ƶ μ׾ פ ׾ ll 327 ll

ןδ ןָ ׸ָ ָ ׮־עֿ l

׮Ӥ ׬™׾֬ ־ן ׾: ll 327 ll

 

327. Repentance (of sins), pursuit (of virtue), abandonment (of love etc.), fixing of the mind, and withdrawal of the mind, Self-censure, confession of faults, purity by expiation. This is the eight-faced pitcher of poison.

 

Commentary.

In practice, all the eight acts mentioned above are very high and commendable engagements of ascetics. But for one who is bent solely on the self, they are hindrances, and therefore like poison, because they produce bondage of good karmas which deep the soul in Samsara, and stand in the way of its self-realistion.

Self-absorption is that stage of advancement where this soul is entirely full of itself, and has no need of the non-self. Nor is it then possible for the non-self to intrude upon the sacred and absolute self-contentment, in which the soul is immersed in self-absorption. Thus indeed, the absence of repentance, etc., may be described as undying bliss, or as immortal nectar.

This is to remove the perverse belief that pursuit of practical conduct of saints, i.e., repentance, etc., will lead to Liberation from bondage of karmas. Where there is any concern with any thing other than ones own soul, there is some attachment whether good or bad. That thought-activity which is not pure cause bondage of karmas. It is only absorption with true and clears knowledge and belief ij self, which can remove karmic dirt and cause realisation of true independent happiness. In practice, for those who can not follow the rules of right conduct unblemished, repentance, etc, are no doubt like pitchers of nectar, because they relieve him if bondage of bad karmas. But as they cause bondage of good karmas, they are like pitchers of poison in comparison to pure self-concentration where there is no question of either practical duty or any bondage. Liberation is fixity of soul in its soulness without any fall forever. For a wise man who aspires for such Liberation, the path laid don by conquerors is only self-absorption or realisation of Samayasara or essence of soul as it is. All practical duties are merely auxiliary causes to direct his mind from all other things and to keep it engaged in soulless. If this fixates continues for ore antar-muhurta and the soul gains pure concentration and ascends the destructive ladder of spiritual stages, it is sure to destroy the four destructive Karmas, within an antar-muhurta and attain the perfect position of an omniscient or Arhat. Thus samayasara only is the path for the goal, which is also Samayasara.

_______________________

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER X.

LIBERATION.

Pure bsolute Knowledge.

 

׾ֵ ֕פ l

֤ ֕֋ ֵ ״l 328 ll

֤㟯֪ ß֢Ԯʮֵ֮֟ l

֣ פ׳ß ֵԵ: ֵ֮֮פ ll 328 ll

 

328. Know that which is produced by the attributes (of a substance) to be no other than the ubstane. It is only a condition of gold which (is exhibited) by bangles, et., nothing else.

 

߾ ߾ֵ ׸ִ ֤ l

߾ִ֕߾ ׾ֵ ll 329 ll

߾õ֕߾õ ׸ִ֟ ׿ԟ: l

߾ִ֕߾ ֵ֮ ׾֮֕ ll 329 ll

 

329. Whatever modifications of the soul and of the non-soul are described in the scriptures, know them (as) soul or no-soul, and nothing else.

 

Commentary.

All conditions adopted by soul are possessed of sourness. Soul does not lose its attributes in any of its forms. It cannot be altered into non-soul. So non-soul modifies in non-sourness. All forms of non-soul possess all the attributes of non-soul. Non-soul can not be transformed into soul. The universe insists of two substances, soul and non-soul. Their combination is the cause of bondage or mundane existence, and their separation is Liberation. Had there been only one of the two substances, no bondage or liberation could have been possible. Soul by itself can never become impure; and all souls must therore have been pure and perfect. If only on-soul exist in the universe, dead matter would not have any activity for bondage or liberation.

 

׾ ׾ֈ Ů ֤ l

֤פ ד׾ ִָ׾ פ ll 330 ll

׿֤㟯֮ ôֵ֟ ֟ l

֤ן דִָ֟ׯ ־ן ll 330 ll

 

330. Because the soul is not produced by nothing whatever, therefore it is not an effect ; it doe not produce anything whatever, therefore it is not the cause either.

 

֛哓 ָ ֈ㓓 l

֕ןֵ ִֵ ֬ פ֤ ll 331 ll

Οߟ Ը ֣ Οߟ l

֪ӟ ׮ִֵן׬ß 鿵֟s ll 331 ll

 

331. Except that a doer (is called so) with reference to a deed done; and a deed, with reference to a doer, no other concussion is ascertainable.

 

Commentary.

The doer and deed are related to each other. Modification of a substance is called its deed, the doer of which is the same substance. It is the established rule. A mundane soul being already engaged in and intrudes with matter, the material adjunct of the soul makes possible the bondage of soul by matter. The soul own thought-activity assists in this result; but of ours, cannot be and is not the primary cause to produce the Karmi matter, which binds the soul. Primary use of material karmic bondage is matter and that of conscious thought-activities is the soul.

 

ֵכֽ ֕פ ׾פ l

ֵ֛׾ ꤵֽ ֕פ ׾פ ll 332 ll

׵֟ ֣Դ㟯֪ ׾ֿ֮ן l

ןָׯ ֣ 㟯֪ ׾ֿ֮ן ll 332 ll

 

332. But the soul on account of the operation of past karmas in born and died. And karmas also are produced (and) destroyed by action of soul.

 

Ӭ ׯ ֵ֯֓ ƾ l

ί ֵכ ָ ֵ֤ ll 333 l

Ӭ ׯ ΟֵֵԾ l

֮֟: ןֿ ָ֟ ֵ֟ ll 333 ll

 

333. The bondage of the two, of the soul and the Karmas, is produced by soul and Karma each being auxiliary use of the other. Thus is produced the Samsara, worldly wandering.

 

 

Commentary.

The impure thought-activity of the soul is the auxiliary cause of the bondage of fresh karmas. The past karmic operation is the auxiliary cause of new impure thought activity. Thus from bondage to bondage the deluded soul wanders in mundane existences. Soul and Karmic matter both are auxiliary causes to each other in the phenomena of mundane life.

 

֋ ֵכֽ ׾ִӓפ l

ε֡ ƾ ־ ״֓פ ӕ֤ ll 334 ll

־֤ ֣ ׵֟ ׾ִӓן l

ֵ ־־׮ִ֣֤™ֵ֟: ll 334 ll

 

334. So long as this conscious soul does not give up the effect of Karmas, till then it remains ignorant, wrong believer and devoid of right conduct.

 

֤ ׾ִӓ֤ ִ֯ӟֵ l

֤ ׾ִ ƾפ ll 335 ll

֤ ׾ִӓן ֟׵֟ Աִ֮ӟָ l

֤ ׾ִ ־ן ֵ ׮: ll 335 ll

 

335. When the soul gives up (attachment to) the infinite forms of he fruition of karmas, then the knowing and the believing ascetic becomes liberated.

 

Commentary.

A right believing and right knowing ascetic gives up all attachment to all kinds of Karmic fruits and is contented with his own souls pure peace and happiness. He begins to free himself from Karmic bondage and he is at last liberated.

 

ֱ כ־׽ פ l

ֱ פ פ פ ll 336 ll

Ζ֮ Ի ןþֳ־ã֟ß ꤵ֟ l

֮ : Ա ֮ן פ ꤵ֟ ll 336 ll

 

336. The ignorant engross din the various forms (of operative Karmas) certainly enjoys the fruit of Karmas. While the knower (merely) knows fruition of Karmas, but is not affected by the operative (Karmas).

 

Commentary.

A wise person suffering from disease knows it to be due to some outward cause of hi carelessness and inward cause of his pain-feeling Karma. He calmly uses medicine for it and tries to be cured, and feels no worry. Similarly a right knower calmly bears the effects of Karmas and is not affected by them.

 

ָ־ָ פ l

ֵָ ֓ ּפ ״פ ׾ֵӟ ll 337 ll

: ׮Ըָֿ֬׵֟ ׮:֟ ־ן l

ֵָ֮֬ ׮֟ ֢ԟ ״ן ׾֮֮֕ ll 337 ll

 

337. Again th faultless soul, remains fearless. Relaying the I it is ever engrossed in self-devotion.

 

Commentary.

A right-believing, and therefore faultless person, is brave and has no fear of being destroyed or injured. He is ever engaged in self-devotion and meditates that I am the pure, peaceful, happy soul. He attains self-realisation.

 

פ ֵכֳ־ ˚׾ Εև ֓ l

㛤㬤ׯ ׯ־ӟ ֵ ׾ ן ll 338 ll

ӓן ןֳִ־: ™˾ׯ άߟ á l

㛤ݬִׯ ׯ֮ ֮ ׮׾ ־ן ll 338 ll

 

338. The soul inoperable of Liberation, even after having read the scriptures, does not give up karmas. Serpents may drink sugar and milk, but they do not thereby become passionless.

 

־ִ־ ֱ ׾ֵפ l

׾ƴ־ ֢ ll 339 ll

׮־Ԥִ֮֯ ֮ Ի ׾֮֕ן l

֬ ׾ִ֬־ ֮ Ζ֯: ll 339 ll

 

339. Fixed in non-attachment, the knower knows the fruition of Karmas, sweet, bitter, of many kinds. He is therefore described as non-affected.

 

Commentary.

Just as the director of a drama is not affected by the parts the actors play, similarly the true believer sees the drama of life, but is not affected thereby.

 

׾ פ ׾ פ և ֵָև l

פ ֻ ־ ll 340 ll

ׯ ן ׯ ꤵ֟ ֮ ָ l

֮ן : Ի ޵ ֯ ll 340 ll

 

340. The knower neither performs nor feels the Karmas of many kinds, but knows the fruition of Karmas, their bondage, merits and demerits.

 

פ ֵׯ ָ ξꤵ l

פ Ӭִ 㤵 ָ֕ ll 341 ll

י: þִֵׯ ִָ֮ ֣s l

֮ן Ӭִ Ԥ ׮֕Ը ll 341 ll

 

341. The eye itself is neither the cause nor the perceier. Knowledge also knows Bondage, Liberation, Operation, and the shedding of Karmas.