פ ׾ ָן׸ִ ֢ l

ִׯֵ ί פ פ ׾ ֋ ll 342 ll


õ ן ׾: 㸮ָןֵԛ֮֮ ֢֮ l

δִ֮֯֟ פ ן ֛ ׾֮֬ ֵ֮ ll 342 ll


ִִ ֬ӟ כ פפ ׾ l

פ ׾ ִ ί֡ פ ll 343 ll


ִִ֮ ֬ӟ ן 鿵֟ ׾ֿ: l

õ ן ׾: ִ֮֯֟ ן ll 343 ll


׾ և ׯ ִ l

֓ ֟ ֤ 㡯 ll 344 ll


sׯ 鿵֟ ִ֮ lִ l

׮֟ ԟ ִ֤֮Ɵ ll 344 ll


342-344. In the opinion of home people Vishnu reates celestial, hellish, sub-human and human beings; if in the (opinion of) Shramanas (Jaina ascetics), also, the soul produces the 6 kinds of bodies (earth, air, fire, water, vegetable, and mobile) ; then there seems tobe no distinction between those people and Sharamanas. For the people, Vishnu creates, and for the Shramanas the soul creates. Thus there seems o Liberation whatsoever for any of the two, the Shramanas and the people, ever creating in this world men and celestials.



Even saints who consider th oul to be the doer of Karmas and their enjoyer, from real point of view, are perverse believers like the people, who believe that God, a personal supreme being creates mundane souls, and make them act s he desires. A god who indulges in such activities cannot be free from Karmi bondage To the right believer the pure Soul is God, quite pure and absorbed in its own nature of pure consciousness and bliss and ones not create even in himself any foreign thought-activity whatsoever.


־ָ֤ ָ ִ ן ׾פ l

ן ֓ ֵ ָ״֢ ִ ד ll 345 ll

־ָ֟ ָ ִ ӟ׾פ֣ l

֮ן ׮ֵֿ ֓ ִָ֡ׯ ט֟ ll 345 ll

׾ ָ ӯפ Ů ִ׾ֵ֯㸸 l

ֵ ן פ ί ll 346 ll

֣ sׯ ָ ֻן ô ִ׾ֵ֯㸸™Ҵ l

־ן õ ׮ ן ֟ ll 346 ll

״֓פ ֵ ƾפ l

ָ ִ פ ӟ ίֵ פ ll 347 ll


ִ ״֣֤™Ԯ ׮ӿֵ ־֟: l

: ֵָ ִן ֮֮֮֮֟ ן ll 347 ll


Ů ן ֓ ע ־֡ l

ָ ֟ פ׽Ƥ ll 348 ll


ô֮ ן ֟ ִ֯ Ծ־ִֵ l

ָ ֮֮ ֮ߵ֤ˤ™Ɵִ֮ ll 348 ll


345-348. The Knowers of the principles sayFrom the practical pint of view the non-self substance is mine. But they know, that from the real stand point, even an atom in this world is not mine. As a man may say the village country, town, kingdom is mine. But they are not his (really) and the soul says so in delusion. Similarly the knowing (that the non-self) is not mine, the belief of both these (the people and the Jain ascetics) that the soul creates the non-self substance should be known to be of those devoid of right-belief.



Neither any personal God nor any soul can create any otters soul or non-soul. A soul is neither the primarynor the auxiliary cause of any coition in another substance, from the real point of view. It is full of consciousness, without any motive or Desiree for any foreign activity whatsoever. A different belief is perversity.


ד֤ ֵ֕ ׾֤ ׾֤ ߾ l

פ ӟ ll 349 ll

׿ֵ֟Ե׾Ԯֿן ׿֢ ߾: l

ô֢ô֟ן ή ֮֟: ll 349 ll


349. It is from the point of view of some modifications and not from others that the soul is destroyed. Therefore there is no Ekanta, one-sided view, that one soul acts, and not another.



The soul is both eternal and temporary. A substance is eternal, when viewed from the point of hanger of condition from a human to a celestial being it may be called changing.


ד֤ ֕ ׾֤ ד֤ ߾ l

Ů Ů ֤פ ӟ ll 350 ll

׿ֵ֓֟Ե׾Ԯֿן ׿֢ ߾: l

ô֢ô֫ꤵן ή ֮֟: ll 350 ll


350. It is from the view point of some modifications and not from others that the soul is destroyed. There fore the same soul enjoys (the fruit of Karmas) or another (enjoys) there is no Ekanta, one-sided view, that one soul feels and not another.



Every substance has the capacity of rise, decay, and permanece. So has the soul. Take the case of soul transformed from the life of a man to that of a celestial. From the substantive point the same soul assumed both these conditions but from the point of view of change of modifications, the life conditions of a soul in man are different from those in the celestial state.


פ ֤ӟ

߾ ֤ ״֓פ ׸Ƥ ll 351 ll

ן õ– ֮֬: l

߾ ֟־ ״֣֤׆ԟ: ll 351 ll


351. Know that person to be of perverse belief and not of the Arhat (faith), who think is that the self-same person who performs an action must have the effect (of that action).


פ ׸ӕפ ֬ӟ l

߾ ֤ ״֓פ ׸Ƥ ll 352 ll

ή: Ꟶ֮: ׸ õ ֬ӟ: l

߾ ֟־ ״֣֤׆ԟ: ll 352 ll


352. One performs, and another suffers or enjoys (the effect of that action). He who believes thus should be known as a \wrong-believers, and not of the Arhat (faith).



Some persons believe the soul to be transient an others say that tit is unchangeable. Both views as absolute are wrong. Under such belief, no one will strive for freedom. Thought of impermanence will made a man hopeless. The impossibility of change will make one irresponsible. Both views are correct from their respective points.


״֓ פ ֵ֛ ״֓פ פ ί l

Ů Γ ֵֈ ָ ֢ ll 353 ll

״֣֟ פ ן״ԣ֤™ Ꟶִ֮֟ l

ִ֤֮ ן֮ή ָ: ֯: ll 353 ll


353. If the right-belief-deluding Karma makes a soul a wrong believer, then the unconscious karmic matter, according to thee, will certainly become the doer.


ִ֢ פ ֵ֛ ִפ פ ί l

Γ ֵ֛ ָ ֢ ll 354 ll

ִ֌ פ ן: ִݤ™ Ꟶִ֮֟ l

ִ֤֮ ן֮Ԯ ָ: ֯: ll 354 ll


354. If right-belief-deluding Karma or right-belief clouded-with-slight-wrong-belief (Karma) makes the soul a slightly-faulty-right-believer, then the unconscious Karmi matter, according to thee, will certainly become the doer.



If the soul be taken as quite inactive, and the impure activity of the soul be ascribed to change effect4d by material Karma, then matter will be the active cause like a conscious being. This is impossible. No one cancause any substance to modify if it has not the capacity of modification.


ƾ ߾ ֻ֤ פ ״֓ l

Ů ݻ֤ ״֓פ ߾ ll 355 ll

Σ־: ߾: ݤ֦õ ן ״ִ֣֟ l

ôֻ֦֟ ״֣֤™ ֮֕Ծ: ll 355 ll

355. Or (if) this soul causes wrong belief in material substance, then the material substance (ill become) a wrong believer and not the soul.


߾ ֵ֛ ׾ֵ ֻ֤ ן ״֓ l

׾ ӕן ll 356 ll

֣ ߾: ןָׯ ֻ֦ ״ִ֣֟ l

ô֤˫ֳ ־ׯ 㘕֟ õ ִ ll 356 ll


356. Or if the soul and Prakriti (Karmi matter) cause matter-substance to be wrong belief, then being produced by the two, both of them will bear the fruit of it.



The proposition that soul and Karmic matter combineduase matter-substance to turn into wrong belief, is also untenable. The reason is that matter by its very nature of inertness is incapable of sufferings any consequence, sinful or meritorious.

ֵ֛ ߾ ֻ֤ פ ״֓ l

ֻ֤ ״֓ ӟ ״֓ ll 357 ll

Σ ן֮ ߾: ֻ֦ ן ״ִ֣֟֓ l

ôֻ֦֟ ״֣֟ ֢ ֻ ״֣ ll 357 ll


357. Neither Prakriti (Matter) nor soul causes the material substance to be wrong belief. Is it not certainly wrong that material substance is wrong belief?



Again, if one propounds the theory that neither soul nor Karma makes a matter substance to be modified into wrong belief, his previous proposition that matter alone is wrong belief is refuted.

Wrong belief here means the thought-activity, which is the auxiliary cause of karmic matter being bound with the soul. For the point of view of the soul, the primary cause of wrong belief is the soul itself, i.e., its thought activity and the auxiliary cause is matter. But from the material point of view, the bondage which we call wrong belief is primarily matter and the souls thought activity is only its auxiliary cause.


Ӥ פ l

׾֕פ ׾֕פ ll 358 ll

׳ß Ζ֮ ε֟ ֮ ֣ ׳: l

׳: þ֯֟ ֵԟ ֣ ׳: ll 358

׾֕פ ׾֕פ 1

ӵ ״֓ ֕פ ӕֵ ll 359 ll

׳: ݾε֟ :ε֟ ׳: l

׳ֿ ״֣֟ ߵ֟ ߵ֟sӵִ ll 359 ll

ָכפ ˜ ׾ ן׸ֻ״ l

פ ӕעֵ ד ll 360 ll

׳ֳ:֟ Դֿ֣ׯ ןֵ˻ l

׳ֿ ε֟ ֿ ־ןט֟ ll 360 ll

־פ פע Ƹפ ד l

־ ߾ ָ ן ־ָ ll 361 ll

ô֟ ן ן Ƹן ט֟ l

ô֢ ־ ߾ ָ ־֮֮֟֯: ll 361 ll


358-361. And (if) by Karmas, (the soul) is made ignorant; and also (is made) the knower by the Karmas, (and) it is caused to sleep by the Karmas, and also it is awakened by the Karmas. By the Karmas (the soul) is made happy, and similarly by the Karmas (it) is made miserable. And by the Karmas only, (it) is brought to wrong-belief, and also to Vowlessness. By the Karmas (it) is made to wander in the upper, lower, and also in the middle universe, an also by the Karmas is caused all good or bad whatever. The karma does the Karma gives and takes away anything whatsoever; then all souls will become actionless.



According to the Sankhya system souls are inactive, and Prakriti only is the active agent. The truth, however, is that an impure soul invites impure thought activity. The operation of material Karmas is merely an auxiliary cause. An inactive soul can never be responsible for any action and can never enjoy the fruit of its action.


דƻ ׸ִƻפ l

ֵ׸ָ֯ӯָ֤ ׸ ll 362 ll

:áֵ׳ֻ á ִ׳ֻן l

ֵ֓ԯָӯָ֟ ן: ll 362 ll

Ů ׾ ߾ ξŮֵָ ֤ l

Ů ƻפ ֵ ll 363 ll

ô֮ sׯ ߾sɓָ ´ִ֤ l

ô֟Ծ ׳ֻ֟ן ֤˳ִ֟ ll 363 ll


362-363. If the ancient scriptural teachings of the Acharyas be that male Karma desires woman, and the woman-Karma desires man, then no soul whatsoever will become unchaste, according to they teaching, because as has been said (above) material karma by itself desires material Karma.



If the soul be taken as quite inactive an substance without nature of change ability, then no soul will ever be guilty of unchastely. Only matter will be responsible. This is quite absurd. Under this view, there is no place for Ethics.


֤פ ָ ָ פ֤פ ֵ֛֯ l

֤֓ פ ִָ֤ע ll 364 ll

ô֬ן ָ Ʈ֟ ן: l

֣Ԯ ޵֟ ָ֟ ִן ll 364 ll


364. The Prakriti of Karma destroys another, and is destroyed by another. It is in this sense that Parghata Nama (Karma) is described.


Ů ׾ ߾ ֑֤ ן Ů ֤ l

Ů ֤פ ֵ ll 365 ll

ִ֮ sׯ֕߾ ֑֟ ´֤ l

ô֟Ծ Ʈ֟ן ִ֟ ll 365 ll


365. Then no soul whatsoever is the killer, according to they teaching, because the material karma itself as said above destroys the material karma.



If the one-sided view that only Karmic matter destroys other Karmic matter, be propounded, then no soul will be responsible of the sin of causing injury to any other being. All souls will be non-killers and non-killed. The doctrines of non-injury will become nugatory.


֤ ֹ׾ן ׸ ִ l

ֵ֛ פ ί ָ ־־ ll 366 ll

֤ܵ ιֵ֮ߤ ִ: l

ן: ָֿ֮֟: ־ ll 366 ll


366. Thus if any jain ascetics propounded, like this the Sankhya teaching, (then) according to them, the material karma only is active, and ll the souls are non-active.



In the Jaina scriptures all propositions are stated from two standpoints, real and practical. If only one of them is followed, the truth wills not one out. Real point of view in Jainism says that all souls are pure, an do not use any impurity, or any in, or bondage or Liberation: but at the same time from a practical point of view all mundane souls are bound up with Karmic dirt and modified into their impure thought activities by the operation of Karmas. This view makes the soul responsible for its deed of injury, unchastely, etc.


ƾ ֕ ί ί ί ֯ פ l

״֓־ ӟ ll 367 ll

Σ־ ֮ ִִ֮֮֟֟֟: ן l

״֣þֳ־ß־ִ֮֮֮õ ll 367 ll


367. Or if thou holdest my soul causes itself by itself thy saying this also is perverse thinking.


ί ֓ ֤֕֯ ֤ ִֵ״ l

׾ פ ֢ Ƶ ֤ l 368 ll

֟ ׮֟sܵ֯Τ ׿ԟß ִֵ l

ׯ ֌֟ ֟ ߮s׾֬ ֟ ll 368 ll


368. Know the souls won nature, from (the point of view of) expansion, to b co-extensive with the universe. How does thou say that this substance is more or less than that?


־ ־ ן פ ֤ l

Ů ׾ ί ίֵ ִֵ֯ פ ll 370 ll

Σ ֵß ־ ֮þֳ־ ִ֟ l

ôִ֢֮֮֯֟ þִֵ֮֟: ן ll 370 ll


370. The knowing substance exists with its knowing nature. In this view, the soul never causes (creates) the soul from itself.



The soul has ever been existing with its knowing nature. It is useless to say. That soul causes soul. When there is no right discrimination, the soul believes itself to be the doer of impure though-activities, but when right discrimination is attained, then the wrong belief that it is in reality the doer of impure thought-activity disappears and there arises the right belief that soul is really the doer of its own pure conscious thought-activity. An incentive soul can never be purified. The one-sided view of the Sankhya system is not correct. The soul is the doer of impure thought from the practical point of view, but it is doer of pure thought only, from the real point of view. Both views should be taken into consideration.


֓׸ ד׾ ן Γ ׾֋ l

Ů ֤֤ ׵֤ ׾֋ ll 371 ll

Ԯ֖֮֓׸ ט֤ׯ ß ֮֓ ׾ֵ l

ôן ֵ֟ן ׵֟ ׾ֵ ll 371 ll


371. There is no belief, knowledge, or conduct whatsoever in unconscious objet of senses. Therefore what does the conscious soul destroy in those sense objects.



Belief, etc., does not inhere in sense objects; objets being merely auxiliary causes of it. Therefore if the soul removes these sense objects, but retains its own thought-activity of attachment, etc., which is the primary cause of belief, etc., it can gain nothing by this removal of sense-objects. The word Ghadayade in the Gatha implies that the belief, etc., here mean wrong belief, etc.


֓׸ ד׾ ן Γ l

Ů ֤֤ ׵֤ ll 372 ll

Ԯ֖֮֓׸ ט֤ׯ ֟ ֮֓ l

ôן ֵ֟ן ׵֟ ll 372 ll


372. There is no belief, knowledge or conduct whatsoever in the unconscious matter of Karmas; therefore what does the conscious soul destroy in those Karmas.


֤ ֤ ׸

׾ Ů s׾ ֻ֤ ֤ ק ll 374 ll

֮õ Ԯõ ֟ ֟ß֣ ׸õ l

ׯ ֡ sׯ ֤֦õ ֟ ׮פˆ: ll 374 ll


374. And destruction is enjoined of (wrong) belief, (wrong) knowledge and (wrong) conduct; but the destruction of any kind of the above said material things is never enjoined.



A mere withdrawal from sense-gratification is not renunciation. Outward objects are not the primary causes of attachment, or of wrong belief, wrong knowledge and wrong conduct. They are mere auxiliary causes.


߾ ן ֻ ָ ־ l

Ǯ ִפ׽ ן ׾֋ ll 375 ll

߾õ : ד֮֮ ׮ ֻ ָ l

ôִ֟ݤ™˸ß ß ׾ֵ ll 375 ll


375. Whatever attributes are peculiar to the soul, they certainty are not found in the non-soul substances. Therefore in the right believer, there is no attraction for the sense objects.



Sense-objects are material. They do not possess consciousness. Indifference and non-attachment to them is Renunciation. One is not required to destroy s body, any of his sense organs, or any sense-object.


־ ׸ִ l

ָ ֧פ ף פ l 376 ll

, ߾õ ֵ֮֮֯׸:

ָ ֲפ ׮֟ ֤: ll 376 ll


376. Love, hatred, delusion are certainly the souls own thought-activities (from the impure real point of vei). For this reason, really there is no attached, to, in sound and other (sense-objects).



By renunciation of sense-objects only, without renunciation of internal attachment for them, the cause of bondage is not removed and the path of Liberation is not acquired.


֤׾ֵ ֤׾ֵ ׾֑ l

Ǵ ־֤ ֕ ־ ll 377

ήֵ֦֦֮õ ε֟ ׾֑֟: l

ô֟ ־Φ޵㟯֪ þ ־ ll 377 ll


377. By one substance the destruction (or creation) of the attributes of quite another substance is never cause. Therefor indeed all substances are produced by their own peculiar nature.



Creation and detraction only mean the change of condition for a substance. The primary attributes are not destroyed, and no fresh ones are created in any substance. Any other substance is merely an auxiliary cause for creation and destruction of any condition of another substance, but it cannot cerate any new attribute in another substances nor destroys any attribute of another. Therefore a person who wants to purify himself must rectify his own thought-activity. If he thinks that outward objects like women, wealth, lands, clothes, ornaments, etc., are causes of his impure thought-activity and thus by their removal only he will become pure, this view is not altogether correct. If internal attachment, etc., are not removed, this renunciation merely will not stop the advent of Karmic matter. Internal attachment and external possession should both be discarded. If internal attachment is removed no inclination for external objects remains.


ׯ֯֡ פ ֵ ִ֡ פ l

߾׾ פ ֵ ִ֡ פ ll 378 ll

֣ ׿׻ß ן ִֵ֮ ־ן l

֣ ־sׯ ן ִֵ֮ ־ן ll 378 ll


378. And as the artisan performs a job, but does not become identified with it; similarly soul also does the karma, but does not become identified with them.


ׯ֡ פ ֵ ִ֤֡ פ l

߾ פ ֵ ִ֡ פ ll 379 ll

֣ ׿׻: ן ִֵ֮ ־ן l

֣ ߾: : ן ִֵ֮ ־ן ll 379 ll


379. And as the artisan words without his organs of action, hand, etc, but he does not become identified with them, so soul does the Karmas with its organ of action (i.e., mind, body and speech) but does not become identified with them.


ׯ֡ פֵ ִ֡ פ l

߾ ֵ פ ֵ ִ֡ פ ll 380 ll

֣ ׿׻ß ׮ ן ִֵ֮ ־ן l

֣ ߾: ׮ ן ִֵ֮ ־ן ll 380 ll


380. As the artisan holds the instruments, but he does not become identified with them; so the soul also adopts the means, but does not become identified with them.


ׯ֡ ֱ ӕפ ֵ ִ֡ פ l

߾ ֱ פ ֵ ׾ ִ֡ פ ll 381 ll

֣ ׿׻: Ա ӟ ֵ֮ ־ן

֣ ߾: Ա ӟ ֓ ִֵ֮ ־ן l 381 ll


381. As the artisan enjoys the proceeds of his joy, but he does not become identified with them, so the soul enjoys the fruit of these karmas but never becomes identified with them.


־ָ ֢־ ִ l

֓ ֵ ׸ִ פ ll 382 ll

־ָõ ֟ Ԯ ִ l

׮ֵֿõ ֮֓ ִָ ֳן ll 382 ll


382. Thus then should the doctrine of the practical standpoint be shortly defined. Listen to the description of the real standpoint, which deals with the thought-activity (of the soul itself).



Gathas 378 to 382 contain a dissertation on the practical point of vie. As a goldsmith makes an ornament with his hands and other instruments, and enjoys the wages, which he gets for his job, in the same way the soul binds karmas with its activities of mind, body, and speech, and other outward occupations and reaps the fruit as pleasure or pain. This is form the prcticalstandpoint, because really the soul in the goldsmith, the conscious agent, is different format he ornaments, from his hands and from his instruments, and form his earnings. The goldsmith is only doer of his own thought-activity of making ornaments and of suing instrument and is the enjoyed of the satisfactions which he feels on gaining his wages. Similarly the soul from the impure real point of view is doer of hs own impure thought-activity in donign actions and using mind, body, and words, and performing other occupatinsand is the enjoyer of impure thoughts such as I am satisfied, etc. these one substance is only an audiliry cause of modifications in another.


ׯ֡ דֽ פ ƾפ l

߾׾ פƾפ ll 383 ll

֣׿׻ß ן ־ן ֵ֣֮֮ßֵ : l

֣ ־sׯ ן ־ן ֮֮ßô֟ ll 383 ll


383. As an artisan makes a resolution and becomes one with it, so also he soul performs karma and becomes one with it.


דֽ ֟ ׯ֯֡ ֓ ׌֤ פ l

֟ ӟ ߾ ll 384 ll

֣ ™ ˸ß ׿׻ ׮֤֟֟ ־ן l

ô֓ õֵ֤֮ß֣ ™֮ : ߾: ll 384 ll


384. And as the artisan making the resolution is stately bothered by it, and becomes one without hat botheration, so the soul involved in impure thought-activity is miserable.




This is from the impure real standpoint.


י ָ י י פ l

ָ ll 385 ll

֣ י ָõ י י ־ן l

֣ ֵß ָõ ֵ ֵ: ll 385 ll


385. As chalk is not the other (i.e., the wall) and as chalk remains chalk itself, so also the knower does not (become) the other (e.i., the thing known) ; but the knower remains the knower.


י ָ י י פ l

ָ ll 386 ll

֣ י ָ י י ־ן l

֣ ß ָõ : ll 386 ll


386. And as chalk is not the other (the wall); and as chalk remains chalk itself; so also the couture does not (become) the other (i.e., the thing connoted) but the contour remains the contour.


י ָ י י פ l

ӕ֤ ָ ӕֵ֤ ӕ֤ ll 387 ll

֣ י ָõ י י ־ן l

ӵ֟֟ ָõ ӵ֟: ӵ֟: ֟ ll 387 ll


387. And as chalk is not the other (the wall) ; and the chalk remains the chalkiest self ; so also the selfcontrolled soul does to (become) the other (i.e., the things renounced), but the self controlled soul remains the self-controlled soul.


י ָ י י פ

ָ ll 388 ll

֣ י ָõ י ־ן l

֣ ֮ ָõ ֮ ֮ ӟ֢ ll 388 ll


388. And as chalk is not the other (the wall) ; and chalk remains chalk itself ; so also belief does not become the other, (i.e., the thing believed ) but belief remains belief.


ֵ֓ ֤ ֤֓׸ l

־ֵֵָ ֢־ ִ ll 389 ll

׮ֵֵֿ֮õ ֟ ֤֮֮֓׸ l

ֵƾֵָõ ֟ õ ִ ll 389 ll


389. Thus then from the real standpoint are described knowledge, belief (and) conduct. And listen to the discourse of the practical standpoint, in brief.



Gathas 385 to 389 explain that one substance on begin used by another cannot lose its essence and odes not become another. Illustration is given of white paint, which paints the wall, still it does not lose its pointless. Neither is the wall altered into paint nor paint is modified into the wall. Both retain their own respective natures. Similarly a soul connate and knows all knowable, gives up attachment for them or believes in them but neither the objects become the soul, nor the soul becomes the objects Soul remains the soul and the objects remain what they are. From real point of view knowledge, conation, belief and control are the souls own attributes, which are inseparable from the soul.


ָ פ י ί֯ ־ l

ָ פ ֤׾ ֋ ־ ll 390 ll

׵ ָ ꙵן ֻ י֮֟: þֳ־ l

֣ ָ ֮ן ֟ׯ þ ־ l 390 ll

390. As the chalk by its won whiteness whitens the other thing (i.e. the wall); so also the nower by its own nature knows the other substances.


ָ פ י ί֯ ־ l

ָ פ ߾׾ ˋ ־ ll 391 ll

֣ ָ ꙵן ֻ י֮֟: þֳ־ l

֣ ָ ֿן ߾sׯ þ ־ ll 391 ll


391. As the chalk by its own nature whitens the other things (the wall); so also the soul by its own nature connotes the on-self objects.


ָ פ י ί֯ ־ l

ָ ׾ָפ ֤׾ ֋ ־ ll 392 ll

֣ ָ ꙵן י֮֟: þֳ־ l

֣ ָ ׾֮ן ֟ׯ ־ ll 392 ll


392. As the chalk by its own nature whitens the other thing (the wall) so also the self-absorbed soul by its won nature renounces the non-self objects.


ָ פ י ί ־ l

ָ ֧פ ִפ ־ ll 393 ll

֣ ָ ꙵן י֮֟: þֳ־ l

֣ ָ ֬ ִݤ׆: þֳ־ ll 393 ll


393. As the chalk by this won nature whitens the other thing (the wall); so (also) the right believer by this won nature believes the other substances.


־ָ ׾֤֓֓׸ l

֤ ׾ ֕֋ ֤ ll 394 ll

: ־ָõ ׾׮ֵֿ ֤֮֮֓׸ l

֟sֵ¾ׯ ֵԵ ִ ֟־: ll 394 ll


394. Thus then the reality of the practical (standpoint) with regard to knowledge, belief (and) conduct is described. Similarly also the other conditions should be known.



Gathas 390 to 394 declare that as from a practical view point it is said that chalk whitens the well, so it is said that the soul knows, connotes, believes and renounces other substances. Really the soul knows, conates, believes itself an is self-controlled in itself.


㾾 ƴ׾ָ֟׾ l

֢ ֵ֢֤ ίֵ ׯֈ ll 395 ll

֟ ִֿ֮׾ßָ׾ִֿ l

ô׮־֟Ե֮֟֟ : ןδִ ll 395 ll



395. And he, who releases himself from the Karmas, good or bad, of many kinds of degrees which have been done in the past, that soul itself is real repentance.



Repentance is of two kinds. Practical and real. Practical repentance is to recite some passages with the thought that whatever doeeds were done in the past in transgression of a vow may be come ineffectual, i e., the demeritorious Karmas as preciously bound may be removed. Real repentance is non-attachment to all good or bad karmas bound in the past, and to be fixed in self-absorption. The former is good hought-activitiy which is cause of bondage of meritorious karmas, while the later is the souls own pure thought-activity.


ƴ Ůֵ ־ ֕פ ׾ l

֢ ֵ֢֤ ֓֌ ƾ ll 396 ll

ִֿ֓ Ӵֿ ־ ֬֟ ׾µ֟ l

ִ׮֮־֢ԟ : Οֵ֮ܵ ־ן ׵֟ ll 396 ll


396. By whatever thought-activity those Karmas good (or) bad may be bound in the future; the soul which releases itself from that (thought-activity) is the real renunciation.



Renunciation is also of two kinds: (1) practical, (2) real. Practical renunciation is to make vows of renouncing some objects for the future, while real renunciation is to give up all attachment with those thought activities which are likely to be the cause of bondage of god or bad Karmas in future and to become self-absorbed.


ƴƴפ ӯכ ׾ָ֟׾ l

פ ֻ λ l 397 l

ִִֿ֤֓ ִן ֓׾ßָ׾ִֿ l

ֵֿ֟ ֻֻ֮֓ ׵֟ ll 397 ll


397. Whatever good (or) bad operation (of Karmas) of many kinds and degrees takes place in the present time, the soul which realises that (operation as a) defect is real confession.



Confession is also of two kinds, (1) practical and (2) real. Practical confession is to recite some passages for removal of the present defects, while the real confession is o realize the soul as free from any kind of fruition of good or bad Karmas operating in the present time and to be absorbed in pure essence of soul.


֓ ֓֌ פ ֓ׯ ׯֈפ l

֓֓ ֻפ ׸ ƾפ ll 398 ll

׮֟ Οֵ֮ܵ ן ׮ִ֟ׯ ß ןִן l

׮ִֵֵֻ֟֓ן ֻ ׸ ׾֟ ׵֟ ll 398 ll


398. The soul which always does this renunciation and always repents, and always confesses is the (real right) conduct.



The practice of self-realisation and acquiring self-absorption is the real repentance renunciation and confession, as has been said before.


פӣ㤾ֵ ֻ ׸ִן l

։ פ פ ֤ ll 399 ll

׮׮֤ß־֮֓׮ ݤ: ׸ִ׮֟ ׮ l

׮ µן µן ָ֮ ֟: ll 399 ll


399. Material (vocal) molecules are modified into many kinds of words of praise or blame. Hearing them (one0 is angry or pleased, thinking I am described (by them.)


ֻ֤־ ֤ ׯָ֤ פ l

֤ ד׾ ξ ll 400 ll

ݤ֦ ֲ֯׸֟ õ פ s: l

ô֮֮ ֟: ד֤ׯ µõֲ㬤: ll 400 ll


400. Material substance has been modified into words. If its attribute is different from the soul, then thou art not described at all. Why art thou angry? Unenlightened.


֧ פ ן l

ֵ פ ׾Ƥ ׾ִֵ֤ ֧ ll 401 ll

ο: ֳ ֲ: ן . ״ן ֋ l

ן ׾׮ߟ ׾ִֵ֟ ֲ ll 401 ll


401. Bad or good word does not tell thee hear me. And also that word does not come to be sensed (by thee0. The word is he subject matter of the ear.


פ ꓔ ן l

ֵ פ ׾Ƥ ֌׾ִֵ֤ ll 402 ll

ο ן ֿ ״ן l

ן ׾׮ߟ ׾ִֵ֟ ִ ll 402 ll


402. Bad or good form does not tell thee see me. That also does not come to be sensed (by thee). The form is the subject mater of the eye.


Ӭ פ ו ן l

ֵ פ ׾פ ׾ִֵ֤ Ӭ ll 403 ll

ο: ֮ ן ו֬ ״ן l

ן ׾׮ߟ ׾ִֵ֟ ִ֮ ll 403 ll


403. Bad or good smell does not tell thee smell me. That also does not come to be sensed (by thee). Smell is the subject matter of the nose.


פ ֵ ן l

ֵ פ ׾Ƥ ׾ ִֵ֤ ll 404 ll

ο: ן ֵ ״ן l

ן ׾׮ߟ ֮׾ִֵ֟ ִ ll 404 ll


404. Bad or good taste does not tell thee taste me. That also does not come to be sensed (by thee). Taste is the subject matter of tongue.


פ ִן l

ֵ פ ׾Ƥ ֵ׾ִֵ֤ ll 405 ll

ο: ïֿ ן ï ״ן l

ן ׾׮ߟ ֵ׾ִֵ֟ ïִ ll 405 ll


405. Bad or good touch does not tell touch me. That also does not come to be sensed by thee. Touch is the subject matter of the body.


פ 㕳 ן l

ֵ פ ׾Ƥ ׬׾ִֵ֤ ll 406 ll

ο: ן 㬤þ ״ן l

ן ׾׮ߟ ׬׾ִֵ֟ ִ ll 406 ll


406. Bad or good quality does into tell thee now me. That also does not come to be known by thee. The quality is merely the subject matter of intellect.


פ 㕳 ן l

ֵ פ ׾Ƥ ׬׾ִֵ֤ ll 407 ll

ο ן 㬵þ ״ן l

ן ׾׮ߟ ׬׾ִֵ֟ ִ ll 407 ll


407. Bad or god object does not tell thee know me. That also does not come to be known by known by thee. Substance is (merely) the subject matter of the intellect.


ִ ֓ l

ƴ ֵָ ֵ ׬ ־ִ֢֯ ll 408 ll

֦֟õ ִֿ ֓ן : l

׾׮ƴ֮: ָõ þֵ ׬ ׿־ִ֯֯: ll 408 ll


408. Even thus knowing the objects, the ignorant (soul), not restraining the mind from non-self, and not realising in itself self-knowledge and happiness, does not attain equanimity.



Gathas 399 to 408 explain that an ignorant person is pleased if the sense objects or other knowable matter is agreeable and is displeased if they are disagreeable. He does not give up attachment and therefore becomes unable to gain self-knowledge and happiness. These object are mere knowable and the soul is their knower. Those objects do not tell or prompt any one to love or hate them. A right-believing saint is not affected by the pleasing or painful nature of things or circumstances. Arrow of abuse do not irritate him, showers of praise do not please him. He has control over his passions. He remains economies and unaffected.


ӟ ֱ ί֯ פ ֱ l

׾ Ӭפ ߵ ν׾ ll 409 ll

ꤵִ֮: Աִ֮֟ ß ן Աִ l

ָ֟ׯ ֬ן ߕ :õˆ׾ִ֬ ll 409 ll


409. Feeling the fruition of Karmas, whoever means that fruition of Karma its own, that one again binds that (Karma) of eight kinds, the source of misery.


ӟ ֱ ֵ פ ֱ l

׾ Ӭפ ߵ ν׾ ll 410 ll

ꤵִ֮: Ա ֵ ß ֮ן Աִ l

ָ֟ׯ ֬ן ߕ :õ™׾ִ֬ ll 410 ll


410. Feeling the fruition of Karmas, however thinks that the fruition of Karmas is caused by him, that one again binds that (Karma) of eight kinds, the source of misery.


֤ӟ ֱ Ƥ Ƥ ƾפ l

׾ Ӭפ ߵ ν׾ ll 411 ll

ꤵִ֮: Ա ֟ :ֿ֟ ־ן ׵֟ l

ָ֟ׯ ֬ן ߕ :õˆ׾ִ֬ ll 411 ll


411. Feeling the fruition of karmas, whichever soul becomes happy or miserable, that soul again binds hat (Karma) of eight kinds, the source of misery.



Realisation of self-knowledge is the main object of a right believer. He finds satisfaction in himself. He remains calm in the event of karmic operation.


֟ ƾפ Ů ֟ ֤ ד l

Ů ֟ ו ׾ן ll 412 ll

á ֮ ־ן ô֓á ֮ן ד֟ l

ôִ֤֖֮֮֓á ו֮ ֤׮ ll 412 ll


412. The scripture is not knowledge, because the scripture does not know anything. Knowledge is one hinge, the scripture another. The conquerors say so.


֧ ƾפ Ǵ ֧ ֤ ד l

Ǯ ֧ ו ׾ן ll 413 ll

֤ ֮ ־ן ô֓ ֮ן ט֟ l

ôִ֤֮֮֕ ֲ ו֮ ֤׮֟ ll 413 ll


413. Word is not knowledge, because word does not know anything. Knowledge is one thing, word another. The conquerors say so.


ƾפ Ů ֤ ד l

Ů ו ׾ ll 414 ll

֮ ־ן ô֦ ֮ן ט֟ l

ִִ֤֦֮֮֕ ו֮ ֤׮ ll 414 ll


414. Form is not knowledge, as form does into know anything. Knowledge is one thing, form quite another. The conquerors say so.


ƾפ. Ů ֤ ד l

Ů ו ׾ן ll 415 ll

֮ ־ן ô֫ ֮ן ט֟ l

ôִ֤֮֮֕ ו֮ ֤׮ ll 415 ll


415. Colour is not knowledge, as colour does not know anything. Therefor knowledge is one thing, colour quite another. The conquerors say so.


֬ ƾפ Ů ֬ ֤ ד l

Ů Ӭ ו ׾ן ll 416 ll

Ӭ ֮ ־ן ô֮Ӭ ֮ן ד֟ l

ִִ֤֮֮֕ ֬ ו֮ ֤ן ll 416 ll


416. Smell is not knowledge, as smell does not know anything. Therefore knowledge is one thing, smell is quite another. The conquerors say so.


ָ פ Ů Γ ֘ l

Ů ׾ן ll 417 ll

ß ־ן ֮ ô֢ Γ֮ ׮ִ֟ l

ôֵ֤֮ ֮ ו֮ ֤׮ ll 417 ll


417. Nor taste is knowledge, as taste is indeed always unconscious. Therefore knowledge is one thing, and taste quite another. The conquerors say so.


פ Ů ֤ ד l

Ů ו ׾ן ll 418 ll

ïֿ ֮ ־ן ô֟ïֿ ֮ן ד֟ l

ִִֵ֤֮֮֕ ïֿ ו֮ ֤׮ ll 418 ll


418. Touch is not knowledge, as touch does not now anything. Therefore knowledge is one thing, touch quite another. The conquerors say so.


ƾפ Ů ֤ ד l

Ů ו ׾ן ll 419 ll

֮ ־ן ô֟ ֮ן ד֟ l

ִִֵֵ֤֮֮֕֟ ו֮ ֤׮ ll 419 ll


419. Karma is not knowledge, as karma does not know anything. Therefore knowledge is one thing, Karma quite another. The conquerors say so.


ִד ִ ֤ ד l

Ů ִ ו ׾ן ll 420 ll

ִֵ֟ ֮ ִ֬ ֮ן ד֟ l

ôִ֤֮֮ ִ ו֮ ֤׮֟ ll 420 ll


420. The embodied substance, medium of motion is not knowledge, as medium of motion odes not know anything. Therefore knowledge is one thing, the medium of motion quite atonal. The conquerors say so.


ƾפ ִִ֬ד ֤ ד l

Ů ִִ֬ ו ׾ן ll 421 ll

־ן ִִ֮֬ßֵ ô֮ ֮ן ד֟ l

ôִִִ֤֮֮֕֬ ו֮ ֤׮ ll 421 ll


421. The embodied substance, medium of rest, which does not know anything, is not knowledge. Therefore knowledge is one thing, the medium of rest quite another. The conquerors say so.


ֻ׾ ן ֤ ד l

פ ֻ Γ ֓ ll 422 ll

ֻsׯ ß ֮ ôֻ֟ ֮ן ד֟

ô֮ ־ן ֮ ôֻ֟s֮ ׮ִ֟ ll 422 ll


422. Time substance also is not knowledge, as time does not now anything. Therefore it is not knowledge because time is unconscious always.


ֵׯ ƾפ ֤ ד֟ l

ֵ ו ׾ן ll 423 ll

ִֿׯ ֮ ־ן ô֮ ֮ן ד֟ l

ôִֵֿ֤֮֮֕ ו֮ ֤׮ ll 423 ll


423. And space also is not knowledge, as it does not know any thing. Therefore space is one thing, knowledge quite another. The conquerors say so.


Εֳ ƾפ Γ ֓ l

Ε־ ll 424 ll

ά־֮ ֮ ־ן ִ֤֮ ׮ִ֟ l

ôִֵ֤֮֕־֮ ֣֮֟ ll 424 ll


424. Impure thought-activity is not knowledge as (it is) always unconscious. Therefore knowledge is one thing, impure thought-activity quite another.



Gathas 412 to 424 describe discrimination between pure knowledge of soul and the impure thought-activities due to Karmic effects.


פ ֓ ߾ l

ֵ֤ ξפ׸ ־ ll 425 ll

ִ֕ן ׮֟ ô֕߾ß ֵ ֮ l

֮ ֵ֤ן׸ ֟־ִ ll 425 ll


425. As it always knows, so the soul is certainly the knower, the enlightened. And it should be now that knowledge is not separate from the knower.


ִפ׽ ӕִ ִ֯㾾ֵ l

ִִ֬ ־֕ Ε֌־ן ll 426 ll

֮ ִݤ™ß ӵִ ִִ֯֟ l

ִԬִ ֣ ξ镵ִߵֵן : ll 426 ll


426. Knowledge itself is the right-believer, the self-restraint, the scriptures, consisting of Angas and Purvas, merit, demerit, an initiation to sascetism. The wise men know this.



Knowledge is the special attribute of soul-substance. Every attribute of a substance is always pervading the substance and is quite inseparable from it; therefore knowledge and the knower are really one, having no separate existence. Knowledge of the soul becomes right belief.


΢ δ ָ ƾפ l

ָ ֻ Ǵ ִֻ֡ ll 427 ll

֟ ִֵ ֻ ָ ־ןִ l

ָ: ֻ ô֟ ݤִֵß ll 427 ll


427. Soul is immaterial. It can never be Aharaka (i. E. taker of material molecules). Ahara is certainly material, it is really matter itself.



Ahara is of 6 kinds:

262.       Karmahara. Taking in of karmic molecules.

263.       No-Karmahara. Taking in of external physical molecules; i. E., for physical, fluid and Aharaka bodies.

264.       Lepahara. Taking in of food by superficial contact; as the earth particles taken in by trees.

265.       Ujahara. Taking in of nutrition in the form of warmth; as in incubation.

266.       Manasahara. Taking in of mental nourishment; as in celestial brings.

267.       Kavalahara. Taking in of food by morsels, as in human beings.


All these assimilations are material. They cannot really be assimilated by the immaterial soul.


׾ ֌פ ב֢ ӓ֤ ָ ־ l

׾ ֈֵ ׾ ׯ ll 428 ll

ׯ ֌֟ ߟ ֮ ӓן ָ֟ ִ l

sׯ õ ֵ á ׯ 1 428 ll


428. There is no such capacity, whatever, natural or acquired in the soul, that it can grasp or give up the other substance.



A right believer should meditate that his soul is nothing but the soul itself. Really it diodes not take any other substances to itself, nor there is anytime in the soul to be given up. Its real nature is to remain in its own real essence. Really there is no natural or acquired quality in the soul to assimilate other substance. It is only room the practical pint of view that the soul is said to take in mater and shed it off. A pure soul has no vibrations and no passions. It is ever steadfast in its spatial units and peaceful.


׾㬤֓ Ȥ ד l

ެ־ ׾ִפ ד׾ ߾֕߾֤ ll 429 ll

ô֢ ׾ֿ㬤׵֟ ן ד֟ l

׾ִן ד֤ׯ ֕߾ֵ֦Ծֵ: ll 429 ll


429. Therefore, the pure conscious soul neither grasps anything nor gives up anything of the soul and the non-soul substances.



The soul in its purity does not take in any other soul and on soul substance, and there is no question of the riddance of anything. Every soul is always a separate identity. It never loses its individuality. It remains always the same enjoying all its inseparable attributes. I am a pure soul with no connection whatsoever with anotherthis constant meditation leads the mediator tot he condition of Samayasara, the essence of soul.


כ׻ ׻ֵ 㯯ֵָ l

ב֟ ֤ן ׻״ ִע l l 430 l

׈׻׮ ׻׮ ָ l

ߟ ֤ן ׻״֤ ִ ן ll 430 ll


430. The ignorant persons say that the adoption of the external marks of ascetics, or of householders of may kinds, is the only way to Liberation.



External practical conduct of laymen and saints, with their different forms, is merely an auxiliary cause for acquiring real trinity of internal conduct. Those w are ignorant of the real path of liberation which is only self-absorption, are satisfied with the perverse knowledge that mere external conduct will lead them to liberation.


ֵ פ ִ ׻ ִִ ׸ l

׻ ㇟ ֓׸ ן ll 431 ll

־ן ִ ׻ ֧ƮԴ ՟: l

׻ ㌟ ֖֮֮֓׸ ֮ ll 431 ll


431. The mark merely is never the way to Liberation, because the Archas (adorable) who have given up attachment to the body, and ignored the mark, have realized right belief and knowledge and conduct.



The mer outward nudity of body is not the path of Liberation. Self-absorption is the real path of Liberation. Even severe asterism and suffering cannot advance a saint an inch on the path of Liberation, if he has not understood and realized his ownself the essence of Samayasara.


׾ ִ ӈ ƴֵ ׻ l

֓׸ ִ ׾ן ll 432 ll

ֵ֯ ִ: כƴֵ׮ ׻׮ l

֖֮֮֓׸ ִ ו֮ ֤׮ ll 432 ll


432. The marks of he householder and to the ascetic are never the path to Liberation; right belief, knowledge and conduct (combined) are the path to Liberation. The conquerors say so.


Ƣ ׻ ָ׸ Ƥ l

֓׸ ί ӕ ֯ ll 433 ll

ô֟ Ɵ ׻׮ ָ׸˸ ߟ׮ l

Ԯ֖֮֓׸ ֮֟ Ӗ־ ֣֯ ll 433 ll


433. Therefore giving u the external marks adopted by the house holders or ascetics absorbs the soul in right belief, knowledge and conduct which is the path of Liberation.


֯ ί ꤵ ֵ l

֟ ׾Ƹ ֓֓ ׾Ƹ 9֤ ll 434 ll

֣֯ ֮֟ ֵ֯ ꤵ ֵ l

׾Ƹ ׮֟ ׾Ըֵ֦ ll 434 ll


434. Fix the soul in the path of Liberation Realize and also concentrate upon it. And therein always roam about. Do not roam about in other substances.



We should be non-attentive to all the other substances except our own souls. Each step in self-meditation is an advance on the path of Liberation.


כ׻ ׻ 㯯ֵָ l

ן ִע ֤ ִֵָ ll 435 l

כֻ ׻ ָ l

ן ִ֟ ֟: ִֵָ: ll 435 ll


435. Samayasara is no known by those how have attachment for the various kinds of marks of ascetics or of householders.



Any attachment to outwards conduct leads away from the path of Liberation.


־׸ ֡ ׾ ׻ פ ֯ l

֓֡ ֓פ ֯ ׾ ll 436 ll

־׸: ֮֮ε ׯ ׻ ן ֣֯ l

׮ֵֵֿ֮ß ꓔן ֣֯ ־׻׮ ll 436 ll


436. Though the practical standpoint describes the external marks as the path to Liberation, yet the real standpoint does not accept any kind of mark as the path to Liberation.



The rules of practical conduct are for guidance on the Path. Adoption of? Sainthood is necessary in order to be free from thoughts about household matters, and to concentrate attention upon self-advancement. If he has any desire for being respected and worshipped, he is away from the path of Liberation. He must realize his ownself and be absorbed in his soulness.


ִֵ֯״ ךֵ Γ֤֓ ֤ l

Γ פ ֯־פ ִ ll 437 ll

: ֳִֵ֯״֤ ך ֣Ο֢֟ ֟ l

Σ ãõן ׵֟ ֮Ꟶִ ִܵ ll 437 ll


437. That conscious one will stain the highest bliss, who having read this Samayasara Prabhritam and under stood its meaning and spirit, will be fixed in (the pure real) Substance.



Shri Kunda-Kunda Acharya, the high ascetic, and the great soul of the 1st century B. C in concluding his wonderful and soul-inspiriting book of Samyasara advises the readers to read it carefully, and to understand the true meaning and purport of the description of the essence of soul; and then realize their own pue soul. They must be steadfastly bent upon self-advancement, and for this purpose, if they are able to adopt the external conduct of a saint, they must truly follow it. The practice of self-absorption will lead to perfection and Liberation. It is the Samayasara, which takes one to Samayasara.


Talking about Samayasara, writing about Samayasara, thinking of Samayasara, realization of Samayasara, absorption in Samayasara will lead to becoming Samayasara.