The Jaina religions like other
religions of India has suffered from the tendency of schisms and secessions. The
different sects gradually sprang from time to time on account of the different
interpretations put on the canonical texts. Besides, the circumstances of the
particular time also compelled them to give up old ideas and to adopt new ones.
The separation between the Digambaras and the Svetambaras took place in 79 or 82
A.D. A terrible famine occurred in Magadha in 293 B.C. and 14,000 monks under
the leadership of Bhadrabahu with Candragupta Maurya moved on to the South. Some
monks under the leadership of Sthulabhadra stayed no gaoha.
Both the traditions do not differ as
regards the twelve-year famine that took place in Magadha and as regards the
consequent emigration of the Jaina Sa´┐Żgha under his leadership. But while the
Digambara tradition states that the Sa´┐Żgha migrated to the South, ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara
tradition says that Bhadrab´┐Żhu went to Nepal. The origin of the great schism,
which later on developed into Digambara and ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara sects, is ultimately
traced to this event.
After Bhadrab´┐Żhu's departure
Sth´┐Żlabhadra assumed the leadership of the Sa´┐Żgha in Magadha. He was a
contemporary of Maurya Candragupta and Bindus´┐Żra. After the famine was over he
convened a council at P´┐Ż´┐Żaliputra, at which the remnant of the Sa´┐Żgha left
behind in Magadha tried to put in order the sacred lore that had fallen into a
state of decay. Sth´┐Żlabhadra was succeeded by ´┐Żrya Mah´┐Żgiri and then came
Suhastin who was the religious preceptor of the Maurya king Samprati who is said
to have been a devout Jaina and to have done much for the glory of his religion.
After Suhastin came Susthita, Indradinna (K´┐Żlaka I), Priyagrantha and
V´┐Żddhav´┐Żd´┐Ż, one after the other. At this time lived K´┐Żlaka II of the
´┐Żaka-Vikrama fame. Then followed Dinnas´┐Żri, Si´┐Żhagiri and Vairasv´┐Żmi. The last
of these was the last Da´┐Żap´┐Żrv´┐Ż or keeper of a part of the original canon. It
was in his time in M.E. 609 (or A.D. 82) that the gradually growing schism in
the Jaina Sa´┐Żgha was finalised and the two sects, ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara and Digambara,
separated for good.
observes that the
division of the Jaina Sa´┐Żgha into Svetambara-Digambara took place gradually, and
that they became aware of their mutual differences about the end of the first
century A.D. It is necessary to know what is the exact difference between these
two sects, Literally, Digambara mean, 'sky-clad' and ´┐Żvetambara means
'white-robed' i.e. the monks of the Digambaras are naked, while those of the
Svetambaras wear white clothes. In fact there is very little difference between
the two branches as regards the essentials of doctrine. The most authoritative
book, namely, Tattvartha Sutra by Umasvati or Umasvami has been accepted by both
the sects. However, there are some major as well as minor points on which the
two sections are opposed to each other. The major points of difference between
the Digambaras and Svetambaras are as follows :
(i) While the
Digambaras believe that a monk who wears clothes, can not attain salvation; the
´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras assert that the practice of complete nudity is not essential to
(ii) The Digambaras
hold the view that woman, is not entitled to Mok´┐Ża in this life. On the
contrary, the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras believe that women can attain Moksa in this
(iii) According to the
Digambaras, once a saint has attained Kevala J´┐Ż´┐Żna (Omniscience)
he needs no food, but can sustain life without eating. The view is not
acceptable to the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras.
Leaving aside the trivial
differences in rituals, customs and manners, the following are some of the minor
points on which the two sects do not agree :
(i) The Digambaras
maintain that the embryo of Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra, the last T´┐Żrtha´┐Żkara, was not removed from
the womb of Dev´┐Żnad´┐Ż, a Br´┐Żhmin lady, to that of Tri´┐Żal´┐Ż or Priyak´┐Żri´┐Żi, a
Kshatriya lady, as the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras contend.
(ii) The Digambaras
believe in the complete disappearance of the ancient sacred literature and as
such they disown the canonical books of the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras.
(iii) The Digambaras
assert that Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra never married but according to the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras, Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra
married Ya´┐Żod´┐Ż and had a daughter by name Anojj´┐Ż or
(iv) The ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras
consider Mallin´┐Żtha, the 19th T´┐Żrtha´┐Żkara as a female but the Digambaras state
that Mallin´┐Żtha was a male.
(v) According to
Digambaras, the T´┐Żrtha´┐Żkaras must be represented as nude and unadorned and with
downcast eyes. The need not be so according to ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbars.6
Sa´┐Żgha, Ga´┐Ża and
The Sa´┐Żgha and Ga´┐Ża are well known
political terms. The Sa´┐Żgha-r´┐Żjya means the rule of a community
and the Gana-r´┐Żjya indicates the rule of many a republic. In early
times, there was perhaps no distinction between political Sa´┐Żgha and
Gana, because P´┐Ż´┐Żini equates Ga´┐Ża with Sa´┐Żgha. The
Sa´┐Żgha and Ga´┐Ża in Jainism and Buddhism might have come into
existence in imitations of the political Sa´┐Żghas and Ga´┐Żas which
flourished in ancient India. Both
Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra and Buddha were born and brought up in the republican
atmosphere. They had Sa´┐Żghas arround them. It is for this reason that
they adopted the name as well as the constitution of the political Sa´┐Żgha
in organizing their religious Sa´┐Żghas. It is also possible to suggest
that the political Sa´┐Żghas as Ga´┐Żas might have been founded in
imitation of the religious Sa´┐Żghas and Ga´┐Żas which had existed
since the time when the two great religions were organized. The head of the
Ga´┐Ża was known as Ga´┐Żadhara. Both these terms in the political and
religious spheres indicate the group of persons with the main characteristic of
possessing a mind conscious of certain ideology. The existence of large number
of Sa´┐Żghas and Ga´┐Żas in the Jaina community in ancient times
points out that it was politically and culturally Sa´┐Żgha highly
organized. It is due to the efficiency of the Sa´┐Żgha organization that
Jainism has survived through all vicissitudes. The Ga´┐Żas in course of
time also began to be known as Gacchas.
Ga´┐Ża in the Kalpa-S´┐Żtra and Kush´┐Ż´┐Ża
Inscriptions of Mathura
The Kalpas´┐Żtra tells us that
there were seven schools of thought with their respective branches
(´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Żs) each of which separated in course of time into its own family
Kula. It is interesting to note that several of these Jaina orders are
mentioned in Kush´┐Ż´┐Ża records. The seven Ga´┐Żas are God´┐Żsa, Uddeha, Uduv´┐Ż´┐Żika,
Vesav´┐Ż´┐Żika, C´┐Żra´┐Ża, M´┐Żnava and Kau´┐Żika.7
The first Ga´┐Ża had four
´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Żs and Kulas. The second Ga´┐Ża Uddeha was founded by
´┐Żrya Roha´┐Ża and was divided into four ´┐Żakh´┐Żs and six kulas.
N´┐Żgabh´┐Żta and Parihasaka Kulas of Kalpas´┐Żtra may be identified with
N´┐Żgabh´┐Żtik´┐Żya8 and the
the Ku´┐Ż´┐Żna records. The third
ga´┐Ża Uduv´┐Ż´┐Żika was subdivided into four ´┐Żakh´┐Żs and three
kulas. None of these can be traced in any of the Ku´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ża inscriptions. The
fourth Ga´┐Ża Ve´┐Żav´┐Żtika, founded by K´┐Żmarddhi, was subdivided into four ´┐Żakh´┐Żs
and Kulas. Among these, only, the Mehika Kula10 is mentioned in a Kusha´┐Ża grant.
The fifth Ga´┐Ża Cara´┐Ża identified by Buhler with V´┐Żra´┐Ża Ga´┐Ża of the
inscriptions, was subdivided into four ´┐Żakh´┐Żs and seven
Kulas.11 The Ku´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ża inscriptions refer to
several of them.12 The ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Żs may be identified
with the H´┐Żritamalakari, Vajran´┐Żgari and S´┐Ż´┐Żk´┐Ż´┐Żik´┐Ż and Partidharmik´┐Ż of the
Kalpas´┐Żtra. The sixth Ga´┐Ża M´┐Żnava was divided into four ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Żs
and three Kulas. But only a few of these are mentioned in Ku´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ża records. The seventh Ga´┐Ża
Kau´┐Żiya Ga´┐Ża founded by Susthita was subdivided into four Kulas
and seven ´┐Żakh´┐Żs. This Ga´┐Ża is well represented in the Ku´┐Ża´┐Ża
inscriptions.13 The ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Żs must be
identified with the Vajr´┐Ż, M´┐Żdhyamik´┐Ż, Uchh´┐Żnagari and the V´┐Żtsaliya while the
Kulas may be identified with the V´┐Ż´┐Żiya, Brahmaliptika and the
P´┐Żish´┐Żav´┐Żhanaka of the Kalpas´┐Żtra. The Madhyamik´┐Ż branch was named after
the ancient place Madhyamik´┐Ż identified with modern Nagar´┐Ż in Mewar. It was
founded by Priyagrantha, the second pupil of Susthita and
Pa´┐Żcast´┐Żp´┐Żny´┐Żya ´┐Ż There is a controversy regarding
the origin of the Pa´┐Żcast´┐Żpany´┐Żya, a sect of the Digambaras. One view is that it
originated from Mathura while the other view is that it was established by
Arhadbali who was the native of Pu´┐Ż´┐Żravardhana. Pu´┐Ż´┐Żravardhana was a centre of
Jainism. The Pah´┐Żrpur copper plate grant of the year 159 (478-479
A.D.)15 records that a Br´┐Żhma´┐Ża and his
wife deposited three din´┐Żrs or gold coins with the city Council and lands
for the maintenance of worship of the divine Arhats at the Vih´┐Żra
of Va´┐Ża-Goh´┐Żli which was presided over by the disciples and the disciples of
disciples of the Nirgrantha preceptor Guhanandin, belonging to the
Pa´┐Żchast´┐Żpanik´┐Żya of Banaras. It seems that Guhanandina belonged to the third or
fourth century A.D. V´┐Żrasena, who wrote a commentary on the Dhavl´┐Ż, was
the follower of Pa´┐Żchast´┐Żpany´┐Żya. Harishe´┐Ża has mentioned it in the
Kath´┐Żkosha written in 937 A.D.
Digambara Sa´┐Żghas, Ga´┐Żas and
Gachchhas of the South Nirgrantha Mah´┐Ż´┐Żrama´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha
From the two
inscriptions16 of the Kadamba ruler M´┐Żge´┐Ża (500
A.D.), it is known that villages and lands were given to the Munis of
Nirgrantha Mah´┐Ż´┐Żrama´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha. What was the shape of this original
Sa´┐Żgha, it is not known. The term Nirgrantha or Nigan´┐Żha
was used for Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra, and also
for his followers. It seems that Nirgrantha Mah´┐Ż´┐Żrama´┐Ża Sa´┐Żga was in existence
during the time of Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra, and it continued even afterwards. Bhadrab´┐Żhu
accompanied this Sa´┐Żgha for going to the South. During the third or
fourth century A.D., there were two main divisions of the Jaina Sa´┐Żgha
(1) Nirgrantha Mah´┐Ż´┐Żrama´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha and (2) ´┐Żvetapata. The Digambaras and the
´┐Żvetambaras lived together at Devagiri as known from the
inscription17 and probably there were no separate
temples. The Nirgrantha Mah´┐Żsrama´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha was of the
M´┐Żla Sa´┐Żgha ´┐Ż The earliest mention of the
M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha is in the inscription (C. 400 A.D.) of Ga´┐Żga ruler M´┐Żdhavavarma II,
and in the inscription of 425 A.D. of his son Avin´┐Żta.18 In the above two inscriptions, we
find the names of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya V´┐Żradeva and Candranandi. These two ´┐Żc´┐Żryas
performed the consecration of the temples, and the Ga´┐Żga rulers M´┐Żdhava II
and his son Avin´┐Żta granted lands and villages. It seems that in South India,
M´┐Żlas´┐Żgha was used to indicate the separation of the Digambaras from the
´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras. The name Nirgrantha-Mah´┐Żsrama´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha probably ceased, and it
seems to have been called the M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha. The early great Acaryas Kundakunda,
Um´┐Żsv´┐Żm´┐Ż and Samantabhadra belonged to the M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha.
The M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha has been divided into
seven Ga´┐Żas - Devaga´┐Ża, Senaga´┐Ża, De´┐Żiyaga´┐Ża, S´┐Żras´┐Żhaga´┐Ża K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraga´┐Ża and
Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żraga´┐Ża. Generally these Ga´┐Żas were called after the end names of
the Munis, and after the names of the provinces and
Devagana ´┐Ż Among the above Ga´┐Żas,
Devaga´┐Ża is the oldest. The existence of this Ga´┐Ża is known from the four
inscriptions19 of Lak´┐Żame´┐Żvara and the eleventh
century inscription20 of Kadavanti. It is not mentioned
afterwards. The names of the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of this Ga´┐Ża are ´┐Ż P´┐Żjyap´┐Żda,
Udayadeva21, R´┐Żmadeva, Jayadeva,
Vijayadeva22, Ekadeva, Jayadeva23, A´┐Żkadeva and
Mah´┐Żdeva24. Pujyapada was the founder of this
De´┐Ż´┐Ż Ga´┐Ża and
De´┐Żiga´┐Ża is mentioned in several
inscriptions as Desiya, De´┐Żika, Desiga and De´┐Ż´┐Żya.
The term De´┐Ż´┐Ż originated from De´┐Ża which meant province. Some region of
Kar´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żaka was known by the name of De´┐Ża. From the inscriptions, it is
known that there were several centres of this Ga´┐Ża in Kar´┐Ż´┐Żtaka. Among
them, Hanasoge (Cikahanasoge) was prominent. From the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of this
place originated the Hanasogebali or Gaccha. From the
inscriptions25 of Chikahanasoge, it is learnt that
there were several Vasadis (Temples) of this Ga´┐Ża here, and they
received patronage from the Ca´┐Żg´┐Żlva rulers.
De´┐Ż´┐Żga´┐Ża has been classified into
Pustakagachchha, ´┐Żryasi´┐Żhagrahakula, Candrakar´┐Żc ´┐Żrj´┐Żmn´┐Żya and
Pustakagaccha ´┐Ż In the Pu´┐Żra
inscription26 dated 1087 A.D., the donation of the land given to Padmanandi
Maladharideva of the Pustakagachchha has been described. In the Halebeed
inscription27 of the eleventh century, the
erection of an image by the disciples of Nemichand Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka has been
mentioned. In the Citapura inscription28 of the twelfth century A.D., the
renovation of a temple by this Gaccha has been recorded. In the image
inscription of Peddatu´┐Żbalam, the name of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka C´┐Żndrak´┐Żrti is found. In
the Stavanidhi inscription29 of 1400 A.D., the construction of
the temple at the preaching of V´┐Żranandi of this Gaccha has been mentioned. The
Sam´┐Żdhimara´┐Ża of the ´┐Żc´┐Żrya of Gomini ´┐Żnvaya of the Pustakagaccha
in the Heritage inscription dated 1224 has been engraved.30
The first subdivision of
Pustakagaccha was Panasoge (Hanasoge) Bali. Its first
mention31 is in the early tenth century and
there is a reference to Sam´┐Żdhimarana of Nemicandra, disciple of
Sridharadeva. The second mention32 of this Bali is of 1180 A.D.
Balacanda, pupil of Jayak´┐Żrti, installed an image. There are four
inscriptions33 of this branch which belong from
12th to 14th century A.D. The ´┐Żc´┐Żryas Lalitak´┐Żrti, Devacandra and
Nayak´┐Żrti have been mentioned.
The second sub-division of
Pustakagaccha was I´┐Żgule´┐Żvara Bali. It is mentioned in the seven
inscriptions34 and they belong to the
12th-13th centuries A.D. In these inscriptions, the names of the
´┐Żc´┐Żryas Haricandra, ´┐Żrutak´┐Żrti, Bhanukirti, M´┐Żghanandi, Nemideva,
Chandrak´┐Żrti and Jayadeva are mentioned.
Pustakagaccha has been mentioned
without any sub-division in several inscriptions. The first such
inscription35 is of 1081 A.D., and Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka
Sakalak´┐Żrti is mentioned in it. There are seventeen such inscriptions which
belong to the 16th century A.D.
The Pustakagaccha of De´┐Żig´┐Ża is
found with Ko´┐Ż´┐Żaku´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żnvaya. In some inscriptions, only Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakun´┐Ż´┐Żnvaya is
mentioned. The oldest inscription regarding. Kon´┐Żakun´┐Żanvaya is the Tamra idia
obtained for Markar´┐Żbhip Lekh T´┐Żmrapatra. The other
inscriptions37 are dated 802 A.D. and 797 A.D. It
mentions Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakun´┐Żeye Anvaya. It indicates the place Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakun´┐Ża. This
inscription mentions that R´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrak´┐Żta ruler Kambhar´┐Żja donated a village to the
The Second Sub-division of De´┐Ż´┐Żga´┐Ża
named ´┐Żryasa´┐Żgha Graha Kula is found only in one inscription38. It belongs to the tenth century,
and it mentions ´┐Żubhacandra, disciple of Kulacandra. This inscription was
discovered in the Kha´┐Ż´┐Żagiri hill of Orissa, while other inscriptions of
De´┐Żiga´┐Ża belonged to Kar´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żaka.
The third sub-division of De´┐Żiga´┐Ża
is Candrakar´┐Ż-c´┐Żry´┐Żmn´┐Żya which is mentioned in only one
inscription.39 It has been discovered in Madhya
Pradesh. Subhadra is known to have performed the consecration ceremony of the
temple. The fourth sub-division of Mainad´┐Żnvaya of Subhacandra ´┐Żc´┐Żrya is
mentioned in the inscription40 and it belonged to the 13th
The are several inscriptions of
De´┐Żigana without any sub-division. In two inscriptions41 dated 950 and 1096 A.D., there is
mention respectively of the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas Gu´┐Żacandra and Ravichandra. In these
inscriptions, there is mention of De´┐Ż´┐Żga´┐Ża along with Ko´┐Ż´┐Ża Kund´┐Żnvaya. In
eighteen inscriptions, there is mention of M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha ´┐Ż De´┐Ż´┐Żga´┐Ża. Among them,
old inscriptions42 belong to the twelfth century A.D. Eight
inscriptions mention De´┐Ż´┐Żga´┐Ża only. The old inscription43 among them are dated 1032 A.D. and
The ancient name in the inscription
of the current name Kundakund´┐Żnvaya was Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakund´┐Żnvaya, which means it
originated from Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakundapura. Some scholars prove on literary grounds that
M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha and Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakund´┐Żnvaya are synonymous, and ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Kondakunda is
the founder of the M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha. This is not proved from any inscription before
the eleventh century A.D. M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha and Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakund´┐Żnvaya were together used in
the inscription44 of 1044 A.D. Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakund´┐Żnvaya has
been independently used in the inscriptions45 of the eighth or ninth century A.D.
In the inscription of 802 A.D., Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakund´┐Żnvaya was regarded as
Ga´┐Ża46. The earliest use of De´┐Ż´┐Żyagana
with Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakund´┐Żnvaya was used in the inscription of 931 A.D.47 From the inscriptions, it appears
that the use of Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakund´┐Żnvaya started from the later half of the seventh
century A.D., and in the eighth or ninth century, efforts were made to make it
powerful. Its first influence fell on the De´┐Żastha Saints of Kar´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żaka region.
They began to be called Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakund´┐Żnvaya De´┐Ż´┐Żyag´┐Ża. The Dravi´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha was also
slightly influenced by Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakund´┐Żnvaya.48 It is known from the inscription
but it seems that influence was not permanent. The Dr´┐Żvi´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha
Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakund´┐Żnvaya is not found mentioned in any other inscription.
Nandi Gana ´┐Ż Seeing the similar names of the
ancient ´┐Żc´┐Żryas in the inscriptions of the M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha and the
Dr´┐Żvi´┐Żas´┐Żgha, it appears that old Nandiga´┐Ża (Sa´┐Żga) might have come from
outside in these two Sa´┐Żghas. These ancient ´┐Żc´┐Żryas might have belonged
to Nandigana. It seems that the Dravi´┐Ża-Sa´┐Żgha and the M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha might have
adopted the Nandigana of the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya Sa´┐Żgha. The Nandisa´┐Żgha was on important
one among the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas.
Senagan ´┐Ż The earliest mention of the
Senaga´┐Ża is found in the inscription49 dated 821 A.D. It is also found in
the Mulagunda inscription50 of 903 A.D. Gu´┐Żabhadra, the author
of the Uttarapur´┐Żna, regarded his teacher Jinasena and grand-teacher as
scholars of Sen´┐Żnvaya. V´┐Żrasena and Jinasena in the commentaries of Dhavala
and Jayadhavala mention Pa´┐Żchast´┐Żp´┐Żnvaya. Gunabhadra mentions for the
first time Pa´┐Żch´┐Żst´┐Żp´┐Żnvaya as Sen´┐Żnvaya in the
Senaga´┐Ża has been sub-divided into
three Gacchas ´┐Ż (1) Pogari or Hogiri Gaccha, (2) Pustakagaccha and (3)
Chandrakap´┐Ż´┐Ża. The first mention of the Pogarigaccha is found in the inscription
dated 893 A.D. This inscription51 records the grant of the village to
Kanakasena, disciple of Vinayasena. In this inscription, it has been called
Pogariyaga´┐Ża of M´┐Żlasen´┐Żnvaya. Another inscription52 is of 1047 A.D., and Pandita
N´┐Żgasena has been called the ´┐Żc´┐Żrya of Senaga´┐Ża-Hogari-gaccha. The
C´┐Żlukya queen Akk´┐Żdev´┐Ż granted some donation to him. The Pogar´┐Ż Gachchha is
found mentioned in the inscriptions53 up to the 13th century
inscription54 of Chandrakav´┐Ż´┐Ża Anvaya is dated
1053 A.D. wherein the lineage of Ajitasena, Kanakasena, Nayasena etc. has been
described. Sarad´┐Żra Kancarasena of Sindakula gave some charity to Nayasena.
Narendrasena II, disciple of Nayasena, has been mentioned in 1081
A.D.55 An officer named Dro´┐Ża gave him
some donation. Narendrasena and Nayasena were well versed in Grammar. In the
inscription56 of 1066 A.D., Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka ´┐Ż´┐Żntinandi
of Candrik´┐Żva´┐Ża has been mentioned. The name Mulasamgha is given but not of
The third sub-division
Pustakagachchha of Senaga´┐Ża is found in the inscription of the 14th century A.D.
A lineage of the eleven ´┐Żc´┐Żryas has been given in it. There is a mention
of Sam´┐Żdhimara´┐Ża of Laksm´┐Żsena and of M´┐Żnasena, disciple of
Thirteen inscriptions of the
Senaga´┐Ża from the eighth to seventeenth centuries are known. Five inscriptions
from the 12th to the 15th century of this Ga´┐Ża were found at Hire
´┐Żvali.This proves that Hire ´┐Żvali
was a great centre of this Ga´┐Ża. In the inscription of the 13th century
A.D., Kundakundanvaya was associated with Senaga´┐Ża. From the 15th century
onwards, its influence gradually decreased.
S´┐Żrastha Ga´┐Ża ´┐Ż A Ga´┐Ża named S´┐Żrastha of the
M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha was famous. This Ga´┐Ża is known from the
inscriptions.57 It is mentioned as S´┐Żrastha,
Sur´┐Żstra, and S´┐Żrastha. It appears that the monks of this Ga´┐Ża might have
lived in Suras´┐Żhra from the beginning. Hence, this name was given. It is
possible that there might be some region of Sur´┐Żs´┐Żra in South India, from where
the Munis might have derived this name. The first mention of this Ga´┐Ża
is in the inscription58 of 962 A.D. in which M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha has
been associated with Dravi´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha. The lineage of the saints namely
Prabh´┐Żcandra, Kalneledeva, Ravicandra, Ravinadi and El´┐Żc´┐Żrya has been decribed.
The Ganga ruler Marasi´┐Żha II donated a village to El´┐Żc´┐Żrya. The inscriptions of
this Ga´┐Ża from the 11th to the 13th century are found. No Kundakundanvaya
has been found in the inscriptions of this Ga´┐Ża.
Two sub-divisions of the S´┐Żrastha
Ga´┐Ża are known K´┐Żr´┐Żra Gachchha and Chitraku´┐Ż´┐Żnvaya. There is only one
inscription59 dated 1007 A.D. in which Arhanandi
Pa´┐Ż´┐Żita has been described. There are ten inscriptions of
inscription60 is dated 1071 A.D. in which some
donation given to ´┐Żishy´┐Ż of Sri Nandi Pandita has been described.
The thrid inscription61 is dated 1074 A.D. in which some
donation given to ´┐Żrya Pandita, pupil of Arhanandi has been mentioned.
The next two inscriptions62 give the lineage of this Aanvaya
´┐Ż V´┐Żsup´┐Żjya, Harinandi and N´┐Żgachandra. Harinandi and N´┐Żgacandra got some
donation in 1148 A.D. That the S´┐Żrastha ga´┐Ża was in existence from the tenth to
the twelfth century is known from fourteen inscriptions.
The donation of village to El´┐Żc´┐Żrya
of this Ga´┐Ża has been mentioned in the K´┐Żdal´┐Żra Copper plate
inscription.63 In this inscription dated 963, the
names of early ´┐Żc´┐Żryas are given ´┐Ż Prabh´┐Żchandra, Kalneledeva,
Ravicandra, and Ravinandi. In three inscriptions64 of the 13th century Adalageri,
N´┐Żgachandra, Nandibha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka and Jayakriti of this Ga´┐Ża have been
mentioned. These are the memorials of the Sam´┐Żdhimara´┐Ża of those
K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żra Ga´┐Ża ´┐Ż K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraga´┐Ża is similar to Ka´┐Ż´┐Żura
Ga´┐Ża the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas. Both K´┐Ż´┐Żura and Kand´┐Żra reveals a particular place, from
where the group of monks of this Ga´┐Ża derived this name. The earliest
inscription of this Ga´┐Ża belongs to the tenth century
A.D.65 It describes the teachers lineage,
and mentions some donation given to the disciple of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Municandra.
The inscriptions of this Ga´┐Ża up to the 14th century are available. From the
inscription, it is known that in the 11th and 12th centuries, Ga´┐Ża king
Bhujabala, Ga´┐Żgavarmadeva, his queen Ga´┐Żga Mahadevi and four sons were devotees of the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of this
Ga´┐Ża and honoured them by the charities.
Three sub-divsions of Kr´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żra
Ga´┐Ża are known (i) Tintri´┐Ż´┐Ż Gachchha, (ii) Meshap´┐Żsh´┐Ż´┐Ża Gachchha are
(iii) Pustaka Gachchha.
Tintrin´┐Ż Gachchha ´┐Ż There are six
inscriptions66 of Tintri´┐Ż´┐Żgachchha. The first two
belong to the twelfth century A.D. and they describe Meghacandra and Parvatamuni
´┐Żc´┐Żryas. The thrid is dated 1207 A.D. and it mentions some donation given
to Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Anantak´┐Żrti. The fourth inscription67 dated 1556 A.D. mentions Devak´┐Żrti,
Municandra and Devacandra.
The inscription68 dated 1130 of Me´┐Żapa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ża gachchha
describes ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Kulacandra or Prabh´┐Żcandra, and another
inscription69 is concerned with Vasadik´┐Ż.
There are inscriptions of Meshap´┐Żsh´┐Ż´┐Ża gachchha70 and Tintrin´┐Żka
gachchha71. Me´┐Żap´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża means stone
meant for sitting of goats. It seems to be a particular place from where the
saints of this Ga´┐Ża might be somehow related. Tintri´┐Żika was a
name of the tree. An inscription of the Pustaka Gachchha is dated 1150 A.D.72 The existence of this Ga´┐Ża
from the tenth to the sixteenth century is known from sixteen
Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żra Ga´┐Ża ´┐Ż Looking at the resemblance,
Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żraga´┐Ża originated from Balih´┐Żri or Balah´┐Żraga´┐Ża of the Y´┐Żpaniya. Balih´┐Żra
or Balag´┐Żra appears to be territorial in nature. There was a village named
Balag´┐Żra in South India.73 The earliest
inscription74 of Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żraga´┐Ża is dated 1071 A.D.
It mentions the names of eight ´┐Żc´┐Żryas. Another inscription75 of 1075 mentions Anantak´┐Żrti,
disciple of Municanda of Chitrak´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żmn´┐Żya of this ga´┐Ża.
Anotherinscription76 mentions the names of three
´┐Żc´┐Żryas. There is mention of Tribhuvanacandra in the
inscription77 dated 1074 A.D. Next important
inscriptions of this Ga´┐Ża are of the 13th century78. In the 14th century, Bal´┐Żtkaraga´┐Ża
is found associated with Sarasvat´┐Żgachchha. In the inscriptions of the later
half of the 14th century, there was special influence of this Ga´┐Ża. The
kings of the Vijayanagara kingdom honoured them. An inscription79 of the reign of V´┐Żra Bukkyar´┐Żya
mentions ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Si´┐Żhanandi as
R´┐Żjaguru and Ma´┐Ż´┐Żal´┐Żc´┐Żrya. Another
inscription80 mentioning Nandisa´┐Żgha with
M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha and S´┐Żrasvata gachchha with Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żra ga´┐Ża is important. Inscriptions
of K´┐Żra´┐Żja branch and its L´┐Żt´┐Żra sub-branch of Bal´┐Żtkar´┐Żga´┐Ża of the South were
discovered at Ukhalada.
Nigam´┐Żnvaya : An
inscription81 of M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha-Niga´┐Ż´┐Żnvaya is dated
1310 A.D. It records the installation of an image by
Y´┐Żpan´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha : According to the Dar´┐Żanas´┐Żra
of Devasena- S´┐Żri, Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya Sa´┐Żgha was established by ´┐Żvetambara ´┐Żr´┐Żkala´┐Ża
in V.S. 205 at Kaly´┐Ż´┐Ża town in Gulbarga District in Kar´┐Ż´┐Żtaka. Like ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras,
it recognized the existence of sacred books and believed that women could attain
salvation and saints could take food after attaining omniscience. At the same
time, it was, like the Digambaras, against using clothes and it followed the
rules and regulations of Digambara ascetics. They used the bunch of peacock
feathers. It appears that this Sa´┐Żgha was a connecting link between the
Digambaras and the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras. This Sa´┐Żgha produced several renowned
scholars such as Apar´┐Żjita, P´┐Żlyak´┐Żrti ´┐Ż´┐Żka´┐Ż´┐Żyana and
The Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya Sa´┐Żgha received the
royal patronage from the kings of Kadamba, Ch´┐Żlukya, Ga´┐Żga, R´┐Żsh´┐Żrak´┐Żta and
Ba´┐Ż´┐Ża dynasties. These kings donated lands to this Sa´┐Żgha and its
saints. The Kadamba ruler
M´┐Żige´┐Żavar´┐Ż (470-490 A.D.) performed pious deed by donating land at the place
Pal´┐Żsik´┐Ż to this Sa´┐Żgha along with other Sa´┐Żghas namely
Nirgranthas and K´┐Żrchakas82 Ravivarm´┐Ż, son of the above Kadamba
king, donated the Purukhe´┐Żaka village in donation to Kum´┐Żradatta, the main
´┐Żc´┐Żrya of this Sa´┐Żgha.83 Yuvar´┐Żja Devavarm´┐Ż of the second
branch of the Kadamba dynasty also granted some lands to this
Sa´┐Żgha84. Some Kadamba
inscriptions85 inform that the influence of
Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya Sa´┐Żgha at the time early Kadamba kings was great.
We learn about the Ga´┐Żas and
Gachchhas of Yapaniya-Sa´┐Żgha from some inscriptions86. In the Sect of the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas,
Nandi Sa´┐Żgha was the main, and also the oldest. The names of the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas
of this Sa´┐Żgha were particularly Nandyanta and
Kirtyanta.87 Nandisamgha was divided into
several Ganas. Among them Kanakopala Sa´┐Żbh´┐Żta V´┐Żiksha M´┐Żla
Ga´┐Ża88, Sri M´┐Żlam´┐Żla Ga´┐Ża89 and Pu´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żgav´┐Żiksha
M´┐Żlaga´┐Ża90 were important. The names of the
Ga´┐Żas were connected with some trees. The lineage of the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas
of Kanakopalasambhutav´┐Żik´┐Ża M´┐Żlaga´┐Ża, as mentioned in the
inscription91 dated 488 A.D. is as follows
Siddhanandi, Chitak´┐Żc´┐Żrya (who had
five hundred disciples), N´┐Żgadeva and Jinanandi. A feudatory named S´┐Żmiy´┐Żra of
Sendraka dynasty of Ch´┐Żlukya king Jayasi´┐Żha after constructing Jaina temple for
Jinanandi donated a village and some land. Chandranandi, Kum´┐Żranandi, K´┐Żrtinandi
and Vimalachandrch´┐Żrya are mentioned in the inscription92. This inscription refers to
Eregitturaga´┐Ża and Pulikalagachchha. At the preaching of Vimal´┐Żcandr´┐Żc´┐Żrya, a
S´┐Żmanta Nirgundar´┐Żja Paramag´┐Żla during fifty year reign of the Ga´┐Żga
ruler ´┐Żr´┐Ż Purusha after constructing Jaina temple and freeing people from all
taxes granted a village in charity. The lineage of the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of Punn´┐Żga
V´┐Żiksha M´┐Żla Ga´┐Ża in the inscription93 is given as
´┐Żr´┐Ż Kity´┐Żc´┐Żrya, Kavil´┐Żc´┐Żrya,
Vijayak´┐Żrti and Arhak´┐Żrti. At the request of his feudatory C´┐Żkir´┐Żja, the
R´┐Żsh´┐Żrak´┐Ż´┐Ża king Prabhrita Varsha Govinda III donated a village named
J´┐Żlama´┐Żgala to Arakak´┐Żrti for the management of a Jaina temple in 812 AD.
´┐Żc´┐Żrya P´┐Żlyak´┐Żrti, author of the S´┐Żkat´┐Żyana Vy´┐Żkarana of the
Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya Sa´┐Żgha lived during the time of Am´┐Żghavarsha. Palyak´┐Żrti was either a
disciple or a religious associate of Arkak´┐Żrti. In the
inscription94 of 1108 A.D., we find Pu´┐Ż´┐Żagav´┐Żksha
M´┐Żlaga´┐Ża as branch of the Mulasa´┐Żgha which was afterwards it was absorbed by the
Like Kar´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żaka, Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya Sa´┐Żgha was
popular even in Tamil Province. Ko´┐Żima´┐Żuvag´┐Ża of Nandi Gacchha (Sa´┐Żgha) of the
Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas is mentioned in the inscription95 and its ´┐Żc´┐Żryas were
Jinanandi, Div´┐Żkara and ´┐Żr´┐Ż Mandiradeva (Dh´┐Żradeva). Dh´┐Żradeva was the
Adhishth´┐Żt´┐Ż (Builder) of the Ka´┐Żak´┐Żmara´┐Ża Jin´┐Żlaya. At the request of
commander (Ka´┐Żakar´┐Żja) Durgar´┐Żja. Ambhar´┐Żja II of the Early C´┐Żlukya Dynasty,
donated a village to that temple for the Yapan´┐Żya S´┐Ż´┐Żgha. In another
inscription,96 the lineage of the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas
of A´┐Żkaligacchha Balahariga´┐Ża has been given as follows ´┐Ż Sakalacandra,
Ayyapoti and Arhanandi. Ambhar´┐Żja II donated a village named Kalucumbaru on
Attilina´┐Żdu province for repairing of the kitchen of Sarvalok´┐Ż´┐Żraya
Jin´┐Żlaya. It appears that Balah´┐Żriga´┐Ża and A´┐Żkaligaccha belonged to the
Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas. Balah´┐Żri or Balag´┐Żraga´┐Ża is mentioned in the
inscription97 of the later half of the eleventh
century A.D. in the form of Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żragana of the
In the inscriptions of the kings of
Ra´┐Ż´┐Ża dynasty, we find two names of the Ga´┐Żas of the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas ´┐Ż
K´┐Żreyaga´┐Ża and Ka´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraga´┐Ża. Indrak´┐Żrti (disciple of Gu´┐Żakirti), teacher of the
first ruler P´┐Żithv´┐Żr´┐Żma of the Ra´┐Ż´┐Ża dynasty, belonged to the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya Sa´┐Żgha.
In another inscritpion,98 K´┐Żreyaga´┐Ża is mentioned, and
Mail´┐Żp´┐Żnvaya in place of Mail´┐Żpat´┐Żrtha. The lineage of the saints of K´┐Żreyaga´┐Ża
Mail´┐Żpa Anvaya is as follows ´┐Ż M´┐Żlabha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Gu´┐Żak´┐Żrti, Indra K´┐Żrti,
N´┐Żgachandra, Jinacandra, ´┐Żubhak´┐Żrti and Devak´┐Żrti. Ga´┐Żga feudatory of some
Amoghavar´┐Ża king after constructing Jaina temple donated a village to Muni
Devak´┐Żrti. The existence of Ka´┐Żd´┐Żra Ga´┐Ża of the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas is known from the
two inscriptions99 of Ra´┐Ż´┐Ża kings. The lineage of the
teachers of Ka´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraga´┐Ża of the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas is given as below ´┐Ż Devacandra,
Devasi´┐Żha, Ravicandra, Arhanandi, ´┐Żubhacandra, Maunideva and Prabh´┐Żcandra
From the inscriptions of the
Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas, it is learnt, that it remained well organized from the fifth to the
fifteenth century A.D. There were several influential Ga´┐Żas in it. Later
on, Punn´┐Żga V´┐Żiksha Mulaga´┐Ża, Balah´┐Żriga´┐Ża and Ka´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żra Ga´┐Ża joined the
Mulasa´┐Żgha, Nandi sa´┐Żgha, Dravi´┐Żasa´┐Żgha first, but were afterwards absorbed in the
There is a copper plate
inscription100 of the early sixth century A.D. of
the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas. It belongs to Ganga king Avin´┐Żta. It records the donation of a
temple installed by Yavanika Sa´┐Żgha.
There is mention of Kumili or Kumudi
ga´┐Ża of Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya ´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha in four inscriptions101. The first
inscription102 of the ninth century A.D. describes
Amara Mudala Guru, disciple of the Acarya Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra. He got built De´┐Żavallabha
Jin´┐Żlaya in the north of the village K´┐Żrepp´┐Żkkam. In another
inscription103 dated 1045 A.D., some ´┐Żc´┐Żryas
of this Ga´┐Ża have been described. At this time, an official name
Ch´┐Żvu´┐Ż´┐Ża got a Jin´┐Żlaya constructed. Other two
inscriptions104 are of uncertain time. These are
Ni´┐Żidhi inscriptions. The first inscription is the memorial of
Samadhimara´┐Ża of ´┐Ż´┐Żnta V´┐Żradeva of this
There are four
inscriptions105 of Punn´┐Żgavriksham´┐Żlaga´┐Ża of the
Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya Sa´┐Żgha. The first inscription dated 1044 records the donation to
B´┐Żlachandra ´┐Żc´┐Żrya of this ga´┐Ża for the newly constructed
Jin´┐Żlaya in Pulinagara. It also mentions donation to R´┐Żmacandra ´┐Żc´┐Żrya
in 1145 A.D. The next inscription106 is dated 1165 A.D., and the lineage of the teachers is given.
The commander K´┐Żla´┐Ża of the ´┐Żil´┐Żh´┐Żra king Vijay´┐Żditya after constructing a
Jin´┐Żlaya at Ekkasambuge city made some donation to Vijayak´┐Żrti for it.
The inscription107 dated 1096 A.D. records some
donation to Pa´┐Ż´┐Żita C´┐Żruk´┐Żrti, disciple of Munichandra Traividya of
V´┐Żiksha M´┐Żlaga´┐Ża. In an inscription108 of the time not definite, there is
mention of the temple of Kusuma Jin´┐Żlaya of
The Ka´┐Ż´┐Żura ga´┐Ża of the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya
Sa´┐Żgha is mentioned in three inscriptions.109 The first is of the early twelfth
century A.D., and it describes the four ´┐Żc´┐Żryas namely B´┐Żhubali,
´┐Żubhacandra, Maunideva and Maghanandi. There is a reference to a temple of this
ga´┐Ża in the inscription of the 13th century. The third inscription mentions a Jaina image of this
time. The reference to K´┐Żreyaga´┐Ża of Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya Sa´┐Żgha is in the
inscription110 of the early twelfth century A.D.
M´┐Żla Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka and Jinadevas´┐Żri were the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of this
Y´┐Żpan´┐Żya sa´┐Żgha has been mentioned
in the five inscriptions111 without any reference to Gana
or Gaccha. The first inscription is dated 1060 A.D., and it informs
the lineage of teachers ´┐Ż Jayak´┐Żrti, N´┐Żgacandra and Kanaka´┐Żakti. The next two
inscriptions belong to the twelfth century A.D., and they mention the
Sam´┐Żdhimara´┐Ża of Municandra
and his disciple P´┐Żlyak´┐Żrti. The last inscription of the 13th century A.D.
refers to Traik´┐Żrti ´┐Żc´┐Żrya.
inscription112 of the eleventh century A.D.
records donation to Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra Pa´┐Ż´┐Żita of Vandiy´┐Żra ga´┐Ża of Y´┐Żp´┐Żn´┐Żya
Sa´┐Żgha. The Vara´┐Żgala inscription of 1132 A.D. refers to the passing away of
Gunacandra of Mah´┐Żmuni of this ga´┐Ża.113 In the Tengal´┐Ż
inscription114 of the twelfth century A.D.,
Va´┐Żiy´┐Żraga´┐Ża has been mentioned. The disciple of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya of N´┐Żgav´┐Żra of
this ga´┐Ża installed in image115. The four inscriptions of this
Ga´┐Ża belong from 980 A.D. to the 13th century.
K´┐Żrcaka Sa´┐Żgha : The K´┐Żrcaka Sa´┐Żgha was in
existence in Kar´┐Żataka during the fifth century A.D. along with the Yapaniya
Sa´┐Żgha as is guided from the inscriptions of the Kadamba rulers. As the Monks of
this Sa´┐Żgha had beard-mustache, it was called K´┐Żrchaka.
In the Kadamba
inscription115, K´┐Żrcaka Sa´┐Żgha is mentioned
along with the Nirgranthas and the Y´┐Żpaniyas. Kadamba ruler Mrige´┐Żavarm´┐Ż granted
land to the K´┐Żrcakas along with the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas and the Nirgranthas. In an
inscription116, V´┐Żrasne´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐Żrya Sa´┐Żgha, a branch of
the K´┐Żrcakas, has been mentioned Kadamba king Harivarm´┐Ż at the preaching of
´┐Żivaratha donated a village named Vasuntav´┐Żtaka for the worship of a Jaina
temple built by M´┐Żiges´┐Ż, son of the Senapati Si´┐Żha and for ´┐Żh´┐Żra
(food) or Sarvasa´┐Żgha. In the inscription117, there is mention of one more
´┐Żramana Sa´┐Żgha named Aharish´┐Żi to which at the request of Sendraka
feudatory Bha´┐Żu´┐Żakti, Kadamba King Harivarm´┐Ż donated a village named
Dravida Samgha : A group of Jaina Saints residing
in Dravi´┐Żade´┐Ża was known as Dr´┐Żvi´┐Żasa´┐Żgha. In the inscriptions, it is mentioned
as Dravi´┐Ża, Dravi´┐Ża, Dravi´┐Ża, Dr´┐Żvi´┐Ża, Davila and Tibula. Dravi´┐Żade´┐Ża
covers the modern Andhra and Madras region which is called Tamilade´┐Ża. According to the
Dar´┐Żanas´┐Żra of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Devasena, Dr´┐Żvi´┐Żasa´┐Żgha, was established by
Vajranandi disciple of P´┐Żjyap´┐Żda at Madura in the South in V.S. 526. Generally,
most of the inscriptions of this Sa´┐Żgha belong to the kings of Ko´┐Żg´┐Żlva
dynasty, ´┐Ż´┐Żntara dynasty and Hoysala dynasties. These inscriptions inform that
Dr´┐Żvi´┐Żasa´┐Żgha received royal patronage from the kings of these dynasties. Most
of the inscriptions of this Sa´┐Żgha belong to the kings of Hoysala dynasty. It is
learnt from these inscriptions that ´┐Żc´┐Żrya of this Sa´┐Żgha contributed to
the propagation of worship of Padm´┐Żvati. The monks of this Sa´┐Żgha renovated the
Vasadis or Jaina temples in which they were living, gave
´┐Żh´┐Żrad´┐Żna, and managed lands, J´┐Żgira etc.
The early inscriptions of Dr´┐Żv´┐Ż´┐Ża
Sa´┐Żgha were found at A´┐Żgadi (Soleb´┐Żraan), the origin place of the Hoysalas. In
one inscription119 dated 990 of this place, this
Sa´┐Żgha was written as Dravi´┐Żasa´┐Żgha Ko´┐Ż´┐Żakund´┐Żnvaya and in another
inscription120 dated 1040 as M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha
Dravid´┐Żnvaya. But in the inscriptions121 of the later half of the eleventh
century A.D., it has been mentioned Dravi´┐Żaga´┐Ża along with Nandisa´┐Żgha I
Sa´┐Żgal´┐Żnvaya or Aru´┐Żgal´┐Żnvaya. In the beginning, Dravida Sa´┐Żgha reamined
associated with M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha or Kundakund´┐Żnvaya but afterwords, it came to be
related with the Nandisa´┐Żgha of the Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas. When Dravi´┐Żaga´┐Ża became
influential, it became Dr´┐Żvi´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha. The discovery of early inscriptions of
the Hoysalas at A´┐Żg´┐Żdi (Soleb´┐Żra) proves that they might have contributed to
strengthen the Drabida Sa´┐Żgha. In some inscriptions of Nandisa´┐Żgha,
Aru´┐Żgal´┐Żnvaya has been mentioned. Aru´┐Żgala is the name of the place in
Gudiyapattana T´┐Żluk´┐Ż of Tamila Province. The combined name Dravi´┐Ża
Sa´┐Żgha, Nandi Sa´┐Żgha Aru´┐Żgal´┐Żnvaya informs that it was the Nandisa´┐Żgha of Tamil
province, and Nandisamgha originated from Arungala. From the Nandisa´┐Żgha of the
Y´┐Żpan´┐Żyas came into existence the Nandisa´┐Żgha of Dr´┐Żvida Sa´┐Żgha. In the eleventh
and twelfth centuries, the seats of the Munis of this Sa´┐Żgha were Mull´┐Żra
of Kong´┐Żlva kingdom and Hummach, capital of ´┐Ż´┐Żntara Kings. The
inscriptions122 found at Hummach inform about
several ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of this Sa´┐Żgha ´┐Ż ´┐Żrey´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ża Pandita, Sudharm´┐Ż,
Kamalabhadra, V´┐Żdh´┐Żbhasi´┐Żha and Ajitasena Pandita.
An inscription123 of Nandiga´┐Ża ´┐Ż Aru´┐Żgala Anvaya of
Dr´┐Żvi´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha belongs to the eleventh century A.D. The lineage of ´┐Ż´┐Żntamuni,
V´┐Żdir´┐Żja and Vardham´┐Żna has been given in it. The next
inscription124 of this Anvaya is dated 1192
A.D. and it describes about Vajaranandi, disciple of V´┐Żsap´┐Żjya. In an
inscription125 of the 14th century A.D., the
lineage of the Anvaya-´┐Żr´┐Żp´┐Żla, Padmaprabha and Dharmasena is known. In three
inscriptions126 of the Dr´┐Żvi´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha, Aru´┐Żgala
Anvaya has not been mentioned.
The Vaj´┐Żrakhe´┐Ża copper plate
inscriptions127 dated 915 A.D. record the donation
of village to Vardham´┐Żna guru, disciple of Lekabhadra of V´┐Żraga´┐Ża-V´┐Żrn´┐Żya
Anvaya of Dravi´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha. Amoghavasati of Chandan´┐Żpur´┐Ż and Uriammavasati of
Va´┐Żanera were looked after by them. It is the oldest of all the available
inscriptions so far available. Varnita Viragana V´┐Żr´┐Żayya Anvaya is not
found mentioned in any other inscription. It is the first and only inscription
of the Dr´┐Żvi´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha found outside Mysore Prade´┐Ża. The Pud´┐Żra
inscription128 dated 1087 A.D. records the
donation of land to ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Kanakasena for Pallava Jin´┐Żlaya. The
Ujjili inscription129 dated 1167 A.D. mentions the
donation of land to Indrasena ´┐Żc´┐Żrya of Dr´┐Żvida Sa´┐Żgha ´┐Ż Senagana Kair´┐Żra
gachchha. The association of S´┐Żnaga´┐Ża with Dr´┐Żv´┐Ż´┐Ża-Sa´┐Żgha was not known earlier.
Earlier Senaga´┐Ża was told related with M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha and Kair´┐Żra gaccha with
Sur´┐Żstha ga´┐Ża. The inscription130 dated 1194 A.D. is the last of this
collection. It was discovered from Yetina hatti and it records the death of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya
K´┐Żshth´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha ´┐Ż There is a controversy among
scholars about the origin of the K´┐Żsh´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha. Devasena, an author of the
tenth century A.D., mentions in the Dar´┐Żanas´┐Żra that Kum´┐Żrasena
established the K´┐Żsh´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha in the south. In two
inscriptions,131 its name has been mentioned K´┐Ż´┐Żch´┐Ż
Sa´┐Żgha. It has been written in the Vacanako´┐Ża of the 17th century that
Loh´┐Żc´┐Żrya, Pattadhara of Um´┐Żsv´┐Żm´┐Ż established this Sa´┐Żgha at Amaroh´┐Ż in
North India. According to Kamta
Prasad,132 K´┐Żshth´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha originated from
K´┐Żsh´┐Żh´┐Ż village near Mathura located on the bank of the river Yamun´┐Ż. The main
gacchas or branches of the K´┐Żsh´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha were Nanditala, M´┐Żthura, V´┐Żga´┐Ża and
Jamb´┐Żkhanda, Ga´┐Ża ´┐Ż Jamb´┐Żkha´┐Ż´┐Żaga´┐Ża has been mentioned
in the inscription133 of the sixth-seventh century A.D.
Sentraka king Indra´┐Żanda donated something to ´┐Żc´┐Żrya
Si´┐Żhav´┐Żra Ga´┐Ża ´┐Ż There is an
inscription134 dated 860 A.D. of Si´┐Żhav´┐Żra ga´┐Ża.
It records some donation by king Amoghavarsha to ´┐Żc´┐Żrya N´┐Żganandi of this
It seems that there was not much
difference in the functiong of the Sa´┐Żhas, Ga´┐Żas and Gacchas
of the South. Munis of these organizations go constructed temples and
Mathas (Monasteries). They received the donation of the villages, lands,
gardens, houses etc. They
participated in discussions of the royal courts. Incidentally, they helped the
kings to manage the affairs of their kingdoms. They tried to increase the
influence of Jainism even by Mantra S´┐Żdhan´┐Ż, Astrology and
´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara Gachchhas of North India
During Medieval Period
The number of ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara Gachchhas
was originally 84 but it seems to be only conventional. Neither the castes nor
the Gachchhas were founded at one time. They came into existence at
different times. Some names of the Gachchhas have no significance but
were added simply to make their number 84. This increase in number started about
the eleventh century A.D. At present, their number seems to be about one hundred
fifty. Most of these Gachchhas originated in Rajasthan, but a few in
Gujarat. The ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of these Gachchhas are known to have performed the
consecration ceremony of images and temples at different times and places. These
gachchhas originaged in different ways. Some of the gachchhas were named after
certain good deeds by certain persons while others named after influential
persons. Some of the ancient Kulas in course of time were also converted
into the Gacchas. The Gacchas are also territorial in
Uddyotana Suri bestowed the
designation of 'S´┐Żri' on the eight monks including Devas´┐Żri under the shade of a
large banian tree at a village Teli situated at Mount Abu. According to the
opinion of some, the designation of the (highest priest) was conferred only on
Sarvadevasuri. As the designation was conferred under the banian tree, the
Nirgrantha Gaccha began to be called Va´┐Ża Gaccha. Va´┐Ża Gachcha is known also by
another name Brihad Gaccha.135 The earliest inscription of 1086
A.D. of this Gaccha in Rajasthan is found at Kotar´┐Ż in Sirohi
State.136 The next early inscription of 1158
A.D. is found at N´┐Żdol in Marwar.137 From the inscriptions it seems that
it became popular in Sirohi138 and Marwar States in the 12th, 13th
and 14th centuries. The inscriptions
of the 14th and 15th centuries of this Gaccha are also found Udaipur and
(2) Kharatara Gaccha ´┐Ż
Kharatara Gaccha is the most famous and influential Gaccha. Jine´┐Żvaras´┐Żri by
defeatng the Chaityav´┐Żs´┐Żs in the royal court of Durlabhar´┐Żja got the title
'Kharatara' in 1017 A.D. From him started the Kharatara Gaccha.140 It arose outside Rajasthan but
gathered a large number of followers here. In course of time, it was divided
into many branches.The inscriptions of this Gaccha are found in the different
parts of Rajasthan. But it remained dominant in Jaisalmer from the 14th century
to the 19th century.141 The ´┐Żch´┐Żryas of this Gaccha
installed several images and wrote many works.
(3) Tap´┐Ż Gaccha : Jagacandra
S´┐Żri was not only a scholar but he
was also a great ascetic practising penances. He accepted the
penance of doing '´┐Żyambil'
for the whole life and passed twelve years in this way. Seeing it, Jaitra Simha,
the king of Mewar, gave him the title of Tap´┐Ż (which means a real ascetic) in
1228 A.D. From this time, Nirgrantha Gaccha got another name of Tap´┐Ż
Gaccha.142 The saints of this Gaccha
contributed considerably to the growth of Jainism. Later on, it was also divided
into many branches. V´┐Żiddha Paus´┐Żlika Tap´┐Ż-Gaccha started from Vijayacandra who
was the pupil of Jagacandra S´┐Żri. From Devendra Suri, there started the Laghu
Paus´┐Żlika Tap´┐Ż-Gaccha. Vijayacandra Suri was indolent in the performance of
religious rites while Devendra S´┐Żri devoted himself to the performance of the
purifying rites and contributed to the development of Jainism.143 The images installed by the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas
of this Gaccha are found in different parts of Rajasthan. But still, it remained
strong in Sirohi,144 Mewar and
(4) A´┐Żchala Gaccha :
Vijayachanda Up´┐Żdhy´┐Żya was the first person to start a Gaccha called Vidhipak´┐Żha
in order to support the pure rites. Once the merchant Ko´┐Ż´┐Ż went to P´┐Żtan. While
performing the rites of pa´┐Żikkama´┐Ża, he used the edge of his cloth in
bowing down instead of using the 'mubhapa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż' (a piece of cloth kept on
the mouth by the Jaina ascetics). Kum´┐Żrap´┐Żla asked him the reason of this. The
Guru told him about Vidhi-paksha (the new sect) and then
Kum´┐Żrap´┐Żla used the edge of his cloth (called ´┐Ż´┐Żchala in Gujar´┐Żti) in saluting.
Thence forward, Vidhi-pak´┐Żha was called ´┐Ż´┐Żchala
This Gaccha started in 1166 A.D.
outside Rajasthan but it spread in Jaisalmer, Udaipur, J´┐Żr´┐Żual´┐Ż in Sirohi State
and Nagara in Marwar in the 15th century A.D. as known to us from the
inscriptions. Several ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of this Gaccha composed important works and
celebrated the consecration of many images.147
(5) P´┐Żr´┐Żimiy´┐Ż Gaccha and S´┐Żrdha
P´┐Żr´┐Żimiy´┐Ż Gaccha : From P´┐Żr´┐Żim´┐Ż, it seems to be named P´┐Żr´┐Żimiy´┐Ż Gaccha.
S´┐Żrdha P´┐Żr´┐Żimiy´┐Ż system started in 1179 A.D. The great king Kum´┐Żrap´┐Żla once
asked Hemachandra to call the leader of the P´┐Żr´┐Żimiy´┐Ż Gaccha in order to inquire
whether its followers acted according to the Jaina holy books or not. The leader
of the Gaccha was called and questioned by Kum´┐Żrap´┐Żla. But he could not give
satisfactory answers, so the ascetics of the Gaccha were asked to go into exile.
After the death of Kum´┐Żrap´┐Żla, Sumatisi´┐Żha, the ´┐Żch´┐Żrya of the Gaccha, came to
P´┐Żtan. On being asked by the people about his Gaccha, he said, 'We belong to
S´┐Żrdha P´┐Żr´┐Żimiya Gaccha.' The followers of this system do not worship a Jaina
shrine with fruits.148 It originated outside Rajasthan but
it gathered the followers here also. It remained very dominant in the 15th
century in Jaisalmer and Sirohi States as it is known to us from the
inscriptions. Its inscriptions are also found at Jodhpur and Nagaur in Marwar,
Ajmer and Udaipur.149
(6) ´┐Żgamika Gaccha :
´┐Ż´┐Żlagu´┐Żas´┐Żri and Devabhadras´┐Żri were the two ´┐Żc´┐Żryas who belonged to P´┐Żr´┐Żimiy´┐Ż
Gaccha. They joined the ´┐Ż´┐Żcala Gaccha, but they soon left it and started their
own sect. They taught that prayers should not be offered to K´┐Żetra
Devat´┐Ż. Besides this, they propounded some new theories and gave the name of
´┐Żgamika Gaccha to their section.150 This sect either started in 1157
A.D., or 1193 A.D., but in Rajasthan it spread in the 15th century A.D. It was
prevalent in Jaisalmer, Ajmer, Jaipur and Nagaur, Barmer and Osi´┐Ż in Marwar
State and Sirohi State.151
(1) Candra Gaccha : Candra
Kula in course of time was converted into Candra Gaccha. Its name is also
mentioned in the inscription of 1182 A.D. at J´┐Żlor in Marwar.152 It seems to have been in existence
from 1125 A.D. to 1435 A.D. in Sirohi State as known to us from the
(2) N´┐Żgendra Gaccha : From
N´┐Żgendra Kula, it became famous as N´┐Żgendra Gaccha. The preceptor of the founder
of A´┐Żahilapura-p´┐Żtan named ´┐Ż´┐Żlagu´┐Żas´┐Żri also belongs to this Gaccha. The
earliest inscription of 1031 A.D. of this Gaccha in Rajasthan is found at Osi´┐Ż
in Marwar.154 It became dominant at Jaisalmer
from the 13th century to the 16th century. It was in existence at P´┐Żl´┐Ż, Nagaur,
Sirohi and Udaipur at this time.155
(3) Niv´┐Żtti Gaccha : Probably
Niv´┐Żitti Kula in course of time began to be called Niv´┐Żitti Gaccha. In the early
inscriptions discovered in Sirohi State, Niv´┐Żitti-kula is
mentioned,156 but in the inscriptions of 1412
A.D. on the metal image of S´┐Żtalan´┐Żtha at Udaipur, Niv´┐Żitti Gaccha is
Gacchas Named after Influential
(1) Kharatara Gaccha : The
Kharatara Gaccha in course of time was divided into many branches which were
started after the influential persons. Bh´┐Żvahar´┐Ża Kharatara S´┐Żkh´┐Ż is the 7th
Gacchabheda, and it was founded by Bh´┐Żvaharshop´┐Żdhy´┐Żya.158 In 1643 A.D., there originated the
Ra´┐Żgavijaya Kharatara ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż from Ra´┐Żgavijaya Ga´┐Żi. This is the 9th Gaccha-bheda,
and from this ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż sprang the ´┐Żr´┐Żs´┐Żr´┐Żya Kharatara ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż founded by
´┐Żr´┐Żs´┐Żrop´┐Żdhy´┐Żya as the tenth Gaccha-bheda.159 It seems to have remained in
existence at Jaipur in the 19th century.
(2) Tat´┐Ż Gaccha : In course
of time, the Tap´┐Ż Gaccha was also divided into many branches. Some of the
branches were named after the great ´┐Żc´┐Żryas. After the demise of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Mah´┐Żrja
Vijayasena S´┐Żri, there were the five divisions in Tap´┐Ż Gaccha after the names of
´┐Żc´┐Żryas. One was formed by the followers of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Mah´┐Żr´┐Żja Deva S´┐Żri and known
as Deva S´┐Żri Gaccha. The second formed by the followers of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya ´┐Żnanda S´┐Żri
was known as ´┐Żnanda S´┐Żri Gaccha. The third division known as S´┐Żgara Gaccha was
organized in 1629 A.D. by ´┐Żc´┐Żrya R´┐Żja S´┐Żgara S´┐Żri. The fourth division named
Vimala Gaccha was named after Vimala S´┐Żri in 1692 A.D. The fifth division known
as Sa´┐Żveg´┐Ż Gaccha was created by Panny´┐Żsa Satya Vijayaj´┐Ż Ga´┐Żi.160
P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha Gaccha is also a branch
of Tap´┐Ż Gaccha. An intelligent man called P´┐Żr´┐Żva Candra took initiation under
´┐Żr´┐Ż S´┐Żdhuratna S´┐Żri of N´┐Żgauri Tap´┐Ż Gaccha in 1515 A.D. About some courses of
conduct, he differed from his perceptor and aptly preached his view vigorously.
His Gaccha was named after his own name.161 He too believed in image worship,
and images have been consecrated by himself and other saints of the
The saint K´┐Żish´┐Żarshi founded
K´┐Żish´┐Żarshi Gaccha, a branch of Tap´┐Ż Gaccha. The earliest mention of it is found
in the inscription of 1426 A.D. at J´┐Żr´┐Żval´┐Ż in Sirohi State.162 The next mention of it is found in
the inscription of 1468 A.D. of Nagaur in Marwar.163 In the 15th century, this Gaccha
was in existence at Jaisalmer.164
Kamala Kala´┐Ża is also a branch of
the Tap´┐Ż Gaccha and it became separated as Kamala Kala´┐Ża in the 16th century. It
seems to have reamined popular in Sirohi State as known from the
(3) Gaccha of this Type in Sirohi
State : From the name of the ´┐Żch´┐Żrya
Pishp´┐Żl´┐Żch´┐Żrya, it was known Pishp´┐Żl´┐Żch´┐Żrya Gaccha. It was in existence
in Sirohi State from 1151A.D. as it is known from the
inscriptions.166 Mahendra S´┐Żri Gaccha came into
existence after the name of the ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Mahendra S´┐Żri. It is mentioned in the
inscription of the 13th century at Aj´┐Żr´┐Ż in Sirohi State.167 ´┐Żmradev´┐Żc´┐Żrya Gaccha was named
after ´┐Żmradev´┐Żc´┐Żrya. It was in existence at Aj´┐Żri and Lot´┐Ż´┐Ża in Sirohi State in
the 11th century. From the inscriptions, it seems that it was associated with
(4) Gaccha of this Type in
Jodhpur State : From the Ach´┐Żrya Prabh´┐Żkara, it became famous as Prabh´┐Żkara
Gaccha. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1515 A.D. found at Mert´┐Ż in
Marwar.169 The name of Ka´┐Żaumati Gaccha became
famous after the name of Ka´┐Ż´┐Żv´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żha in 1505 A.D. The name of this Gaccha is
mentioned in the inscription of 1626 A.D. of Osia.170
(5) Common Gaccha Found in the
States : Dharmaghosha Gaccha was named after Dharmagho´┐Ża S´┐Żri probably in
the 12th or 13th century. It became dominant at places such as Jaisalmer,
Udaipur and Nagaur in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.171
From Bh´┐Żvadeva S´┐Żri, Bh´┐Żvadev´┐Żch´┐Żrya
Gaccha was named. Bh´┐Żvad´┐Żra Gaccha and Ba´┐Ż´┐Żha´┐Ża Gachha also seem to be of the
above type. The earliest mention of its is found in the inscription of 1157 A.D.
discovered at a village S´┐Żver´┐Ż in Sirohi State.172 From the 13th century to 15th
century, the existence of this Gaccha in Jaisalmer is known from the
Malladh´┐Żr´┐Ż Gaccha was called after
Malladh´┐Żr´┐Ż ´┐Żc´┐Żrya. It remained in existence from the 13th century to the 16th
century at the places such as Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Sirohi
Vidy´┐Żdhara Gaccha was probably named
after Vidy´┐Żdhara S´┐Żri. From the 14th century to the 17th century, it seems to
have been in existence in Rajasthan. Its inscriptions are found at Osia and
Nagaur in Marwar, N´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż in Sirohi State and Jaisalmer.175
Probably, Vijaya Gaccha was named
after Vijayadeva S´┐Żri. There is an inscription of 1642 A.D. found at Bh´┐Żraja in
Sirohi State.176 Another inscription of 1661 A.D. is
found at B´┐Żlotar´┐Ż in Marwar.177 In the 19th century, a person
belonging to Alwar of this Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the
R´┐Żmaseniya Gaccha was probably named
after R´┐Żmasena. The earliest inscription of 1401 A.D. of this Gaccha is found at
Nagur in Marwar.179 It seems to have been in existence
in Mewar in the 15th
Ya´┐Ża S´┐Żri Gaccha was established
after the name of the ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Ya´┐Ża S´┐Żri. The inscription of 1185 A.D. of this
Gaccha was found out at Ajmer.181
(1) Gacchas Originated from the
Places in Sirohi State : Sirohi State remained the stronghold of the Jaina
religion in early Hindu period. It was, therefore, natural that the Gacchas were
named after the places thereof. Mad´┐Żha´┐Ża Gaccha became famous from the village
Ma´┐Ż´┐Żra in Sirohi State. The oldest inscription of 1230 A.D. of this Gaccha has
been found at Ma´┐Ż´┐Żra, the place of its origin.182 The large number of inscriptions of
this Gaccha discovered in Sirohi State indicate that this area remained the
stronghold of this Gaccha.183 In the 14th and 15th centuries, it
was also prevalent in Jaisalmer and Udaipur.184
N´┐Żnav´┐Żla Gaccha and J´┐Ż´┐Żnak´┐Żya Gaccha
seem to be the one and the same Gaccha. It seems to have originated from the
village named N´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż in Sirohi State. Numerous inscriptions from the 11th century
to the 15th century discovered in Sirohi State indicate that it was the centre
of this Gaccha.185 It was in existence at Jaisalmer
from the 13th to 15th
century.186 In the 15th and 16th centuries, it
was found in Mewar.187
According to the Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żvali,
Jir´┐Żval´┐Ż Gaccha is a branch of B´┐Żihad Gaccha. It originated from the place named
Jir´┐Żvali in Sirohi State. It was even in existence in the 14th century at the
very place of its origin.188
Br´┐Żham´┐Ża Gaccha among the Jainas
originated from the place Varm´┐Żna the ancient name of which was Br´┐Żhama´┐Ża
Mah´┐Żsth´┐Żna. The centre of this Gaccha was the region of Sirohi State from the
12th century to the 16th century A.D. as it is clear from a large number
inscriptions discovered in this area.189 It was found at Varm´┐Żna in the 12th
century A.D. The Jaina temple of Mah´┐Żvira of this place belonged to this Gacha,
and it was built in 1185 A.D. or even before by the ´┐Żr´┐Żvakas or lay disciples.
The inscription of 1185 A.D. records that Puniga and other ´┐Żr´┐Żvakas constructed
Padma´┐Żil´┐Ż of the temple, of Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra of Br´┐Żhama´┐Ża Gaccha.190 There is an inscription of 1087
A.D. with the name of this Gaccha found at P´┐Żl´┐Ż in Marwar.191 This Gaccha was prevalent in Mewar
in the 14th and 15th centuries and in the 15th and 16th centuries, it was in
existence at Jaisalmer.192
K´┐Żcholi Gaccha seems to be connected
with the place named K´┐Żchol´┐Ż in Sirohi State. It was a branch of the
P´┐Żrnim´┐Ż-pak´┐Ża. It was in existence in Sirohi State in the 14th and 15th
(2) Gaccha Originated from the
Places in Marwar : Upake´┐Ża Gaccha was named after Osi´┐Ż in Marwar. The
inscription of 1202 A.D. with the name of this Gaccha has been also discovered
at this place.194 There is also the inscription of
1137 A.D. found at the village Aj´┐Żr´┐Ż in Sirohi State.195 It remained popular from the 13th
to the 16th century in Jaisalmer, Udaipur and Sirohi States as a very large
number of the inscriptions have been discovered here.196
The name of Kora´┐Ż´┐Żaka Gaccha was
given after Kora´┐Ż´┐Ża in Marwar. The earliest inscription of this Gaccha of 1031
A.D. has been found out at P´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żav´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż in Sirohi State.197 From this time to the 16th century
it remained in existence in this area.198 From the 14th century to the 16th
century, it was also prevalent in Jaisalmer.199
Sa´┐Ż´┐Żer´┐Ż in Marwar is supposed to be
the original seat of Sa´┐Ż´┐Żeraka Gaccha, founded by Ya´┐Żodeva S´┐Żri who came from
Kathiawar because of the fear of the Mlecchas. He settled with the people at the
tank. He saw a fight between the bull and the lion in which the bull emerged
victorious. The village and Gaccha were named as Sa´┐Ż´┐Żeraka Gaccha. This Gaccha
spread much in the different parts of Rajasthan. It was in existence at N´┐Ż´┐Żol in
Marwar in the 12th century.200
the 15th century, it was dominant in Jaisalmer. From the 14th century to the
16th century, it was prevalent in Mewar.5
From the place named Hatiku´┐Żd´┐Ż in
Marwar, Hastiku´┐Żd´┐Ż Gaccha became famous. It is mentioned in the inscription of
1396 A.D. of Udaipur.202
Chaitrav´┐Żla Gaccha and Chaitra
Gaccha seem to be identical. They possibly originated from the place named
Chaitrav´┐Żla-nagara in Marwar. They prevailed in Jaisalmer and Udaipur from the
13th to the 16th century.203
Palliv´┐Żla Gaccha originated from
P´┐Żl´┐Ż of Marwar. It is known both as Palliv´┐Żla Gaccha and P´┐Żlli Gaccha. Palli
Gaccha is mentioned in the inscription of 1405 A.D. at Jaisalmer and of 1451
A.D. at Jaipur.204 Palliv´┐Żla Gaccha is found in two
incriptions of the 15th century found at Ajmer.205
N´┐Żgapur´┐Żya Gaccha originated from
Nagaur in Marwar. The disciple of the famous V´┐Żdideva S´┐Żri named Padma Prabha
S´┐Żri practised hard austerities at Nagaur in 1117 A.D. and he was therefore
given the title N´┐Żgaur´┐Żya Tapa.
Harshapur´┐Żya Gaccha, a branch of Sr´┐Ż P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żthakula,
originated probably from the place named Harsaur situated between Ajmer and
Pushkar. Some of the ´┐Żch´┐Żryas of this Gaccha were very powerful and had great
influence over their contemporary rulers. At the request of Abhayadeva S´┐Żri, the
Cauh´┐Żna ruler P´┐Ż´┐Żhv´┐Żr´┐Żja I of ´┐Ż´┐Żkambhar´┐Ż, who lived in 1105 A.D., put the golden
cupolas on the Jaina temples of Ra´┐Żthambho´┐Ż.206 His pupil was Maladh´┐Żr´┐Ż Hemachandra
who had influence over Jayasi´┐Żha Siddhar´┐Żja of Gujarat. The name of this Gaccha
is mentioned in the inscription of 1498 A.D. found at Nagaur.207
Ma´┐Ż´┐Żovara Gaccha is a branch of the
Kharatara Gaccha. In 1745 A.D., this branch became separated from Jinamahendra
S´┐Żri at Ma´┐Ż´┐Żovara and therefore was named Ma´┐Ż´┐Żovara S´┐Żkh´┐Ż.208
(3) Gacchas Originated from the
Places in Mewar : Bhart´┐Żipur´┐Żya Gaccha orginated from the village
Bhart´┐Żipura now known as Bha´┐Żevara in Mewar. It was founded by Bhart´┐Żibha´┐Ża, the
father of the famous king Alla´┐Ża, in the 10th century A.D. This Gaccha is
mentioned in an inscription of the 13th century.209 Ratnapur´┐Żya Gaccha was originally a
branch of Ma´┐Ż´┐Żha´┐Ż Gaccha, but afterwards, it became a separate Gaccha after
Ratanapura in Mewar. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1453 A.D. on the
metal image found in the Jaina temple of Udaipur.210
(4) Gacchas Originated from the
Other Known Places : K´┐Żmyaka Gaccha originated from K´┐Żm´┐Ż in Bharatpur State.
It is said that there was a K´┐Żmyaka forest in this area. It is mentioned in the
Bay´┐Żn´┐Ż stone inscription of 1043 A.D. The names of the Jaina teachers Vish´┐Żu
S´┐Żri and Mahe´┐Żvara S´┐Żri are mentioned.211 Rudrapalliya Gaccha is a branch of
the Kharatara Gaccha. In 1147 A.D. at Rudrapalli, it was founded by
Jina´┐Żekhar´┐Żch´┐Żrya.212 It is said to have originated from
the place named Rudrapalli near Delhi. In the 15th century it spread at Nagaur
and B´┐Żlotar´┐Ż in Marwar and Jaisalmer.213
(5) Gacchas Originated from
Unknown Places : There are some regional Gacchas but the places of their
origin have not been definitely identified. P´┐Żpp´┐Żlaka Gaccha is also one of the
branches of the Kharatara sect. This branch became separated in 1417 A.D. from
Jinavardhana S´┐Żri.214 It was connected with the place
Pipp´┐Żlaka and therefore it was named P´┐Żpp´┐Żlaka.
It seems that both Humba´┐Ża Caste as
well as Gaccha originated from the place named Humba´┐Ża which has not been
identified yet. It is mentioned in the inscription of 1396 A.D. of
Udaipur,215 Jalyodhara Gaccha originated from
the village named Jor´┐Żudra. This name has been mentioned in an inscription of
1156 A.D. which has been discovered at Aj´┐Żr´┐Ż in Sirohi State.216 This Gaccha was especially
connected with Mo´┐Żhava´┐Ż´┐Ża from 1169 A.D., to 1366 A.D.
Bh´┐Żmapall´┐Żya Gaccha is a branch of
P´┐Żr´┐Żim´┐Ż Gaccha and originated from the village named Bh´┐Żmapall´┐Żya. It is,
therefore, known as Bh´┐Żmapall´┐Żya Gaccha. It is mentioned in the inscription of
1541 A.D. found at Jodhpur.217 Ku´┐Żuvapur´┐Ż Gaccha is one of the
branches of Tap´┐Ż Gaccha. It started from the place named Ku´┐Żuvapur´┐Ż. It was
prevalent at N´┐Ż´┐Żl´┐Ż´┐Ż in the early 16th century. Indranandi of this Gaccha
installed the images in 1512 A.D., 1513 A.D. and 1514 A.D. at this
(1) Sub-Branches of Kharatara
Gaccha : It is mentioned in the pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Żs that Madhukharatara ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż was the
first Gaccha-bheda which started in about 1107 A.D. from Jinavallabha S´┐Żri.
Laghukharatara S´┐Żkh´┐Ż, the third schism, was founded by Jina Si´┐Żha S´┐Żri in 1274
A.D. In 1365 A.D., Vega´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż took its rise founded by Dharma - Vallabha Gani.
It remained dominant from the 16th century to the 19th century in
Jaisalmer.219 It was the fourth Gaccha-bheda. In
1507 A.D., Ac´┐Żry´┐Żya Kharatara S´┐Żkh´┐Ż arose founded by ´┐Żch´┐Żrya ´┐Ż´┐Żntis´┐Żg´┐Żra in
Marude´┐Ża. This is the sixth division. In 1629 A.D., there originated the
Laghuv´┐Żch´┐Żry´┐Żya Kharatara ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż from ´┐Żch´┐Żrya Jinas´┐Żgara S´┐Żri occasioned by
Harshanandana, pupil of Samaya Sundara. This is the eighth Gaccha-bheda in the
(2) Gacchas Found in Marwar :
Marwar remained the chief centre of the Jaina religion, therefore, the followers
of the different Gacchas resided here. Siddh´┐Żnt´┐Ż Gaccha is mentioned in the
inscription of 1508 A.D. found out at Jodhpur.221 J´┐Żpa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ża Gaccha is mentined in the
inscription of 1477 A.D. of Nagaur.222 An inscription (19th century)
referring to Kavala Gaccha is engraved on the pillar of the Jaina temple at
Rainapura.223 The name of T´┐Żva´┐Ż´┐Żra Gaccha is
found in the inscription of 1442 A.D. of the Jaina temple of Munisuvrata at
(3) Gacchas Found in Jaisalmer
State : In Jaisalmer State, Jainism flourished greatly because of its
situation in the heart of the desert. V´┐Ż´┐Żap´┐Żya Gaccha is mentioned in the two
inscriptions of 1105 A.D. and 1281 A.D. discovered at
Jaisalmer.225 Sarav´┐Żla Gaccha seems to be in
existence the 12th and 13th centuries in the area.226 In 1364 A.D., I´┐Żvara S´┐Żri of B´┐Żha´┐Ża
Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image of
(4) Gacchas Found in Jaipur State
: Some Gacchas are also found to be mentioned in the inscriptions of Jaipur.
In 1472 A.D., the image of Padmaprabhu was set up by Bh´┐Żkhara through Vajre´┐Żvara
S´┐Żri of C´┐Ż´┐Żac´┐Żla Gaccha.228
1452 A.D., ´┐Żivar´┐Żja celebrated the consecrations ceremony of the image of
Kunthun´┐Żtha through Padmananda of R´┐Żja Gaccha.229 Chahiter´┐Ż Gaccha is mentioned in
the inscription of 1555 A.D., found on the Pa´┐Żcat´┐Żrth´┐Ż in the Jaina temple of
(5) Gacchas Found in Mewar :
There are some Gacchas which are not known to have been in existence at any
other place except Mewar. The inscription of 1317 A.D. with the name of Pr´┐Ży´┐Ż
Gaccha is found at Udaipur.231 In 1144 A.D., Kanudeva of
Dev´┐Żbhidita Gaccha performed the installation ceremony of the image through S´┐Żla
S´┐Żri of Dev´┐Żbhidita Gaccha.232 The inscription of 1439 A.D. with
the name of Ni´┐Ż´┐Żhati Gaccha233 is engraved.
(6) Common Gacchas :
Th´┐Żr´┐Żpadr´┐Żya Gaccha and Thir´┐Żdr´┐Ż Gaccha seem to be the one and the same
Gaccha. In the 12th century, it was in existence in Sirohi
State.234 In the 15th century, it seems to be
prevalent in Jaisalmer.235
earliest mention of Pippala Gaccha is in the inscription of 1151 A.D. found at
Ko´┐Żar´┐Ż in Sirohi State.236
was in existence from the 14th century to the 16th century in
Jaisalmer.237 Mahukara Gaccha also seems to be
known by the name of Madhukara Gaccha which is mentioned in the inscription of
1436 A.D. discovered at Rohi´┐Ż´┐Ż in Sirohi State.238 It is also mentioned in the
inscriptions of 1470 A.D. and 1506 A.D. discovered at Alwar and Jaisalmer
respectively239. Bokadiy´┐Ż Gaccha seems to have been
prevalent in the area of Jaipur and Nagaur in the 14th and 15th
Gujarat : That Jama´┐Żapura Gaccha originated
from Jamanapura is situated in Mahesana District. This Gaccha is mentioned in a
metal icon of V.S. 1285. The Thar´┐Żpadra Gaccha, originated from the ancient name
Thar´┐Żpadra, is located in Banas Kantha District. At present, it is known as Thar´┐Żda.
Har´┐Żjagaccha originated from the place H´┐Żr´┐Żjagaccha originated from the place
H´┐Żr´┐Żja in Mehasana District241. The literary evidence for the
existenve of this Gaccha is dated V.S. 1556 (1500 A.D.) while the epigraphical
evidence goes from V.S. 1330 to V.S. 1577. The A´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żlijiya Gaccha is connected
with a place named A´┐Ż´┐Żlaja, near Ahmedabad.242 Four inscriptions dated V.S. 1136,
V.S. 1207, V.S. 1228 and V.S. 1273 found in the Jaina temple at Badhav´┐Ż´┐Ża
mention this Gaccha. The inscriptions engraved on the Jaina images found at
Palithana, ´┐Żaturunjaya, Cambay, Bharu Kaccha (Gandhara). Anahilavada etc.
mention different Gacchas. Some of them might have originated in
The followers of the different
´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara Gacchas migrated from Rajasthan to the neighbouring regions of Malwa,
Maharashtra and Uttara Pradesh, and settled there. They became prosperous and
performed the installation ceremony of images. They also carried old images with
them and placed them in the temples. Numerous images engraved with the names of
the Gacchaas of the 15th and 16th centuries are noticed. The ´┐Żr´┐Żvakas of
these Gacchas also got prepared the copies of manuscripts for presentation to
the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas. It seems that there was nothing like unity in the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara
Jaina Sa´┐Żgha, but on the contrary, it was divided into several Gacchas with
differences. They gradually spread throughout North India. There was no
personality to unite them under One Sa´┐Żgha.
Malv´┐Ż : Tap´┐Żgaccha became very popular in
Malwa during the 15th and 16th centuries. Next important Gacchas known
were Kha´┐Żatara, ´┐Żgama, ´┐Ż´┐Żchala and Upake´┐Ża. The other Gacchas mentioned
in the Jaina inscriptions are N´┐Ż´┐Żap´┐Żla, Pali, Bh´┐Żvada, N´┐Ż´┐Żak´┐Żya, ´┐Ż´┐Żapall´┐Żya, Nagendra, Kora´┐Żta,
Dharmagho´┐Ża, J´┐Żrapall´┐Żya, Rudrapalliya, Brahma´┐Ża etc. The main centres of these
Gacchas were Ujjain, Badnawar (Vardham´┐Żnapura), Mandu (Mandapadurga) and
Mah´┐Żra´┐Żtra : The inscriptions are engraved on
Jaina metal images place in the Jaina temples of Bombay, Nagpur, Amravati,
Akola, Chandv´┐Ż´┐Ż near Nasik, Manam´┐Żda, Karanja, Wardha, Ch´┐Żl´┐Żsag´┐Ż´┐Żva and
Bhadravati244. Some Jaina inscriptions were found
at Dhulia245. These inscriptions give
information about the gacchas. The most popular, in this region, were Tap´┐Ż and
Kharatara Gacchas. The other Gacchas known from the inscriptions of the
metal images were Kuran´┐Ża, Chitra, B´┐Żihad, ´┐Ż´┐Żchala, Jir´┐Żpali, Pali,
Dharmaghosha, Sandera, K´┐Żishnarshi, ´┐Żgama, Pippala, N´┐Żgendra, Brahma´┐Ża,
Bh´┐Żmapalli, Gy´┐Żnak´┐Żya, Bh´┐Żvad´┐Żra etc.
Uttra Prade´┐Ża : The inscriptions of Jaina images
found at Banaras, Agra, Ayodhya etc. also give information of these Gacchas such
as Kharatara, Tap´┐Ż, P´┐Żrnima pak´┐Ża, Maladh´┐Żr´┐Ż, Dharmaghosha, ´┐Żnchala, Koran´┐Ża,
Brahama´┐Ża ´┐Żgama etc.
An important inscription from
Kangra, Himachal Pradesh mentions the names of two Jaina saints belonging to
R´┐Żjakula-gaccha which is probably the same as R´┐Żjagaccha. The Komalagaccha was
already in existence in Multan.248
Digambara Sa´┐Żghas, Ganas and Gacchas
in the North during the Medieval Period
The Digambara Sa´┐Żghas of the
Medieval period in North-India were M´┐Żthura, V´┐Żga´┐Ża, L´┐Żtav´┐Żgeda and Nand´┐Żtata.
Besides, there were K´┐Żsh´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha and ´┐Ż´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha. Later on, M´┐Żthura, V´┐Żgada,
L´┐Ż´┐Żav´┐Żge´┐Ża and Nandi became the branches of the K´┐Żshth´┐Ż-sa´┐Żgha. The ´┐Ż´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha
along with the Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żragana became powerful from the 14th century onwards. The
´┐Żc´┐Żryas of these Sa´┐Żghas performed the installation ceremony of
images and got prepared the copies of the manuscripts. They led pilgrimage to
the holy places along with the ´┐Żr´┐Żvakas. The image of ´┐Ż´┐Żntin´┐Żtha was
consecrated by the ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Subhadra who belonged to the line of De´┐Ż´┐Żga´┐Ża
in the ´┐Żmn´┐Żya of Candrakara ´┐Żc´┐Żrya249. The Pu´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żta-Sa´┐Żgha from Badnawar
is also known.
M´┐Żthura Sa´┐Żgha : M´┐Żthura Sa´┐Żgha seems to have
originated from Mathura. According to the Dar´┐Żanas´┐Żra, R´┐Żmasena was the
´┐Żc´┐Żrya of the Sa´┐Żgha. He prohibited the use of Picch´┐Ż (small brown peacok
feather). The frist historical mention of this Sa´┐Żgha is found in the
works of Amitagati. His teacher's lineage is Devasena, Amitagati, Nemise´┐Ża and
M´┐Żdhavasena. He wrote the Subh´┐Ż´┐Żitaratnasa´┐Żdoha in V.S. 1050 during the
reign of Param´┐Żra king Mu´┐Żja, the Vardham´┐Żnan´┐Żti in V.S. 1068, the
Dharmapar´┐Żksh´┐Ż in V.S. 1070 and the Pa´┐Żcasa´┐Żgraha in V.S.
Another old ´┐Żc´┐Żrya of M´┐Żthura
Sa´┐Żgha was Chatrasena. His ´┐Żc´┐Żrya ´┐Żloka got the ´┐Ż´┐Żabhan´┐Żtha temple built
in V.S. 1166. The third known
´┐Żc´┐Żrya of this Sa´┐Żgha is Gunabhadra. He wrote a lengthy
Pra´┐Żasti of the temple of P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha in V.S. 1226. Lalitak´┐Żrti is the
fourth ´┐Żc´┐Żrya who installed the Dev´┐Ż image in V.S. 1234. The fifth
´┐Żc´┐Żrya was Amarak´┐Żrti who wrote the Nemin´┐Żthacarita, and
Sha´┐Żakarmopade´┐Ża in V.S. 1247251. The M´┐Żthura S´┐Żgha is known from
the inscriptions of the twelfth century engraved on the Jaina images discovered
at Badnawar252. The M´┐Żthura Sa´┐Żgha and its
´┐Żc´┐Żryas are known from the inscription of V.S. 1308.253
M´┐Żthura Sa´┐Żgha seems to have
remained dominant in Rajasthan during the eleventh and the twelfth centuries. At
this time, images were installed by the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of this Sa´┐Żgha at
different places. There is a mention of Pa´┐Ż´┐Żita Mah´┐Żsena of M´┐Żthura
Sa´┐Żgha in the inscription of 1158 A.D. on the stone image of Brahm´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż in the
Jaina temple of Baghera.254 Ya´┐Żak´┐Żrti appears to be the
influential ´┐Żc´┐Żrya who performed the consecration ceremony of the white
stone image now placed in the temple of Singhiji at Sanganer in 1167
A.D.255 and the white marble image of
Padmaprabhu now found at Maroth in 1175 A.D.256 This function was organized by
Kuladhara, son of Manoratha who seems to be a rich ´┐Żr´┐Żvaka. In 1175 A.D., Hety´┐Ż
and his son Vilha´┐Ża also installed the image of M´┐Żro´┐Żha through the same
Ya´┐Żak´┐Żrti257. The author of the Bijaulia
inscription of 1170 A.D. was Gu´┐Żabhadra, a Mah´┐Żmuni who belonged to the
M´┐Żthura Sa´┐Żgha258. An inscription of 1176 A.D.
engraved on one side of a four-sided massive Jaina pillar in the Jaina temple at
R´┐Żp´┐Żhel´┐Ż, near Udaipur,
records that the pillar was erected by Padma´┐Żr´┐Ż, a female disciple of
Ajik´┐Ż belonging to the M´┐Żthura Sa´┐Żgha259. There was a hold of M´┐Żthura Sa´┐Żgha
at Badnawar in Malwa. This is clear from the Jaina inscriptions of V.S. 1210,
1226 and 1236 of images260.
The medieval lineage of M´┐Żthura Ga´┐Ża
starts from M´┐Żdhavasena who had two disciples Uddharasena and Vijayasena.
According to traditions, M´┐Żdhavasena lived during the reign of Alaudd´┐Żn
After Uddharasena, Devasena,
Vimalasena, Dharmasena, Sahasrak´┐Żrti and Gu´┐Żak´┐Żrti gradually became Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas.
In the ´┐Żmn´┐Żya of Gu´┐Żak´┐Żrti, a copy of the Pa´┐Żc´┐Żstik´┐Żya was written in V.S. 1468
during the reign of V´┐Żramadeva of Gwalior. The successor of Gunakirti was
Ya´┐Żahkirti. In V.S. 1486, he got the Bhavishyadatta Pa´┐Żcham´┐Ż Kath´┐Ż
prepared at Gwalior during reign of D´┐Ż´┐Żgarasi´┐Żha. Pa´┐Żdita Raidhu,
disciple of Ya´┐Żahk´┐Żrti, installed an image of ´┐Żdin´┐Żtha in Gwalior during the
reign of ´┐Ż´┐Żngarasi´┐Żha. The Pa´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Żishya of Yasahk´┐Żrti was Malayak´┐Żrti who
installed the Yantra in 1502 and image in V.S. 1510. After Gu´┐Żabhadra,
Malayak´┐Żrti became Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka. Jinad´┐Żsa got a copy of the Samayas´┐Żra
written in Gwalior during the reign of ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żgarasi´┐Żha. A copy of the
J´┐Ż´┐Żn´┐Żr´┐Żava was prepared in Gwalior in V.S. 1521 during the reign of
K´┐Żrtis´┐Żha. The consecration of images was performed in V.S. 1529, 1531, 1547 and
1548 during the reign of Kaly´┐Ż´┐Żamala. Caudhar´┐Ż ´┐Żodarmala of the ´┐Żmn´┐Żya of
Gu´┐Żabhadra got a copy of the Mah´┐Żpur´┐Ż´┐Ża written. Brahma Ma´┐Ż´┐Żana, grand
disciple of Gu´┐Żabhadra wrote a Gu´┐Żak´┐Ż of Stotras at Sonapata in
V.S. 1576 during the reign of Ibr´┐Żhim. In the Amn´┐Żya of Dharmad´┐Żsa, pupil of
Gu´┐Żabhadra, a copy of the Dhanadacarita was written in V.S. 1590 during
the reign of Humayun. Bh´┐Żnuk´┐Żrti became Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka after Gu´┐Żabhadra. S´┐Żha
R´┐Żpacanda presented a copy of the Uttarapur´┐Ż´┐Ża to Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka, Bh´┐Żnuk´┐Żrti
in V.S. 1606 during the reign of ´┐Ż´┐Żha Sal´┐Żma (ruler of the Sur dynasty V.S.
1545-1554) at Abr´┐Żhm´┐Żb´┐Ż´┐Ża.
A copy of the Bhavishyadatta
carita was written in the ´┐Żmn´┐Żya of Kum´┐Żrasena, disciple of
Bh´┐Żnuk´┐Żrti in V.S. 1615 during the reign of Akbar. At the request of S´┐Żhu
Todara, Pa´┐Ż´┐Żita R´┐Żjamalla wrote the Jamb´┐Żsv´┐Żm´┐Ż Charita in V.S. 1632
during the reign of Akbar.
The second lineage of medieval
period of M´┐Żthura Gaccha started from Vijayasena, disciple of M´┐Żdhavasena.
Afterwards, M´┐Żsopav´┐Żs´┐Ż Jayasena, ´┐Żrey´┐Ż´┐Żsasena, Anantak´┐Żrti and Kamalak´┐Żrti
respectively became the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas. Kamalak´┐Żrti established an image in V.S.
1443 during the reign of N´┐Żthadeva (Local ruler). Harir´┐Żja, pupil of Padmak´┐Żrti,
wrote a copy of the Pravacanas´┐Żra in V.S. 1469 at Gwalior during the reign of
The disciple of Hemak´┐Żrti was
Kmalak´┐Żrti who erected an image of Chandraprabhu in V.S. 1506. A copy of the
Bhavisatta-Kath´┐Ż was written in V.S. 1056 in his ´┐Żmn´┐Żya at Gwalior
during the reign of D´┐Ż´┐Żgarasi´┐Żha. ´┐Żubacandra and Kum´┐Żrasena, disciples of
Kamalak´┐Żrti erected an image of Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra in V.S. 1510. ´┐Żubhacandra installed an
image in V.S. 1530 at Gwalior during the reign of K´┐Żrtisi´┐Żha. From the
Hariva´┐Ż´┐Ża Pur´┐Żna of Raidhu, it is known that their monastery was at
Sonagiri. His pupil Ya´┐Żahsena installed the Da´┐Żalaksha´┐ŻaYantra in V.S. 1639.
Another disciple of Kamalak´┐Żrti was Kum´┐Żrasena. His disciple was Hemacandra
whose pupil was Padmanandi. Padmanandi's disciple was M´┐Ż´┐Żikar´┐Żja. The disciple
of Padmanandi was Ya´┐Żahk´┐Żrti. Bhagavat´┐Żd´┐Żsa wrote the Mugati´┐Żiromani C´┐Żnad´┐Ż
in V.S. 1680 during the reign of Jahangir and the ´┐Żnck´┐Żrtha N´┐Żmam´┐Żla
in V.S. 1687 during the reign f Shahjahan. Another disciple of Ya´┐Żahk´┐Żrti
was Kshemak´┐Żrt´┐Ż. Pandit R´┐Żjamalla wrote the L´┐Ż´┐Żisamhita in V.S.
1641 for S´┐Żha F´┐Żmana when Akbar was ruling. The natives of Bair´┐Ż´┐Żh were the
followers of K´┐Żemak´┐Żrti. The successor of K´┐Żemak´┐Żrti was Tribhuvanak´┐Żrti. His
pa´┐Ż´┐Ża ceremony was held at His´┐Żra. Then, Sahasrakirti became successor in
V.S. 1663. The Pa´┐Ż´┐Ża ´┐Żi´┐Żhya of Sahasrak´┐Żrti was Mah´┐Żcandra.
Devendrak´┐Żrti, disciple of Mahicandra, renovated the Jaina temple of Fatehapur
in V.S. 1770. The disciple of Devendrak´┐Żrti was Jagatk´┐Żrti.262
K´┐Ż´┐Żth´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha : There is some controversy among
scholars about the origin of the K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha. One view263 is that it originated from the
village K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż, near Delhi. It was the capital of the rulers of Takka dynasty in
the twelfth century A.D. Devasena, author of the Dar´┐Żanas´┐Żra, holds a
different view264 about the origin of the K´┐Ż´┐Żth´┐Ż
Sa´┐Żgha. Kum´┐Żrasena, disciple of Vinayasena, established this Sa´┐Żgha at Nandiy´┐Żda
(modern N´┐Żnde´┐Ża in Maharashtra). The earliest inscription265 of the K´┐Żsh´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha is engraved
on a memorial of Jaina Pillar dated 1095 A.D. of the great Acarya Devasena at
Dubkunda. After the 14th century A.D., this Sa´┐Żgha was divided into four
branches ´┐Ż M´┐Żthura Gaccha, V´┐Żga´┐Ża Gaccha, L´┐Ż´┐Żav´┐Żga´┐Ża Gaccha and Nandita´┐Ża
Gaccha. Surendrak´┐Żrti who lived in V.S. 1747 and belonged to Nandita´┐Ża-Gaccha,
mentions the above four branches266.
K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha was in existence at
some places in Dh´┐Żra District. It is clear from the Jaina image inspriptions
dated V.S. 1328, V.S. 1408, V.S. 1470 and V.S. 1510267 discovered there. That there
were followers of the K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Żsa´┐Żgha at Mainapuri in Uttar Pradesh as known from
the Jaina image inscriptions dated V.S. 1414, V.S. 1473 and V.S.
K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Żsa´┐Żgha seems to have
flourished mostly in the Pa´┐Żj´┐Żba and M´┐Żlaw´┐Ż, and Agravalas generally remained
associated with it. Most probably, the images and the manuscripts of this
Sa´┐Żgha found in Rajasthan were either brought later from outside or
installed by Agrav´┐Żlas of Rajasthan. In Rajasthan, there were still some places
which somehow remained associated with this Sa´┐Żgha. The work of
restoration and repairs of the famous temple of ´┐Żishabhadeva of Dhuleva near
Udaipur was carried out by the followers of this Sa´┐Żgha. The inscription
of 1374 A.D. tells us that Hard´┐Żna, the son of S´┐Żha V´┐Żj´┐Ż, restored this temple
at the instrictions of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Dharmak´┐Żrti of K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Żsa´┐Żgha. From the
inscription of 1515 A.D., it is clear that Kadiy´┐Żpriy´┐Ż of K´┐Żcchl´┐Ż gotra
with his son and wife constructed a hall and a shrine in the time of
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka of K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż Sa´┐Żgha. Bhoja, son of Sangh´┐Ż ´┐Żlh´┐Ż of the Bagherav´┐Żla caste,
celebrated the installation ceremony of the newly constructed temple, with the
members of his family in the time of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Surendrak´┐Żrti. Through the
influence of the same Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka, Bh´┐Żpat´┐Ż constructed a small shrine in 1697
From some inscriptions and
Pra´┐Żastis of manuscripts, it is known that the ancient V´┐Żga´┐Ża Province,
including the area of ´┐Ż´┐Żngarpur, B´┐Żnsw´┐Żr´┐Ż and Pratapag´┐Żh, was the headquarters
of this Sa´┐Żgha.
V´┐Żga´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha : V´┐Żga´┐Żasa´┐Żgha originated from the
region V´┐Żga´┐Ża which includes D´┐Ż´┐Żgarpura, B´┐Ż´┐Żsavar´┐Ż and Prat´┐Żpaga´┐Żha Districtis
of Rajasthan. The inscription of 994 A.D. on the image of a Jaina found at
Bay´┐Żn´┐Ż says that it was caused to be made in accordance with the instructions of
S´┐Żrasena of the V´┐Żga´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha by three brothers Si´┐Żhaka, Ya´┐Żor´┐Żja and
Nonnaika270. There is an image inscription
dated V.S. 1324 of V´┐Żga´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha Da´┐Żapur´┐Żnvaye found at Ujjaina271. Another Jaina image inscription
dated V.S. 1325 found at T´┐Żlanpur (Dhar District) is of Vaga´┐Ża
L´┐Ż´┐Ża V´┐Żgada Ga´┐Ża : The L´┐Ż´┐Ża V´┐Żgada Ga´┐Ża originated
from the region of Gujarat ´┐Ż V´┐Żga´┐Ża, ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Mah´┐Żsena, who composed the
Pradyumna Carita K´┐Żvya in V.S. 1050 during the reign of Param´┐Żra ruler
Ma´┐Żju, belonged to L´┐Ż´┐Ża V´┐Żga´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha. From the Dubaku´┐Żda stone
inscription273, it is known that encouraged by the
teaching of the Jaina monk Vijayak´┐Żrti of the L´┐Ż´┐Żav´┐Żga´┐Ża Ga´┐Ża, some Jaina
´┐Żr´┐Żvakas (Laymen) constructed Jaina temple, and the Kacchapagh´┐Ż´┐Ża ruler
Mah´┐Żr´┐Żj´┐Żdhir´┐Żja of the Dubakunda branch made some donation of land and
other things in favour of this temple in 1088 A.D. The L´┐Ż´┐Ża V´┐Żga´┐Ż Gaccha is also
mentioned in the Jaina image dated V.S. 1325 found at T´┐Żlanpura274. The La´┐Ża V´┐Żga´┐Ża Gaccha is found
mentioned in the Jaina image inscriptions of V.S. 1251 at Badn´┐Żwara, of V.S.
1288 at Dh´┐Żra and of V.S. 1325 at T´┐Żlanpur in Dh´┐Żra District.275
Nandi Tata Gaccha : Nanditata Gaccha seems to have been
named after Nandita´┐Ża village (modern N´┐Żndeda) in Mah´┐Żr´┐Żshtra. R´┐Żmasena of this
gaccha founded the Narasi´┐Żhapura caste and got constructed the temple of
´┐Żantin´┐Żtha in Narsi´┐Żhapura. His disciple Nemisena worshipped Padm´┐Żvat´┐Ż and
founded the Bha´┐Ż´┐Żapur´┐Ż caste.
The historical period of Nandita´┐Ża
Gaccha is available from Lakshmsena, disciple of Ratnak´┐Żrt. The two disciples of
Lakshm´┐Żsena were Bh´┐Żmasena and Dharmasena. From thems two lineage of ´┐Żc´┐Żryas
are known. The pupil of Bh´┐Żmasena was Somak´┐Żrti. He installed an image of
´┐Żitalan´┐Żtha in V.S. 1532 along with V´┐Żrasena. He wrote the Ya´┐Żodhara carita at
Godhili in V.S. 1536 and set up an image in V.S. 1540. He showed a miracle of
flying in the sky at P´┐Żv´┐Żga´┐Żha by the grace of Padm´┐Żvati in the reign of
After Somak´┐Żrti, Vijayasena,
Ya´┐Żahk´┐Żrti, Udayasena, Tribhuvanak´┐Żrti and Ratnabh´┐Żsha´┐Ża became Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas one
after another. K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żad´┐Żsa, pupil of Ratnabh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża, composed the Vimalanatha
pura´┐Ża in V.S. 1674 at Kalpavalli. After Ratnabh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża Jayak´┐Żrti became
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka. An image of P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha was set up in V.S. 1686. Then, Ke´┐Żavasena
became Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka after Jayak´┐Żrti. Ke´┐Żavasena was succeeded by Vi´┐Żvakirti
who wrote a copy of the Hariva´┐Ż´┐Ża
Pur´┐Ż´┐Ża in V.S. 1700.
The second lineage of Acaryas
of Nandita´┐Ża Gaccha starts from Dharmasena, disciple of Lakshm´┐Żsena. He
wrote the Ati´┐Żaya Jayam´┐Żla. After Dharmasena, Vimalasena and Vi´┐Ż´┐Żlak´┐Żrti
respectively became Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas. His disciple Vi´┐Żvasena installed an image in
V.S. 1596. Vidy´┐Żbh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża, disciple of Vi´┐Żvasena, set up the image of P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha
in V.S. 1604, and another image in V.S. 1636. Vidy´┐Żbh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża was succeeded by
´┐Żr´┐Żbh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża. He installed the P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha image in V.S. 1636, wrote the
S´┐Żntin´┐Żtha Pur´┐Ż´┐Ża at Sojitra in V.S. 1659, installed the image of Padm´┐Żvat´┐Ż in V.S.
1660, a Ratnatraya Ya´┐Żtra in V.S. 1665 and Candraprabha image in V.S.
The main disciple of ´┐Żr´┐Ż Bh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża was
Brahma J´┐Ż´┐Żnas´┐Żgara who wrote several works... ´┐Żri Bh´┐Żsha´┐Ża was succeeded by
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Candrak´┐Żrti who wrote the P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha Pur´┐Ż´┐Ża in V.S. 1654 at
Devagiri, installed Padm´┐Żvati image in V.S. 1681 and composed several
P´┐Żj´┐Żs. Candrak´┐Żrti, while going on pilgrimage of the South, defeated
K´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ża Bha´┐Ż´┐Ża at Narasi´┐Żha Pa´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża on the bank of K´┐Żver´┐Ż. Candrak´┐Żrti's disciple
was Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka R´┐Żjak´┐Żrti who gained victory in discussion at Var´┐Żnasi.
R´┐Żjak´┐Żrti's pupil was Lakshm´┐Żsena who set up the image of Padm´┐Żvat´┐Ż image in
´┐Żaka S´┐Żmvat 1561 and B´┐Żhubali image in V.S. 1703. Indrabh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża became Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka
after Lakshm´┐Żsena. Some of his disciples led pilgrimage to Gommate´┐Żvara in V.S.
After Indrabh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża, Surendrak´┐Żrti
became Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka. Images ad Ya´┐Żtras were installed, and copies of the
manuscripts were prepared. The three disciples of Surendrasena were Lakshm´┐Żsena,
Sakalak´┐Żrti and Devendrak´┐Żrti. After Lakshmisena, Vijayak´┐Żrti became
Punn´┐Żta Sa´┐Żgha : As ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of this Sa´┐Żgha
moved in Kar´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żaka regio´┐Ż, it became famous by the name of Pu´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża Sa´┐Żgha.
Badn´┐Żvara (Vardham´┐Żnapura) in Malwa became a stronghold of Jainism. ´┐Żc´┐Żrya
Jinasena of this Sa´┐Żgha wrote the Hariva´┐Ż´┐Żapur´┐Ż´┐Ża at Vardham´┐Żnapura in
´┐Żaka Samvat 705 (782 A.D.). ´┐Żc´┐Żrya H´┐Żri´┐Że´┐Ża composed the B´┐Żihat
Kath´┐Ż-Kosha in V.S. 989 at this place. Vijayakirti, disciple of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya
Amritacndra of this Sa´┐Żgha, installed an image in V.S. 1154277. There is an image inscription of
V.S. 1227 mentioning Pu´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żasa´┐Żgha at Badnavana.278
M´┐Żla Sa´┐Żgha : There is a divergence of traditions found in
Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Żs279 not only about succession but also
about the residence or immigrations of the Pontiffs of the M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha. The four
Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Żs agree on the main points but the fifth Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Ż
presents considerably different traditions. The fifth Patt´┐Żval´┐Ż
closes with the name of ´┐Żubhachandra who reigned up to 1443 A.D. Hence, this
is the oldest Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Ż and as such the information supplied by it seems
to be correct. The Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Żs tell us that the first 26 pontificates took
place in Bhaddalapura. According to the four Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Żs, Bhaddalapura is in
Malwa, while the fifth Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Ż tells us correctly that it was in the
South. After that the 27th pontiff transferred his seat from Bhaddalapura to
Ujjaina according to all Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Żs. From Ujjai´┐Ża M´┐Żghacandra II, the
53rd pontiff, shifted his seat to B´┐Żr´┐Ż´┐Ż in Kot´┐Ż state in about 1083 A.D. Down to No. 63 or 64, the pontificates
took place in B´┐Żr´┐Ż´┐Ż. From here, 14 pontificates, took place in Gvaliara down to
77 according to the four Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Żs ´┐Ż but the fifth Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Ż
tells us correctly that ten pontificates were established at Cittora and
four at Bagher´┐Ż. This is further confirmed from the fact that there was the
existence of a prosperous colony of Digambara Jainas on the hill at Cittora at
the time of Kum´┐Żrap´┐Żla280, and Bagherav´┐Żlas were converted to
Jainism, and Jaina temples were built at Bagher´┐Ż in about eleventh century
A.D.281. From the 78th Pontiff
Vasantak´┐Żrti, the seat was transferred to Ajmer in about 1208 A.D. according to
all the Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Żs.
From the 84th Pontiff Padmanandi,
the seat was transferred to Delhi in about 1328 A.D. according to the four
Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Żs but the fifth Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żvali tells us correctly that it was
trasnferred to Idar in ancient V´┐Żga´┐Ża province. Padmanandi was especially
associated with V´┐Żga´┐Ża province. A certain ´┐Żr´┐Żvaka of V´┐Żga´┐Ża called
Prabh´┐Żcandra II of Ajmer was invited for the purpose of performing a
consecration ceremony of images but he could not come. Then after giving the
S´┐Żr´┐Żantra to ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Padmanandi, the ´┐Żr´┐Żvaka conferred on him the title of
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka. Thus Padmanandi became the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka in 1328 A.D. of V´┐Żga´┐Ża.
The term Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka is applied to a particular type of Jaina ascetics who unlike
Munis assumed the position
of religious rulers and enjoyed supreme authority in religious
After Padmanandi, separation took
place among his successive Acaryas. These separations were not actually
the schisms but seem to be based on temperaments. Padmanandi had two pupils
namely Sakalak´┐Żrti and ´┐Żubhachandra. During his lifetime, the separation took
place between his two pupils. One section under S´┐Żbhacandra moved to Cittora
while the other continued to live under Sakalak´┐Żrti. Again under Jinacandra the
86th pontiff, the disagreement arose between the two disciples namely
Prabh´┐Żcandra and Ratnak´┐Żrti. Prabh´┐Żcandra continued to live at Cittor, but one
section under Ratnak´┐Żrti moved to Nagaura. Again, differences arose at N´┐Żgaura
and one section continued to reside at N´┐Żgaura, while the other under Ratnak´┐Żrti
shifted to Ajamera. From Cittora, it came to C´┐Żtasu in the time of Candrak´┐Żrti.
After that, it migrated to Sanganera, ´┐Ż´┐Żv´┐Ż, ´┐Żmber and lastly to
Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żra Gana : M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha, in course of time,
became associated with Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żraga´┐Ża which seems to have derived its name
Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żra Ga´┐Ża (powerful ga´┐Ża) from its ancestor Arhadbalin, who was also
known as Guptigupta, the master of M´┐Żghanandi. Its earliest mention is found in
the inscription of the 11th century282 but it was in existence
considerably earlier. Afterwards, this was distinguished by the term Sarasvat´┐Ż.
In the 14th century A.D., this name seems to have come from the miracle of the
pontiff padmanandi who is said to have made a stone figure of Sarasvast´┐Ż
Several branches of the
Bal´┐Żtk´┐Żraga´┐Ża are known. The K´┐Żra´┐Żja ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż started from Amarak´┐Żrti. The
L´┐Żt´┐Żra ´┐Ż´┐Żkha began from Ajitakirti. The Delhi-Jaipur branch began from
´┐Żubhacandra. The Nagaura branch started from Ratnakirti, the Atera branch from
Si´┐Żhak´┐Żrti, Idar branch from Sakalak´┐Żrti, Bh´┐Żnapur´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Żkh´┐Ż from
J´┐Żanak´┐Żrti, the S´┐Żrat branch from Devendrak´┐Żrti and Jeraha´┐Ż´┐Ż branch from
No activities of the early
Bh´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas before Padmanandi are known in Northern India from any other source.
No doubt, there is mention of M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha in the inscription of 1170 A.D. and
1186 A.D.285 but without any reference to any
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka. M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha has been mentioned in the inscirption of V.S. 1230 found
at Badnawar in Malwa. The M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha and its ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Ratnak´┐Żrti has been
mentioned in the inscription of V.S. 1323286 From Padmanandi onwards, we possess
some knowledge of the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas of M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha regarding their activities. The
M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha remained dominant in North India from the fourteenth century to the
eighteenth century A.D. The ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of the M´┐Żlasa´┐Żgha are noticed to have
performed installation ceremony of the images and temples in
Rajasthana287, Madhya Prade´┐Ża288 and Uttara Prade´┐Ża289. Various copies of Manuscripts were
prepared. Their P´┐Żduk´┐Żs and Nishedhikas are also
Padmanandi : According to the Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Żs,
Padmanandi became Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka in 1325 A.D. This date seems to be doubtful as he
was living in 1415 A.D. He did enjoy such a long age as known from the
Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Żs and he therefore, must have become Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka sometime after
1325 A.D. He was an influential Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka who is said to have caused a stone
figure of Sarasvat´┐Ż to speak. From this miracle, M´┐Żla Sa´┐Żgha was distinguished
by the term Sarasvat´┐Ż. He made the installation ceremony of images from time to
time. The image with the inscription of 1400 A.D. was installed at his
bidding.290 He had two disciples namely
Vi´┐Ż´┐Żlak´┐Żrti and Nemicanda who also set up images in his time. From the
inscription of 1413 A.D. engraved on the images discovered at Tonk, it is clear
that V´┐Żlha´┐Ża and his sons got installed several images by his pupil
Vi´┐Ż´┐Żlak´┐Żrti.291 In 1415 A.D., Asap´┐Żla on his
preaching set up the image of P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha.292 In the same year, the consecration
ceremony of the image was performed by ´┐Żp´┐Ż through his pupil
Sakalak´┐Żrti : After Padmanandi, Sakalak´┐Żrti
became the head of the seat of V´┐Żga´┐Ża in about 1420 A.D. He was the highly
respected saint of medieval times and had also a good reputation for his
scholarship. He wandered from place to place for the propagation of Jainism. In
1424 A.D., he came to Ba´┐Żal´┐Ż where he spent the rainy season with his
Several images were installed by him
from time to time. There is a mention of his name in the inscription of 1430
A.D. found on the image in the Digambara Jaina temple at Abu.295
is known from the inscription of 1433 A.D. that as a result of his preaching,
N´┐Żsala with his wife, sons and brothers set up the Caub´┐Żs´┐Ż with ´┐Żdin´┐Żtha as a
1435 A.D., Camp´┐Ż set up the image of ´┐Ż´┐Żntin´┐Żtha after hearing his
discourses.297 He is said to have passed away in
1442 A.D. at Mah´┐Żsana in Gujarata.
Bhuvanak´┐Żrti : After Sakalak´┐Żrti, Bhuvanak´┐Żrti
became the Pa´┐Ż´┐Żadhara. He was also a scholar like his predecessor. The
consecration function of several images was performed by him. The installation ceremony of the Trim´┐Żrti
was presided over by him in 1443 A.D.298 In 1458 A.D., N´┐Żhuy´┐Ż, the son of
S´┐Żr´┐Ż, performed the Da´┐Żalaksha´┐Ża Yantra Prati´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż on his
1459 A.D., Sur´┐Ż of his line
celebrated the consecration ceremony.300
a result of his preaching, Ch´┐Żp´┐Ż and his wife Ga´┐Żg´┐Ż performed the installation
ceremony of some yantra in 1471 A.D.301
J´┐Ż´┐Żnabh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża : After Bhuvanak´┐Żrti, J´┐Ż´┐Żnabh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża
became the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka. There is a Yantra of 1377 A.D. consecrated by him in the
Jaina temple of Udaipur.302 On his advice, R´┐Żma with his wife
and son set up the image of Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra in 1487 A.D.303
Other Bh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Żrakas of this Seat
: J´┐Ż´┐Żnab´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża was
succeeded by Vijayak´┐Żti in about 1500 A.D. At his discourses, ´┐Żres´┐Żh´┐Ż Mel´┐Ż with
his wife, son and brothers made the Prati´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż of Samava´┐Żara´┐Ża of
´┐Żdin´┐Żtha in 1513 A.D. 304
Then ´┐Żubhacandra became the
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka in about 1515 A.D. He was a well known scholar who wrote a large
number of works in a period between 1515 A.D. and 1556 A.D. His earliest work is
Adhy´┐Żtmatara´┐Żgi´┐Ż´┐Ż and the latest work written by him in 1556 A.D. is the
Sanskrit commentary on the Sv´┐Żmik´┐Żrttikey´┐Żnuprek´┐Ż´┐Ż. On his instructions,
Dhann´┐Ż and his wife Dhann´┐Żde set up the metal image of P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha in 1538
A.D.305 In 1550 A.D., ´┐Żre´┐Ż´┐Żhi S´┐Żvara with
his brothers, wife and son celebrated the function of J´┐Ż´┐Żnanirv´┐Ża´┐Ża on his
After his discourses, ´┐Żr´┐Żp´┐Żla
erected the image of ´┐Ż´┐Żntin´┐Żtha in 1551 A.D.307 He was succeeded by Sumatik´┐Żrti. On
his instructions, S´┐Żha Jayavanta with his wife and brothers set up the metal
image of Padmaprabhu in 1563 A.D.308 He installed the images of
Munisuvrata309 and Anantan´┐Żtha310 in 1562 A.D. and 1570 A.D.
respectively. After him, Gu´┐Żak´┐Żrti became the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka. He was succeeded by
V´┐Żdibh´┐Żsa´┐Ża. On his advice, ´┐Żs´┐Ż of Idar with his wife Lakshm´┐Ż and daughter Jhil´┐Ż
installed the image of Nemin´┐Żtha.311
inscription on the pedestal of a stone image of ´┐Żitalan´┐Żtha in the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara
Jaina temple at Mauj´┐Żpura in Alwar State records that it was set up by Humba´┐Ża
L´┐Żla and Gal´┐Ż resident of Hardoya in 1597 A.D. as a result of his
preaching.312 After his discour´┐Żes, Hansa with
his wife and son performed the installation ceremony of Sho´┐Ża´┐Żak´┐Żra´┐Ża yantra
in 1604 A.D.313
After him, R´┐Żmak´┐Żrti became the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka. He was succeeded by
Padmanandi II. At his preaching, the consecration ceremony was performed by
Ratn´┐Ż.314 Then, Devendrak´┐Żrti became his
pa´┐Ż´┐Żadhara. He was succeeded by K´┐Żemak´┐Żrti. By the influence of his
discourses, Sa´┐Żgh´┐Ż D´┐Żgalad´┐Żsa, M´┐Żnaka, Nemid´┐Żsa, Anantad´┐Żsa, Somad´┐Żsa and Ratn´┐Ż
erected the image of ´┐Ż´┐Żntin´┐Żtha in 1639 A.D.315 Soma316 with the whole Sa´┐Żgha constructed
the P´┐Żr´┐Żg´┐Żra in the Jaina temple of ´┐Żdin´┐Żtha at S´┐Żgav´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż. After him,
Nar´┐Żndrak´┐Żrti, Vijayak´┐Żrti II, Nemicanda, Candrak´┐Żrti, R´┐Żmak´┐Żrti, Ya´┐Żak´┐Żrti,
Surendrak´┐Żrti, Vijayak´┐Żrti II, Nemichanda, Chandrak´┐Żrti, R´┐Żmak´┐Żrti, Ya´┐Żak´┐Żrti,
Surendrak´┐Żrti, Ramacandrak´┐Żrti and Kanakak´┐Żrti became the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas of the
seat of Idar one after another in succession.
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas of the Seat of Cittorr :
During the lifetime
of Padmanandi, ´┐Żubhacandra separated from Sakalak´┐Żrti and established his own Pa´┐Ż´┐Ża at Cittora in about 1415
A.D. At this time, Mewara became a centre of Jainism under the royal patronage
of Kumbhakara´┐Ża. The famous Jaina K´┐Żrtistambha was also built. The two Bijaulia
inscriptions of 1405 A.D. and 1426 A.D. speak of a Ni´┐Żedhik´┐Ż of a Jaina
nun named B´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Żgamasiri and of a Ni´┐Żedhik´┐Ż of Hemak´┐Żrti, pupil of
´┐Żubhacandra respectively.317 With regard to these
Ni´┐Żedhik´┐Żs, a wish has been expressed that they may be endured as long as the Sun and Moon last. On the
same pillar that bears the second inscription are sculptured the foot-prints of
some saints or pontiffs. On one side is engraved the name of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka ´┐Żr´┐Ż
Padmanandideva and on the other of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka ´┐Żri ´┐Żubhacandra. At ´┐Ż´┐Żv´┐Ż near
Uniara in Jaipur district, there is a Ni´┐Żedhik´┐Ż of
´┐Żubhacandra was followed by
Jinacandra in about 1450 A.D. Under his inspiration many-sided activities for
the propagation of Jainism received an impetus. Copies of several manuscripts
such as ´┐Żr´┐Żp´┐Żlacaritra,318
Varddham´┐Żnacaritra320 were prepared in his time and
probably inspired by him. A number
of temples were built and images were placed in them. There is a Caub´┐Żs´┐Ż
consecrated by Harar´┐Żja of his line in 1460 A.D.321 In 1466 A.D., S´┐Żha Dharmas´┐Ż with
his wife and sons celebrated the consecration ceremony in his
installation ceremony of the metal image of P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha was also performed
through him in 1485 A.D.323 J´┐Żvar´┐Żja P´┐Żpa´┐Żivala at his
instructions performed the installation ceremony of a large number of images at
Mu´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żs´┐Ż in the reign of R´┐Żvala ´┐Żl´┐Żvasi´┐Żha in 1461 A.D.324 The city Mu´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żs´┐Ż seems to be in
Gujarat; but from there, these images were sent to the seats of Jainism in
different parts of Rajasthan. He enjoyed a long life because S´┐Żha Se´┐Ża with his
wife and sons performed the Yantra Praii´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż in 1514 A.D. when Jinacandra
There is also a ni´┐Żedhik´┐Ż of
Jinacandra at ´┐Ż´┐Żv´┐Ż.
Prabh´┐Żcandra came after Jinacandra
in about 1515 A.D. By his persuasion, a large number of manuscripts were written
for presentation to the monks. His followerrs got copies of the manuscripts such
Ratnakara´┐Ż´┐Ża331 prepared in 1519 A.D. 1522 A.D.,
1524 A.D., 1527 A.D. and 1535 A.D.
respectively. In 1518 A.D. B´┐Żi P´┐Żrvat´┐Ż got the Ya´┐Żodharacaritra
written and presented to him.332 S´┐Żha Dodu got the
Ya´┐Żodharacaritra written and gave it to Bramha V´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż, pupil of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka
Prabh´┐Żcandra.333 Images and Yantras were also
installed through him in 1515 A.D. S´┐Żha ´┐Ż´┐Żl´┐Ż of his line performed the
C´┐Żra´┐Żaya´┐Żtra Prati´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż in 1516 A.D.334 In the same year, R´┐Żho with his
wife, son and daughter-in-law celebrated the installation ceremony of
Samyakc´┐Żritrayantra through him.335 His Ni´┐Żedhik´┐Ż also exists at
After Prabh´┐Żcandra, Dharmacandra
became the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka in about 1518 A.D. Under his patronage and inspiration,
various copies of manuscripts were prepared at different places for presentation
to him and his disciples. With a view to propagating Jainism, he proceeded to
Nagaur where his devotees got the copies of the Uttarapur´┐Ż´┐Ża
P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żthacaritra339 written in 1520 A.D. in order to
present him. In 1526 A.D., a copy of the Candraprabhacaritra was made at
C´┐Żtasu as a result of his discourses.340
1528 A.D., Kodamade got a copy of the ´┐Ża´┐Żp´┐Żhu´┐Ża written for offering
him.341 S´┐Żha K´┐Żlh´┐Ż made a copy of the
P´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żavapur´┐Ż´┐Ża342 ready in 1545 A.D. to give it to
his pupil Kamalak´┐Żrti. In 1554, S´┐Żha Mah´┐Żr´┐Żja prepared the P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żthacaritra
for his presentation.343
Besides other copies of manuscripts
such as the Sukum´┐Żlacarita344 in 1526 A.D.,
Bhavishyadattacarita345 in 1532 A.D.,
Varddham´┐Żnacaritra346 in 1536 A.D.
Sa´┐Żp´┐Żhu´┐Ża348 in 1537
Bhavishyadattacaritra350 in 1538 A.D. and
Candraprabahc´┐Żrita351 in 1546 A.D., were prepared with
the object of offering them as gifts to S´┐Żdhus. Several Yantra Prati´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Żs
are also known to have been performed in his time. T´┐Żlu352 and V´┐Żlamita353 of his line performed the
consecration ceremony of Samyagdar´┐Żanayantra and So´┐Ża´┐Żak´┐Żra´┐Żayantra in 1532 A.D.
Inm 1536 A.D., S´┐Żha P´┐Żsa and Hem´┐Ż installed the Arham-yantra.354
Dharmacandra was followed by
Lalitak´┐Żrti in about 1546 A.D. A large number of mansucripts were written in his
time. In 1553 A.D., Lohara got a copy of the Ya´┐Żodharacaritra written for
him.355 At the invitation of the ´┐Żr´┐Żvakas,
he went to Todaraisingh where S´┐Żha Teh´┐Ż and S´┐Żha P´┐Żj´┐Ż got the copies of the
Ya´┐Żodharacaritra357 prepared in order to offer him as
present. Besides other copies of manuscripts such as the
Up´┐Żsak´┐Żdhyayana358 in 1566 A.D.
´┐Żre´┐Żikacaritra359 in 1570 A.D.,
Varddham´┐Żnacaritra360 in 1574 A.D. amd
Sudar´┐Żanacaritra361 in 1575 A.D. were made ready by his
followers for presenting them to monks.
Candrak´┐Żrti became Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka after
Lalitak´┐Żrti in about 1575 A.D. He seems to have removed his seat from Cittora
and established it at C´┐Żtasu as known from the inscription of 1604 A.D. that he
was residing at C´┐Żtasu.362 The reason was that Mewar at this
time was unsafe and insecure ´┐Żmera from the political point of view. On the
other hand, C´┐Żtasu was under ´┐Żmera rulers who were on friendly relations with
Mughal emperors and were patrons of Jainism. This was the time of Akbar who
followed the policy of religious toleration. It was, therefore, natural that the
activities of Jainism progressed. Some of the copies of manuscripts such as
J´┐Żvandharacaritra and P´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żavapur´┐Ż´┐Ża363 in 1579 A.D.,
Pa´┐Żh´┐Żstik´┐Żyapr´┐Żbh´┐Żita364 in 1580 A.D. and
Hariva´┐Ż´┐Żapur´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż365 in 1588 A.D. were prepared by his
devotees for offering them to monks of his line.
Besides, Candrak´┐Żrti is known to
have performed the installation ceremony of images, Yantras and temples. In 1584
A.D., S´┐Żha Mok´┐Ż,366 S´┐Żha K´┐Żlu,367 S´┐Żha Chel´┐Ż368 and S´┐Żha Ratn´┐Ż369 of his line with the members of
their respective families separately made the prati´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż of
Samayagdar´┐Żana Yantra, ´┐Żi´┐Żk´┐Żra Yantra, Karaku´┐Ż´┐Ża P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha Yantra and
Da´┐Żalaksha´┐Ża Yantra. In 1591 A.D., Th´┐Żnasi´┐Żha went on pilgrimage to P´┐Żv´┐Żpuri
where he celebrated the installation ceremony of ´┐Żo´┐Ża´┐Żak´┐Żra´┐Ża Yantra at his
preaching.370 In the same year, Cokh´┐Ż of his line
installed the Samyak c´┐Żritra Yantra and Samyagj´┐Ż´┐Żna Yantra with the members of
their family.371 In 1603 A.D., S´┐Żha
J´┐Żt´┐Ż372 and S´┐Żha J´┐Ż´┐Żg´┐Ż373 performed the consecration ceremony
of the metal image and ´┐Żo´┐Ża´┐Żak´┐Żra´┐Żayantra through him separately. Bohitha of
Ajmer with his sons and grandsons set up Caub´┐Żs´┐Ż through him in 1601
A.D.374 In 1604 A.D., ´┐Żs´┐Żn´┐Żtha of his line
made the Prati´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż of Ri´┐Żk´┐Żra Yantra.375 An inscription of 1604 A.D. stated
that the pillar of the Jaina temple was erected by him when he was residing at
Candrak´┐Żrti was succeeded by
Devendrak´┐Żrti in about 1606 A.D. Some copies of the manuscripts were written by
his inspiration. In 1605 A.D., he went to Sanganer where Kaly´┐Ż´┐Ża gave a copy of
the Hariva´┐Ż´┐Żapur´┐Ż´┐Żna377 to him in present. N´┐Żnu and his
wife Nik´┐Żde got a copy of the ´┐Żdipur´┐Ż´┐Ża written in the temple of ´┐Żdin´┐Żtha
at Todaraisingh and presented to him in 1607 A.D.378 A copy of the
Nemin´┐Żthapur´┐Ż´┐Ża was prepared in 1617 A.D.379 In 1620 A.D., when he went to
C´┐Żtasu, S´┐Żha Deb´┐Ż offered him a welcome by presenting a mansucript of the
Narendrak´┐Żrti came after
Devendrak´┐Żrti in about 1634 A.D. He is known to have performed the installation
ceremony of images and Yantras. An inscription of 1649 A.D. engraved on the
lower portion of a large pillar records that it was erected in the temple of
Nemin´┐Żtha at C´┐Żtasu by Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Narendrak´┐Żrti.381 He went on pilgrimage to holy
places such as Girnar and Hastin´┐Żpura from time to time with the Sa´┐Żgha. In 1652
A.D., Sa´┐Żgh´┐Ż Tejasi and Udaikara´┐Ża of Neva´┐Ż´┐Ż led the Sa´┐Żgha to Girnar where the
Yantra-pratis´┐Żh´┐Ż was performed by Narendrak´┐Żrti.382 Sa´┐Żgh´┐Ż Sambh´┐Ż and Sa´┐Żgh´┐Ż N´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
together celebrated the installation ceremony of Da´┐Żalaksha´┐Ża Yantra at his
hands in 1653 A.D.383 In 1654 A.D., Jagatasi´┐Żha in the
company of the Caturvidha-Sa´┐Żgha went to Hastin´┐Żpura where he
installed the Samyak Yantra.384 In 1659 A.D. Jagatasi´┐Żha also
celebrated the installation ceremony of Ri´┐Żk´┐Żra Yantra through
him.385 At the same time, his devotee
Khemasi´┐Żha of Amber led a pilgrimage to Hastin´┐Żpura where the installation
ceremony of the ´┐Żink´┐Żra Yantra was performed by him.386
Surendrak´┐Żrti became the Pa´┐Ż´┐Żadhara
of Narendrak´┐Żrti in about 1665 A.D. In 1672 A.D., he proceeded to Sammeda´┐Żikhara
where his followers named Sa´┐Żghavi Naraharid´┐Żsa and Sa´┐Żgh´┐Ż P´┐Żrv´┐Żnanda celebrated
the installation ceremony of Da´┐Żalaksha´┐Żayantra as a result of his
preaching.387 In 1675 A.D., Naraharid´┐Żsa and
Sukh´┐Żnanda of Amber and Gh´┐Żs´┐Żr´┐Żma with his wife and sons celebrated the
consecration ceremony of P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha Yantra through him.388
Surendrak´┐Żrti was succeeded by
Jagatak´┐Żrti in about 1676 A.D. This was a terribe time and the persecutions of
Aurangzeb were going on. The old temples were pulled down and the construction
of the new ones was not allowed. In spite of this, the activities for the
propagation of Jainism continued because some ruling chiefs of Rajasthan were on
friendly terms with Aurangzeb. Some copies of the manuscripts such as
Upade´┐Żaratnam´┐Żla389 in 1688 A.D.,
Padmatpur´┐Ż´┐Ża390 in 1694 A.D. and
Sa´┐Żp´┐Żhu´┐Żasat´┐Żka391 in 1708 A.D. were prepared by his
followers in order to present them to Bramhac´┐Żr´┐Ż N´┐Żth´┐Żr´┐Żma, Ac´┐Żrya
´┐Żubhacandra and ´┐Żo´┐Żar´┐Żja, pupils of Jagatak´┐Żrti. He also celebrated the consecration ceremony of images and
Yantras. In 1684 A.D., Sa´┐Żgh´┐Ż Sonap´┐Żla made the Yantra Prati´┐Żth´┐Ż at
Karavara through him.392 The consecration ceremony of a
large number of images was organized by his devotee Sa´┐Żgh´┐Ż K´┐Żish´┐Żad´┐Żsa at
C´┐Żndakhe´┐Ż´┐Ż in 1689 A.D.393 In 1709 A.D, Day´┐Żlad´┐Żsa of his line
set up the metal image of P´┐Żr´┐Żvan´┐Żtha.394
The next Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka after
Jagatak´┐Żrti was Devendrak´┐Żrit II. Under his patronage, manuscripts were written
and the consecration of the images took place. Dhanar´┐Żja wrote a copy of the
Karmak´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żasat´┐Żka in 1720 A.D. at ´┐Żmber for the study of Pa´┐Ż´┐Żita
Ki´┐Żanad´┐Żsa, pupil of Devendrakirti.395 In 1728 A.D., A specimen of
Hariva´┐Ż´┐Żapur´┐Ż´┐Ża was prepared by his followers for the
presentation.396 Ch´┐Żha´┐Ża and Sagamala performed the
installation ceremony of images at Dhole´┐Ża through him in 1716
A.D.397 In 1726 A.D., the consecration
ceremony of images was organized at Bansakhoha by his devotee
The successor of Devendrak´┐Żrti II
was Mahendrak´┐Żrti who became Pontiff in 1735 A.D. He came from Sanganer and
established his seat at Amber. It is for this reason ´┐Żmer Pa´┐Ż´┐Ża started from
him. It is further confirmed by a pra´┐Żasti.399 Copies of the
Jamb´┐Żsv´┐Żmicaritra400 in 1736 A.D., and
Trilokadarpa´┐Ża401 in 1741 A.D. were prepared by his
Mahendrak´┐Żrti was succeeded by
K´┐Żemendrak´┐Żrti in about 1758 A.D. After him, Surendrak´┐Żrti became the pa´┐Ż´┐Żadhara
in 1765 A.D. In 1769 A.D., Sa´┐Żgh´┐Ż Nandal´┐Żla performed the installation cerermony
of images on a large scale at Sawaimadhopura as a result of his
preaching402 Vadhur´┐Żma prepared a copy of the
Munisuvrata-pur´┐Ż´┐Ża403 in order to offer him as a gift.
Sukhendrak´┐Żrti became his successor in 1795 A.D. His followers made the specimen
of V´┐Żra´┐Żgacaritra404 ready for presentation in 1816 A.D.
He participated in the Sa´┐Żgha led by Sa´┐Żghi R´┐Żyacandra to Junagad where an
Installation ceremony of some Yantra was performed by R´┐Żyacandra through
him.405 In 1804 A.D., the same person
celebrated the consecration ceremony of images at Jaipur as a result of his
preachng.406 After him, Narendrak´┐Żrti II, Devendrakirti and Mahendrak´┐Żrti became
the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas one after another in succession.
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas of Nagaura Pa´┐Ż´┐Ża
: Jinacandra had
two pupils named Prabh´┐Żcandra and Ratnak´┐Żrti. During his life time, there arose
a disagreement and his second disciple Ratnak´┐Żrti established his separate seat
at Nagaur. He died at Ajmer which is shown by an inscription of 1515 A.D. on the
Chatr´┐Ż of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Ratnak´┐Żrti.407 After him, Bhuvanak´┐Żrti became the
Pa´┐Ż´┐Żadhara who was followed by Dharmak´┐Żrti in about 1533 A.D. In 1542 A.D., a
copy of the Dharmapar´┐Żk´┐Ż´┐Ż408 was prepared by this devotee. After
him, Vi´┐Ż´┐Żlak´┐Żrti became the Pontiff in about 1544 A.D. He was followed
Lakshm´┐Żcandra. In 1579 A.D., L´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż of his line got a copy of the
Dhanyakum´┐Żracaritra409 written in order ot offer it to the
nun Karam´┐Żi in present. Later on, Sahasrak´┐Żrti, Nemicandra and Ya´┐Żak´┐Żrti became
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas one after another in succession.
Ya´┐Żak´┐Żrti was the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka of some
importance. Under his inspiration, manuscripts were prepared and images were
installed. An inscription engraved in the Jaina temple of ´┐Żdin´┐Żtha at
Rev´┐Żs´┐Ż of 1604 A.D. records that it
was constructed by S´┐Żha Jitamala and his brother Nathamala, the two sons of
Devid´┐Żsa the chief minister of R´┐Żyas´┐Żla at the preaching of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka
Ya´┐Żak´┐Żrti.410 His followers R´┐Żp´┐Ż and his son
D´┐Ż´┐Żgaras´┐Ż of Jobanera made the specimen of Dharmapar´┐Żkh´┐Ż411 ready for presenting it to
Gu´┐Żacandra in 1609 A.D. The Pa´┐Żcas of Rev´┐Żs´┐Ż presented a throne to him in 1615
A.D.412 He was followed by Bh´┐Żnuk´┐Żrti and
Bh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Żak´┐Żrti. Bh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Żak´┐Żrti had two pupils namely Dharmacandra and Ratnak´┐Żrti.
Again a trouble arose between them, and Ratnak´┐Żrti established his separate
Pa´┐Ż´┐Ża at Ajamera. After Dharmacandra, Devendrak´┐Żrti, Amerandrak´┐Żrti and
Ratnak´┐Żrti became the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas one after another in succession of Nagaura
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas of Ajamera Pa´┐Ż´┐Ża
: Ajamera already
remained a seat of the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas in early times; but fot it, there is no
definite epigraphical and monumental evidence. Mr. Harbil´┐Żsa ´┐Ż´┐Żrd´┐Ż in his
book413 mentioned the inscriptions of the
eighth or ninth century on the Cab´┐Żtaras and Chatr´┐Żs commemorating the death of
the Digambara Jaina Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas and the Pa´┐Ż´┐Żitas. But in reality these
inscriptions belong to the eighteenth and nineteenth
Ratnak´┐Żrti separated himself from
Nagaura Pa´┐Ż´┐Ża and established his seat at Ajamera. In 1694 A.D., Sa´┐Żgh´┐Ż Jes´┐Ż of
his line celebrated the consecration ceremony of images at Jobanera through
him.414 He was followed by Vidy´┐Żdhara and
then, Mahendrak´┐Żrti became the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka. In 1709 A.D., Vijayak´┐Żrti constructed
the Cab´┐Żtar´┐Ż over the remains of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Ratnak´┐Żrti. Later on, Anantak´┐Żrti
became the Pontiff. R´┐Żmasi´┐Żha performed the consecration of the temple of S´┐Żhas
as well as of images at M´┐Żro´┐Żha in 1737 A.D. as advised by him.415 Next Bhuvanabh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża became the
Pa´┐Ż´┐Żadhara who was followed by Vijayak´┐Żrti. In 1753 A.D., Vijayak´┐Żrti
constructed the Chatr´┐Żs over the remains of Anantak´┐Żrti and Bhuvanabh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża.
´┐Żc´┐Żrya R´┐Żjyak´┐Żrti constructed the Chatr´┐Ż over Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Vidy´┐Żnanda. In 1760
A.D., Vijayak´┐Żrti spent the rainy seasons at M´┐Żro´┐Żha.416 After him, Trilokendrak´┐Żrti became
the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka. Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Bhuvanak´┐Żrti erected the P´┐Żduk´┐Ż of
Trilokendrak´┐Żrti in 1781 A.D. In 1795 A.D., Dharmad´┐Żsa celebrated the
installation ceremony of images on a large scale through
Bhuvanak´┐Żrti.417 In 1805, he visited Maro´┐Żha from
where he proceeded to Kuc´┐Żma´┐Ż418
In 1818 A.D., Pann´┐Żl´┐Żla, pupil of
Bhuvanak´┐Żrti repaired the throne brought from Rev´┐Żs´┐Ż for Ya´┐Żak´┐Żrti. Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka
Ratnabh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża constructed Chatr´┐Żs over the remains of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Bhuvanak´┐Żrti in
1835 A.D. There is also the Chatr´┐Ż of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Padmanandi with the inscription
of 1871 A.D.
Besides, a large number of Cab´┐Żtar´┐Żs
and Chatr´┐Żs built over the remains of the ´┐Żc´┐Żryas and the Pa´┐Ż´┐Żitas are found at
Ajmer. There is an inscription of 1725 A.D. on the Cab´┐Żtar´┐Ż built over the
remains of Vi´┐Ż´┐Żlakirti. ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka ´┐Żr´┐Ż Vijayakriti constructed the
Cab´┐Żtar´┐Ż and footprints of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya ´┐Żr´┐Ż Bh´┐Żnukirti in 1744 A.D. at Ajamera whereas
he actually passed away at Danta in ´┐Żekh´┐Żv´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż. Pa´┐Ż´┐Żita Basantar´┐Żma constructed
the Cab´┐Żtar´┐Ż of the ´┐Żc´┐Żrya Ratnabh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża in 1756 A.D. The Cab´┐Żtar´┐Ż of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya
Devendrak´┐Żrti was built by Ga´┐Że´┐Ż´┐Żmala in 1757 A.D. Pa´┐Ż´┐Żita Basantar´┐Żma also
constructed the Cab´┐Żtar´┐Ż over the remains of Tilakabh´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ża in 1754
Pt. Tulas´┐Żd´┐Żsa constructed the
Chatr´┐Ż over the remains of Pt. Hemar´┐Żja, a disciple of ´┐Żc´┐Żrya R´┐Żjak´┐Żrti. In 1754
A.D., the P´┐Żduk´┐Ż of Pt. Vakasar´┐Żma was erected. In 1760 A.D., Pt.
Daulatar´┐Żma constructed the P´┐Żduk´┐Ż of his teacher R´┐Żmachandra who was a
pupil of Hemar´┐Żja. In 1761 A.D., Pt. Sav´┐Żirama constructed the Cab´┐Żtar´┐Żs of Pt.
R´┐Żpachanda, Pt. Malukacanda and Pt. Abhair´┐Żma. The P´┐Żduk´┐Ż of Pt.
Viradhicanda was erected in 1798 A.D. The Cab´┐Żtar´┐Ż of Pt. Pann´┐Żl´┐Żla was built in
1844 A.D. Pt. Pann´┐Żl´┐Żla was a disciple of Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żraka Bhuvanak´┐Żrti who repaired
the throne of his master in 1818 A.D.
It is thus clear that several
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas, ´┐Żc´┐Żryas and Pa´┐Ż´┐Żitas lived and played an important part in the
history of medieval Jaina society when there was anarchy. At this time, the
Muslims were carrying on persecutions and destruction, and the Mar´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Żs were
raiding the different parts of the country. The life and property of the people
became unsafe and insecure. Even at this time, Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas wandered from place
to place without any anxiety and fear for the propagation of
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas rendered valuable
services to Jainism in medieval times. Some of the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas like Sakalak´┐Żrti
and ´┐Żubhacandra were great scholars who wrote their literary works in Sanskrit,
Pr´┐Żkrit, Apabhra´┐Ż´┐Ża, Hindi, Gujar´┐Żti and R´┐Żjasth´┐Żn´┐Ż languages. The preservation
of manuscripts was the most valuable work done by them at this time. Several
copies of the works on grammar, medicine, mathematics and similar subjects were
prepared. They also contributed towards art and architecture. Installation of
various images was considered to be their main work. As their Ma´┐Żhas were
cultural centres, they patronised music, painting, sculpture, dancing and other
arts. In social sphere also, their services are remarkable. They often arranged
long pilgrimages with a large number of followers. They sometimes looked after
the management of the holy places; for instance, ´┐Żr´┐Ż Mah´┐Żviraji was managed by
the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas of Jaipur. Some of them possessed miraculous powers gained
through Mantras. To walk through air, to remove the effect of poison and
to make stone image speak are some of the miracles ascribed to them. They used
to visit the courts of Hindu and Muslim rulers and induced them to observe the
doctrine of Ahims´┐Ż by the prohibition of the slaughter of animals in
their kingdom on certain fixed days of the year.
Caityav´┐Żs´┐Ż System in
The system of the Caityav´┐Żs´┐Ż
functioned in R´┐Żjasth´┐Żna with great success and advantage. A Jaina monk according to the rule
prescribed for him does not usually stay longer than one night in a village or
five nights in a town. This practice is found in Jainism as well as in Buddhism;
and it is an inheritance of ´┐Żrama´┐Ża culture. At the same time, there came
gradually a good deal of laxity in the conduct of the
´┐Żc´┐Żrya Dharmas´┐Żgara in his
Pa´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żval´┐Ż writes that in 355 A.D., this practice of Caityav´┐Żs´┐Ż
started.419 But according to Muni Kaly´┐Ż´┐Ża
Vijaya, it had originated even earlier and in 355 A.D., it had become well
established practice.420 At present, the Yatis or ´┐Żr´┐Żp´┐Żjyas
in the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras and the Bhatt´┐Żrakas in the Digambaras are known as
Ma´┐Żhav´┐Żs´┐Ż. All are collectively known as
The Caityav´┐Żs´┐Ż system seems to have
developed in Rajasthana from about the 8th century A.D. The Jaina ´┐Żc´┐Żryas of
R´┐Żjasth´┐Żna such as Haribadras´┐Żri421 and
Jinavallabhas´┐Żri422 had drawn the attention of the
people towards the laxity in the ways of the monks. They resided in temples and
used their wealth for their personal good. They put on even coloured or scented
clothes. They are food or sweets fetched by the monks. They used to hoard money
and relish delicious dishes. They used Sacitta water as well as fruits
and flowers. They sold idols and purchased children in order to make them their
´┐Ż´┐Żlagu´┐Żas´┐Żri, the teacher of king
Vanar´┐Żja C´┐Żvad´┐Ż (765-825 A.D.) asked him to issue orders forbidding the stay of
other saints except Caityav´┐Żs´┐Ż saints in the city of A´┐Żahilav´┐Żda. In
order to violate it, in 957 A.D. Jine´┐Żvaras´┐Żri and Buddhis´┐Żgaras´┐Żri defeated
the Caityav´┐Żs´┐Żs in the debate in
the royal court of Durlabhar´┐Żja and thus sought permission for the admission of
the Vidhim´┐Żrga in P´┐Ż´┐Ża´┐Ż.
That Caityavuas´┐Żs had deviated
considerably from the traditional ways of Jaina S´┐Żdhus is evident from several
Jaina temples and idols installed by them. This was the practice of the laity
and not of the S´┐Żdhus. But the Caityav´┐Żs´┐Żs saw no harm in these deviations and
argued that what was meritorious for the laity was equally creditable for the
S´┐Żdhus. There are inscriptions which give us information about the practice of
the Caityav´┐Żs´┐Ż in R´┐Żjasth´┐Żna. In 1354
A.D., R´┐Żmacandras´┐Żri of J´┐Żr´┐Żpall´┐Ż Gaccha for self-merit constructed the
Devakulik´┐Ż at J´┐Żr´┐Żpall´┐Ż in Sirohi State.423 Hematilakas´┐Żri for the merit of his
teacher constructed the Ra´┐Żgama´┐Ż´┐Żapa of the temple at the village Varm´┐Żna
in Sirohi State in 1389 A.D.424 In 1397 A.D., V´┐Żcaka Somaprabhas´┐Żri
of Pispal´┐Żc´┐Żrya Gaccha constructed an image of Sumatin´┐Żtha at Aj´┐Żr´┐Ż which was
consecrated by V´┐Żraprabhas´┐Żri.425 V´┐Żraprabhas´┐Żri constructed the
Ma´┐Ż´┐Żapa in 1418 A.D. at the village V´┐Żrav´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż.426 In 1464 A.D. Vijayaprabhas´┐Żri of
K´┐Żcchol´┐Żv´┐Żl´┐Ż Gaccha built the Devakulik´┐Ż in the temple of Ajitan´┐Żtha for
the merit of Gu´┐Żas´┐Żgaras´┐Żri at Sirohi.427 Bhadre´┐Żvaras´┐Żri for the merit of
Tilaka S´┐Żri made Devakulik´┐Ż of ´┐Żdin´┐Żtha at J´┐Żrapall´┐Ż.428 Udaivardhana of K´┐Żcchol´┐Żv´┐Żla Gaccha
built Devakulik´┐Ż at Sirohi.429 P´┐Żr´┐Żvadevas´┐Żri of N´┐Ż´┐Żaka Gaccha
with his disciple V´┐Żracanda constructed Lagik´┐Ż at the village
Vel´┐Żra.430 Nanna S´┐Żri of Pratim´┐Żkadh´┐Żra
Pratish´┐Żh´┐Ż Gachcha erected the image of ´┐Żdideva in the building at
In the Digambara Jaina literature,
there is no definite and clear mention of the time when the system of
Caityav´┐Żs´┐Żs started. But that it was in existence in the 8th century A.D. in the
south is known from several inscriptions. In R´┐Żjasth´┐Żna, the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas were
also in possession of villages and gardens. They renovated temples, constructed
inns and gave good to other monks. It seems that, in spite of their being
Caityav´┐Żs´┐Żs, the earlier Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas remained naked, and this was probably
necessary in order to show their separation from the saints of the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras.
At present, there is a tendency in the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas to put off their clothes
while eating food but wear them at all other times. It shows that they remained
naked in the past and the practice of wearing clothes started
In the domain of religion, the
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas were the spiritual heads. They enjoyed comforts and received money
in various ways from the ´┐Żr´┐Żvakas. They possessed administrative powers and used
to appoint the Pa´┐Ż´┐Żitas at different places in order to carry on the religious
Minor Protestant and Non-Protestant
The effect of the Muslim invasions
of the Jaina religion is seen in two ways. It brought different Jaina sects
closer together for self-defence against the iconoclasts. At the same time, it
drove others away from idolatry altogether. It, therefore, naturally divided
both Digambaras and ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras each into two divisions known as
idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers. The sect of non-idol-worshippers
reminds one of the early Hindu traditions of Ved´┐Żnta and Nirgu´┐Ża Bhakti movement
of Kab´┐Żra and N´┐Żnaka. With the impact of the Muslim culture, some sections of
Jains began to denounce idol worship with great vehemence. The following sects
are the opponents of the idol worship in Rajasthan.
(a) Lo´┐Żk´┐Ż Sect : In
Ahmedabada, Lo´┐Żk´┐Ż earned his livelihood by copying books in the Up´┐Żsar´┐Ż of a
Yati called J´┐Ż´┐Żnaj´┐Ż. While writing these books, he was struck with the fact that
idol worship was not mentioned them. He pointed it out to J´┐Ż´┐Żnaj´┐Ż and
others, and a sharp controversy
arose between them as to the desirability of idolatry. At last in 1451 A.D., he
organized a new sect of his own called Lo´┐Żk´┐Ż Sect after his own name. He
declared his disbelief in such
essential rites as Paushadha, Pratikrama´┐Ża, Praty´┐Żkhy´┐Żna
and even in charity. He did not like the rites in which even the slightest
touch of violence or injury was involved. The Muslims at this time were
destroying the temples and the images. This gave him the opportunity to spread
his doctrine well. Great slackness had also come in the mendicants, because they
possessed not only the books and clothes but even wealth. There were mutual
quarrels among them. For this type of behaviour, the people began to criticize
them. He took advantage of all these circumstances in propagating his
doctrines by going from place to
Lo´┐Żk´┐Ż pronounced 31 S´┐Żtras as
the foundation of his tenet and gave a new interpretation of such S´┐Żtras
seemed to support image worship. He made such drastic changes in the
´┐Żva´┐Żyakas´┐Żtra that they altogether assumed a new form. In 1476 A.D., he
met a man named Bh´┐Ż´┐Ża, a native of ´┐Żr´┐Żgha´┐Żap´┐Ż´┐Żaka near Sirohi who took
Sany´┐Żsa without being initiated by any Acarya. This monk assumed
the false name of Dhu´┐Ż´┐Żhaka. In 1511 A.D., he secured a disciple called R´┐Żpakaj´┐Ż
and the old Vara Si´┐Żha became his disciples in 1521 A.D. and 1530 A.D.
respectively. Thus, though Lo´┐Żk´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żha himself was not initiated, others were
initiated by him and became saints.
(b) Sth´┐Żnakavas´┐Ż Sect : Some
of the members of the Lo´┐Żks Sect disapproved of the lines of their S´┐Żdhus
declaring that they lived less strictly than Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra would have wished. A Lo´┐Żk´┐Ż
layman V´┐Żraj´┐Ż of S´┐Żrat received initiation as a S´┐Żdhu and won great admiration
through the strictness of his life. Many from the Lo´┐Żk´┐Ż Sect joined this
reformer; and they took the name of Sth´┐Żnakav´┐Żs´┐Żs while their enemies called them Dh´┐Ż´┐Żdhiy´┐Ż. The followerss of
this sect are found in all the important cities of
(c) Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Ż Sect : The
founder of Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Ż Sect was Bh´┐Żkamaj´┐Ż. After a critical study of the
scriptures, he came to know that the Jaina S´┐Żdhus were not leading their lives
according to ´┐Ż´┐Żstric injunctions and were not promulgating the true principles
of Jainism. The Sth´┐Żnakv´┐Żs´┐Żs stayed in the places specially set apart for S´┐Żdhus
to live in. He began to stay even in the places meant for laymen. Once, a
strange coincidence took place. Some S´┐Żdhus and laymen both
numbering thirteen were staying in a shop. This led a poet of the Sevaga class
to compose a short parody ridiculing the sect and nicknaming it Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Ż (the
path of thirteen). Bh´┐Żkamaj´┐Ż gave a very appropriate interpretation to it. He
said the number indicated five great vows (Mah´┐Żvrata), five rules of
conduct (Samitis), and control of body, mind and speech (three
Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Żs do not worship idols.
They think that worship of idols does not lead to salvation. They meditate upon
and mentally worship those highly developed souls who have attained liberation.
They worship and revere those living beings who have renounced the world
asbsolutely and lead the life of asceticism strictly observing the five great vows.
The followers of this sect are mostly found in Bikanera and Jodhpura
Like the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras, the Digambaras
were also divided into the sects of idol-worshippers and non-idol-worshippers.
In course of time, the sect of idol-worshippers was further split into several
(a) T´┐Żra´┐Żasv´┐Żm´┐Ż, who was the
revolutionary saint, born in V.S. 1505 at Pushp´┐Żvat´┐Ż Nagar´┐Ż (Bailahari), near
Katni in Madhya Pradesh. He raised his voice against the rituals of the
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas. He was highly influenced by the works of Kundakunda. He was against
the Idol worship but emphasised on the worship of manuscripts in Jaina temples.
He wrote 14 works, and out of them M´┐Żl´┐Żrohanaj´┐Ż, Pa´┐Żdita P´┐Żj´┐Żj´┐Ż
and Kamala Batt´┐Żs´┐Żji are important. He died in V.S.
(b) Ter´┐Żpanthi Sect : The
idolatrous sect of Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Żs was founded by Pt. Banarasidas, a resident of
Ajgra. It became rapidly popular in Rajputana in the 17th century. Originally,
it was known as Vidhim´┐Żrga but its opponents nicknamed it as Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Żs just to
ridicule it. The Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Żs protested against the elaborate ritualism of the
Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas. During the lifetime of Ban´┐Żras´┐Żd´┐Żsa, the great scholar and reformer
of Agra, this sect gained great popularity. It is defined by some as a sect
which emphasizes the thirteen points of self discipline for building up the
character; others, however, believe that the name was given by its opponents to
ridicule it.433 The Digambara Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Żs are held
in contempt by the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrkas like the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbara Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Żs by the ´┐Żr´┐Żp´┐Żjyas.
Bakhata R´┐Żma in the Buddhivil´┐Żsa says that this sect differs from the
original faith in thirteen points; and hence, it is called Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Ż. The
Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Żs do not recognize the superior position of the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrkas. The
Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Żs of the ´┐Żvet´┐Żmbaras and the Digambaras differ from each other. The
former do not worhsip the images while the later do. The Digambara Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Żs
worship the images but not with the flowers, fruits, sandal and prak´┐Ż´┐Żla.
The worship, in this way according to them, involves Hi´┐Żs´┐Ż and therefore
militates against the fundamental principles of Jainism.
(c) Gum´┐Żnapanthi Sect :
Gum´┐Żnapanth´┐Ż Sect flourished in the 18th century A.D. and was so called after
the name of its founder Gum´┐Żn´┐Żr´┐Żma, the son of Pt. To´┐Żarmal of Jaipur. It was
also known as ´┐Żuddh´┐Żmn´┐Żya, because particular emphasis was laid on the
purity of conduct of its followers by imposing certain rules of discipline on
them. This sect spread in several parts of Rajasthana outside Jaipur such as
M´┐Żrotha, Bh´┐Żdav´┐Ż etc.
(d) B´┐Żsapanthi Sect : The
B´┐Żsapanth´┐Żs are the followers of the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas. They assumed its name because
they thought that they were superior to Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Żs. This sect permits idol
worship and supports the cult and methods of the Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żrakas. In this sect, the
idols are worshipped with water, lamp, flowers and sandal. The followers of this
sect are found in Jaipur, Ajamera, Nagaura and M´┐Żro´┐Żha.
(e) Tot´┐Żpanthi Sect : In
course of time, an attempt was made for the compromise between B´┐Żsapanth´┐Żs and
Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Żs. A new sect known as Tot´┐Żpanth´┐Ż came into existence. This sect
partly consists of B´┐Żsapanth´┐Ż Sect and partly Ter´┐Żpanth´┐Ż Sect. It is, therefore,
also known as S´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż Sol´┐Żha Panth´┐Ż Sect. It remained confined only to
These idolatrous sects do not
materially differ from each other in the Digambaras. Their founders namely Amara
Canda Ba´┐Żaj´┐Żty´┐Ż and Gum´┐Żn´┐Ż R´┐Żma were anxious to maintain the individuality of
their sects; and hence, the nominal differences were emphasized.
´┐Żrama´┐Ża Bhagv´┐Żn Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra, IV, P. 269
Ibid, p. 272
EI, XXI, p. 85; IHQ, 1934, p. 57.
Jacobi H : Encylopedia of
Religion and Ethics, Vol. VII, p. 473.
Vilas a. sangave : Jaina
community - A Social Survey, pp. 50-51.
Kalpas´┐Żtra, S.B.E., Vol. 22, p. 288 f.
I, I, No. XIX, p. 391.
L´┐Żders : Epig. Notes. IA, XXXIII, p.
I, II, p. 382.
Buhler : On the Indian Sect of the
Jainas, p. 55.
E I, I, No. VI, pp. 385, 87, 88, 97, 96 and
E.I., I, VI, pp. 385, 87, 88, 97, 96 and
Kalp´┐Żs´┐Żtra, SBE, XXII, p. 293.
E I, XX, pp. 59-61
Jsls, Nos. 96,
Ibid, 90, 94.
Jsls, Nos. 90,
Ibid Nos. 111, 113, 114, and 149.
Ibid, No. 193
Ibid, No. 113.
Ibid, No. 114.
Ibid, No. 149.
Ibid, No. 193.
Jsls, Nos. 175,
195, 196 and 223.
Ibid, V, No. 55.
Ibid, No. 66.
Ibid, No. 130.
Ibid, No. 183.
Ibid, No. 139.
Jsls, V, No.
Ibid, No. 262.
Ibid, IV, Nos. 292, 335, 416 and 538.
Ibid, Nos. 290, 310, 369, 378, 382, 606 and
Ibid, No. 164.
Ibid, Nos. 180 and 222.
Ibid, No. 54.
Ibid, IV, No. 94.
Jsls, II No.
Ibid, No. 372.
Ibid, IV, Nos. 83 and 169.
Ibid, Nos. 193, 229 and 256.
Ibid Nos. 126, 139 and 140.
Jsls, No. 1,
Ibid, Nos. 122, 123, and 135.
Ibid, No. 123.
Ibid, No. 150.
Ibid, No. 166
Ibid, No. 137.
Ibid, IV, No. 61.
Ibid, No. 134.
Ibid, III, No. 186, 217 and 511.
Ibid, No. 138.
Ibid, II, No. 165.
Ibid, No. 147.
Jsls, IVI, No. 185,
234, 269, 318, 490 and 541.
Ibid, No. 185.
Ibid, IV, No. 117.
Jsls, III, No.
Ibid, No. 158.
Ibid, Nos, 237-238.
Ibid, No. 17.
Ibid Nos. 163-165.
Ibid, IV, No. 96.
Jsls, No. IV, No.
212, 291, 323, 476, 565 and 609.
Ibid, No. 476.
Ibid, No. 214.
Ibid, No. 603.
Ibid, III, Nos. 267, 277, 299 and 353.
Ibid, 209, 263, 313, 377, 389, 408, 431, 459,
Ibid, IV, No. 240
Medieval Jainism, P. 327.
Ibid, IV, No. 154.
Jsls, III, No.
Ibid, IV, No. 55.
Ibid, IV, No. 157.
Ibid, Nos. 342, 376.
Ibid, III, No. 569.
Ibid, No. 585.
Ibid, IV, No. 390, p. 13.
jsls, III, No.
Ibid, No. 100.
Ibid, No. 105.
Ibid, Nos. 99, 100, 105.
Ibid, I, Nos. 106, 121, 124 and 142.
Ibid, III, No. 124.
Ibid, No. 106.
Ibid, No. 121.
Ibid, No. 124.
Ibid, No. 106.
Jsls, III, No.
Ibid, No. 124.
Ibid, No. 250.
Ibid, No. 143.
Ibid, No. 144.
Jsls, III, No.
Ibid, No. 182.
Ibid, Nos. 160 and 205.
100. Jsls, IV, No.
101. Ibid, Nos.
70, 131, 611 and 612.
102. Ibid, No.
103. Ibid, No.
104. Ibid, Nos.
611 and 612.
105. Ibid, Nos. 130, 259,
106. Ibid, No.
107. Ibid, No.
108. Ibid, No.
109. Jsls, IV, Nos. 207, 368 and
110. Ibid, No.
111. Ibid, Nos.
143, 298, 300 and 384.
112. Ibid, V,
113. Ibid, No.
114. Ibid, No.
115. Jsls, V, No.
116. Ibid, III,
117. Ibid, No.
118. Ibid, No.
119. JSLS, III,
120. Ibid, No.
121. Ibid, Nos.
188, 189, 190, 192, 202, 214, 215, 216 and 226.
122. JSLS, III,
Nos. 213, 214, 215, 216.
123. Ibid, IV,
124. Ibid, No.
125. Ibid, No.
126. Ibid, Nos.
252, 357 and 409.
127. JSLS, V,
128. Ibid, No.
129. Ibid, No.
130. Ibid, No.
III, Nos. 633 and 640.
Siddh´┐Żnta Bhaskara, Vol. 2, IV, pp. 28-29.
IV, No. 22.
134. Ibid, No.
Bhagav´┐Żn Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra, Vol, V, Pt. II. Sthavir´┐Żval´┐Ż, p.
136. PJS, Pt.
I, No. 3.
137. MJI., No.
833 and 834.
139. NJI., Pt.
I, II & III.
140. I.A., Vol.
IX, p. 248.
141. NJI. Pt.
Bhagav´┐Żn Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavir´┐Żval´┐Ż, p.
143. ´┐Żrama´┐Ża B.M.
145. NJI. Pt.
I, II & III and PLS.
Bhagv´┐Żn Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra, Vol. V. Pt. II. Sthavir´┐Żval´┐Ż, p.
147. NJI. Pt. II, III,
PLS. Pt. I, and APJLS.
Bhagv´┐Żn Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavir´┐Żval´┐Ż, p.
149. NJI. Pt. I, II
and III & APJLS.
Bhagv´┐Żn Mah´┐Żv´┐Ża, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavir´┐Żval´┐Ż, Pt. II, p.
151. NJI. Pt. I, II
and III & APJLS.
152. NJI., No.
154. NJI. No.
155. NJI., Pt. I &
157. PLS. No.
158. IA., V. XI, p.
159. IA., V. XI, p.
Bhagav´┐Żn Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavir´┐Żval´┐Ż, p.
Bhagav´┐Żn Mah´┐Żv´┐Żra, Vol. V, Pt. II, Sthavir´┐Żval´┐Ż p.
162. APJLS. No. 138
163. NJI., Pt II No.
164. Ibid. Pt.
165. NJI., Pt. I, No.
970 & 971.
167. Ibid., No.
168. APJLS. Nos. 396,
470, 471, 472 and 473.
169. NJI., Pt. No.
170. Ibid., No. 899.
171. NJI., Pt. I, II
172. APJLS., No.
173. NJI., Pt.
174. NJI., Pt. I, II
and III & APJLS., Nos. 82 & 142.
175. NJI., Nos. 789,
1313 & 2278. APJLS., No. 348.
176. APJLS., No.
177. NJI., No.
178. Ibid., No.
179. NJI., No.
180. Ibid., Nos. 1080
181. NJI., No.
182. APJLS., No.
184. NJI., Pt. I, II
186. NJI., Pt.
187. Ibid., Nos. 1111,
1143 & 1031.
188. APJLS., Nos. 74
190. Ibid., No.
191. NJI., No.
192. NJI., Pt. I, II
194. NJI., Pt. I, No.
195. APJLS., No.
196. NJI., Pt. II
& III & APJLS.
197. APJLS., No.
199. NJI., Pt.
200. PLS., Nos. 5
201. NJI., Pt. II
202. PLS., No.
203. NJI., Pt. II
204. NJI., Nos. 2478
205. Ibid., Nos. 533
206. Catalogue of the
MSS in the Patan Bha´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żras, p. 312.
207. NJI., No.
208. IA., XI, p.
209. ARRMA. Yr. 1923
210. PLS., Nos. 49,
124 & 256.
211. IA., XIV, p.
212. IA., XI, p.
213. NJI., Nos. 734,
1267, 1315 & pt. III.
214. I.A., XI,
215. NJI., No. 1059.
216. APJLS., No.
217. NJI., No.
218. NJI., Nos. 849,
850 and 851.
219. NJI., Pt.
220. IA., XI, pp.
221. NJI., No.
222. Ibid., No.
223. NJI., No.
224. NJI., No.
225. NJI., Nos. 2218
226. Ibid., Nos.
2220-22 & 2415.
227. Ibid., No.
229. NJI., No.
230. Ibid., No.
232. NJI., No
234. APJLS. Nos. 9,
454 & 466.
235. NJI., Pt.
236. NJI. No.
237. NJI., Pt.
238. ABJLS, No.
239. NJI, Pt. I
240. Ibid, Nos.
1167, 1169 and 1246.
Oct. -Dec. 1995, p. 28.
1997, pp. 81-82.
244. MUNI KANTISAGAR :
Jaina Dh´┐Żthu Prat´┐Żma Lekha Sa´┐Żgraha, I.
Ke Jaina-Lekha. pp. 77-78.
246. P.C. NAHAR :
Jaina Inscriptions III, Nos. 403-425.
247. E.I., I,
248. Jaina Jorunal
Mahav´┐Żra Jayant´┐Ż Special, pp. 195-196.
II, p. 410.
Samprad´┐Żya, p. 239.
252. KMTJ, p.
253. Ibid, p.
VI, p. 355.
255. Ibid, V,
256. Jainism in
Rajasthan, p. 72.
XXIV, p. 84.
1925-26, No. 3.
Ke Jaina-lekha, Nos 3, 6 and 7.
Samprad´┐Żya, p. 239.
Samprad´┐Żya, pp. 241-242.
263. Ibid, p.
List No. 161; ARADGS, 1973, No. 48.
Samprad´┐Żya, p. 211.
267. Mal´┐Żvanchala Ke
Jaina-Lekha, Nos. 217, 209, 198 and 106.
268. KAMTA PRASAD -
P´┐Żatim´┐Ż Lekha Sa´┐Żgrah, Nos. 60, 56 and 20.
269. Udaipur R´┐Żjya
K´┐Ż Itih´┐Żsa, p. 41.
270. PRAS, WC,
1909-10, P. 52.
Ke Jaina-Lekha, No. 59.
Ke Jaina-Lekha, No. 170.
273. E.I., II,
Ke Jaina-Lekha, Nos, 7, 167, 215, 216.
Samprad´┐Żya, pp. 293-294.
277. JSLS, V,
Ke Jaina-Lekha, p. 24, No. 7.
1883-84; I.A., XX and IA XXI.
280. PRAS. WC,
1903-04, p. 46.
XXIV, p. 84.
282. JSLS. No.
No. XLIV, Vol. XVII, p. 163 and PR 1883-84.
285. Jainism in
Rajasthan, p. 74.
286. KMTA, p.
287. Jainism in
288. M´┐Żlv´┐Ż´┐Żchala Ke
289. KAMATA PRASAD
JAIN : Pratima Lekha Sa´┐Żgraha.
290. NJI, No,
XIII, p. 126.
294. JGPS, p. 10
296. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1490 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 9 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╦é´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž╩ŽU ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐ŻUS´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╚ž´┐Ż´┐Ż╚ž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Żl´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż^ďŐU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŢž´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ś
´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ó´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╦é´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐Ż╩ó´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż▀ó´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╦É´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş
´┐ŻU╩ä´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩č´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╚ž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐Ż´┐ŻU Ţž╩ŽU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU S´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŇŞ´┐Ż 1476 Ţž´┐Ż ´┐ŻÍíĎč ´┐Ż´┐Ż.
297. Anek´┐Żnta, XIII,
298. In the Jaina
temple at Jaipur.
299. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1515 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 11 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž╩ŽU ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐ŻUS´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŰ┐ŐU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚ó´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╚ó´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻŢž´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż^ďŐU ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż╚Ł´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ŽU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż´┐Ż ▀î´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ (In the
temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur). ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ś 1496 ´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż╩Ł ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż -11 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŢž´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş Ţž´┐Ż ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż - ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż. Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş
300. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1516 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ł´┐Ż´┐Ż 5 ´┐Ż╚ŽU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż╚Ł´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚ŽU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż╩äU╩ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐ŻUŢž´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż ´┐ŻU╩ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż├Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ (On the metal image in the temple of
301. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1528 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1 ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚Ł´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż╩Č´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ (Inscription on a Yantra in the temple of Chaudharis,
302. NJI., No.
303. Anek´┐Żnta, XIII,
304. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1570 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż┘Ě - ´┐Ż├Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ŽU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ
305. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1595 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż x ´┐Ż┘É´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓ ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩î´┐Ż
306. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1607 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚ŽU´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩¬´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż╩¬´┐Ż╩ź´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻS´┐Ż╩č´┐Ż ´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU╩Ł´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ĚŢž´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓
´┐Ż´┐ŻM´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ś ´┐ŻU. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩í´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩Ł´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż═ž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩Ő ├Ő´┐Ż´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż.
´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩é, ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐ŻM´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż├Ő´┐Ż Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩č ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż (In the
temple of Laskara, Jaipur).
307. NJI., No.
308. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1620 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 9 ´┐Ż╚ť´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐ŻUS´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŰ┐ŐU ´┐Ż ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚É´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐Ż´┐ŻL´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ś
´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż├ŽU╩ęU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩é´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ó ´┐ŻU╩É´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐ŻU╩É╩î´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż.
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż┘č´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Żk´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
309. NJI., No
310. Ibid., No.
XIII; p: 126.
312. ARRMA, 1919-20
Nos. 1 & 6.
313. Inscription in
the temple of P´┐Ż´┐Żod´┐Ż at Jaipur.
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1661 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż ´┐Ż┘É´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż═Ě´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻM´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ś
´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╚ž ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż╩ŽU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż╦ŽU´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż┘ź´┐ŻU´┐Ż Ţž╩ŽU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
XIII, p. 127.
316. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1751 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU
´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 5 ´┐Ż┘É´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻăŁ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż╩¬´┐Ż├Ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻUS´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻŰ┐ŐU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž╩ŽU ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż╚ž´┐Ż´┐Ż╚ž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŢž´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Żk´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓ Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż^ďŐU ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩Ő´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐Ż´┐ŻM´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż┘É´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻS´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐ŻU Ţž╩ŽU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ
317. PRAS. wc.,
1904-05, p. 57.
318. PS, p.
319. Ibid., p.
320. Ibid., p.
321. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1517 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 10 ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU
´┐ŻU´┐ŻU´┐ŻU╩í ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐Ż╩äUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩î´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż
(Jaina temple of Patodi, Jaipur).´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1299 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 9 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐ŻU---
322. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1523 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ů´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 2 ´┐Ż´┐ŻL´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Żk´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż^ďŐU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż^ďŐU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩ź´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐ŻM´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż, ´┐ŻU╦ŽU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż´┐Ż (Jaina temple
323. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1532 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 7 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐ŻU´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
Ţž╩č´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻS´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩ęU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ
324. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1518 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 3 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż╦Ł´┐ŻU╩í ´┐Ż╩Č´┐Ż´┐ŻU╦Ł╩ő´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU╩í´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐ŻU╩Ł´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU´┐ŻU ´┐Ż╚ó´┐ŻU╩é╩ľ
325. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1571 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 2 ´┐Ż┘É´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż╚ž´┐Ż´┐Ż╚ž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩ź´┐ŻU ´┐Ż┘Ő´┐Ż╩Ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż╚äU╩¬´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻS´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŇÉ´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩é,
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩é, ´┐ŻŇÉ´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩í´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż├Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ
PS., P. 154.
327. Ibid., p.
328. Ibid., p.
329. Ibid., p.
330. Ibid., p.
331. Ibid., p.
332. Ibid., p.
333. Ibid., p.
334. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1573
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 3 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU╩ĺ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐ŻU╦ő´┐Ż
335. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1573 ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩¬´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 3 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐ŻUS´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŰ┐ŐU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž╩ŽU ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╚ž´┐Ż´┐Ż╚ž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż^ďŐU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż Ţž╩ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU┘äU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş Ţž╩É´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Żk´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Żk´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
337. Ibid., pp. 36
338. Ibid., p.
339. Ibid., p.
340. Ibid., p.
341. Ibid., p.
342. PS., p.
343. Ibid., p.
344. Ibid., p.
345. Ibid., p.
346. Ibid., p.
347. Ibid., p.
348. Ibid., p.
349. Ibid., p.
350. Ibid., p.
351. Ibid., p.
352. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1590 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 7 ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓ ´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓ ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU
´┐Ż╩Ő´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ├Ő´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩î´┐Ż ´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ (Temple of
353. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1590 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 4 ´┐Ż╚ť´┐Ż╩Ž´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Żl´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž╩ŽU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐ŻUS´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŰ┐ŐU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╚ó´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╚ó´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃîî´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐Ż ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃîî´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚äU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩č´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż╩ť╩Ł´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ŽU╩ä´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ľ (Temple of Lunakaranji,
354. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1593 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU
´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 3 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż´┐Ż ├î´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐ŻU´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ├î´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż╩é´┐Ż
´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ
355. P.S., p.
356. Ibid., p.
357. Ibid., p.
358. Ibid., p.
359. Ibid., p.
360. Ibid., p.
361. Ibid., p.
362. ARAMA, 1927-28,
363. PS., p.
364. Ibid., p.
365. Ibid., p.
366. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1642 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż═č ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 7 ´┐Ż╚ť´┐Ż╩é´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż, ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż,
´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐ŻŇŐ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩äU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐ŻU╩í ´┐Ż├Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż
367. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1641 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż═č ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 7 ´┐Ż╚ť´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻŃÉó´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż Ţž´┐ŻU´┐ŻŢž´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╩äU Ţž╩ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ
368. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1641 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╚č ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 2 ´┐Ż´┐Żh´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż┘č´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż ├Ő´┐Ż´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż ├Ő´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU╩í
369. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1641 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╚č ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 7 ´┐Ż╚ť´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż┘äU´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż┘Ő´┐Ż╩Ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐ŻU├č´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż▀Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. Ţž´┐Ż╩ť´┐ŻU, ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩é ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
370. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1648 ´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╩é ´┐Ż╩Ł╩Č╚ŽU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU╩í´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩č´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐Ż´┐ŻM´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő ´┐Ż╩ĺ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ╩Ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż╚äU╩¬´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╦č´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ŽU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩í ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐ŻU´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ŽU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż╩│U´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU╩É ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩č´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩č´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU
371. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1648 ´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 5 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻĎą ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż.
´┐Ż╦č´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş ▀ź´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ├Ő´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
372. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1651 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 10 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩│U´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő
´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż╩č´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐ŻU├č´┐Ż
373. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1651 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É ´┐Ż╚ŽU´┐Ż ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż═ó´┐Ż´┐Ż
374. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1658 ´┐Ż╩Ě╩ů´┐ŻU
´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 10 ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ž´┐ŻU ´┐Ż ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż┘é´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐ŻS├Ü´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ├Ő´┐Ż´┐Ż, m´┐Ż. ´┐ŻU´┐ŻU´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ├Ő´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż, ´┐Ż╦Ł´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
375. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1661 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╚č ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 2 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő Ňő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ç´┐Ż╩č´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ
376. ARRMA, 1927-28,
377. PS. p.
378. Ibid., p.
379. Ibid., p.
380. Ibid., pp.
381. ARRMA., 1927-28,
382. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1709 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╚č
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 7 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻUŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├Ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ó ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż├ś ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩ŽU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž
383. See above, p.
384. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1711 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 4 ´┐Ż┘É´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Żk´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż.... ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻUŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩É ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU┘Ł´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ł´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐ŻUS├č╩¬´┐Ż╚Ž´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩¬´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ľ ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
385. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1716 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 4 ´┐Ż┘É´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 108 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻUŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩É ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ł´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż
386. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1716 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 4 ´┐Ż┘É´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻUŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩É ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ł´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU
´┐ŻUS├č╩¬´┐Ż╚Ž´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩¬´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż├ľ
387. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1729 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╚č
´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 9 ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž╩ŽU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐ŻUS´┐Ż´┐Ż╦¬Ű┐ŐU ´┐Ż. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚Ž´┐ŻUŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩é ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ŽU´┐Ż╩č´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É ´┐ŻŕÉŐ´┐Ż
388. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1732 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 2 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚Ž´┐ŻUŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╬ť´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐ŻU´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩é ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩č´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐ŻS├Ü´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩é╦ŽU╩É
´┐ŻS´┐Ż S´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż┘│U´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻŇÉ ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩î┘ŽU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻS´┐Ż S´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż┘é╩î´┐Ż ´┐Żm´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż├Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐ŻŕÉŐ´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩ľ
389. Ps. p.
391. Ibid. p.
392. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1743
Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├ŞŢž ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 15 Ţž´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż ´┐Ż┘č´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż
393. See above, p.
394. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1766 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 6 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż U´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż╩é ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż
395. Ps., p.
396. Ibid., p.
397. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1773
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩é ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż─ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻŇĆ ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ---- ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚äU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż┘ő´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż ´┐ŻU╦äU´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż
Ţž´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż (Temple of Chaudharis, Jaipur).
398. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1783 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 8 ´┐Ż╚ť´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ó´┐Ż´┐Ż┘äU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃ║▓Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩źU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩É´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż Ţž´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩ľ ´┐ŻĎą´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻĎŽU╩í ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
399. PS., pp. 48 and
400. Ibid., p.
401. Ibid., p.
402. See above, p.
403. PS., p.
404. Ibid., p.
405. See above p.
406. See above p.
407. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1572 Ţž´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż╩¬´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 6 ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ž´┐ŻU ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż Ţž´┐Ż
408. PS., p.
409. Ibid., p.
410. ARRMA, 1934-35,
411. PS., p.
´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 108 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻS´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż Ţž´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩é´┐Ż Ţž´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩é´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż. 1672 Ţž´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 5´┐Ż
413. Ajmer Historical
and Descriptive, p. 123.
414. See above, p.
415. See above, p.
416. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1814 Ţž´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩Ě╩ů´┐ŻU ´┐Ż╚î´┐Ż 10 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż┘É´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş ´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩ŽU╩í ´┐Ż´┐ŻU┘ŽU´┐Ż´┐ŻU
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż╚É╩Ş´┐Ż ´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż┘ľ
417. ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 1852 ´┐ŻĎç´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╩äU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż─ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩č´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻL´┐Ż´┐Ż╩é´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩î╚¬´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╦ą´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ŽU╩Ł´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╚Ł´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├ŞS├î´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩äU´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩é´┐Ż´┐Ż ▀î´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├É´┐Ż Ţž╩ŽU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ľ
418. ´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩ŽU´┐Żc´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŃîŽ´┐ŻU ´┐Ż╩Ł╩ó ´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż├ŽU ´┐Ż´┐Ż. 1862 Ţž´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩é╩ů´┐ŻU ´┐Ż╩é´┐Ż ´┐Ż╬žc´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż╩É
´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ž´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż═ő´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ő ´┐Ż´┐Żl´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż^ďŐU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż^´┐ŻU╩ŽUŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 108 ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż
´┐Ż╚Ł´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż´┐Ż├Ş´┐Ż´┐Ż, ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż Ţž╩ő═ŽU╩É ´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻUŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩ŽU´┐Ż´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ŽU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩äU╩ó Ţž´┐Ż
´┐Ż´┐Żc´┐ŻU´┐Ż Ţž´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻS´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐ŻU╩í´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ŁŢž ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻŢž´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż╩Ş´┐Ż╚ŽU╩¬ ´┐Ż╩Ł ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż ´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╩ľ
´┐Ż╩┐U ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ŽU´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż╩ó´┐ŻŢž´┐ŻU ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż╚č ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż 5 ´┐Ż╚ž´┐Ż╩É´┐Ż´┐Ż ´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐Ż´┐ŻU´┐Ż╩ľ
(Inscription, S´┐Żha Jaina Temple M´┐Żro´┐Żha).
419. JSAI., p.
Sambodhaprakara´┐Ża, Verses 27, 34, 46-49, 61, 63, 68
Sa´┐Żghapa´┐Ż´┐Żaka, Verses 7, 11, 12, 15, 21 etc.
423. APJLS, No.
424. Ibid., No.
425. APJLS, No.
426. Ibid., No.
427. Ibid., No.
428. Ibid., No.
429. Ibid., No.
430. Ibid., No.
431. Ibid., No.
432. JSAI., p.
433. I.A., XX, p.
435. JSAI., p.