Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Jain History

Jainism Before Mahvra

Sources
Life of MahvRa
Teachings of MahvRa
Age of Mahvra
  Historical Role Of Jainism
 

Ancient Jain Trthas and historical places

  Jaina Monks, Statesmen and rvakas1
  Social life of The jaina community in medieval times
  Religious Divisions
  Social - Divisions
  Bhattarak Sampradaya
  jainism in mdiaeval india (1300-1800)
  Economic life of jains in Medieval times
  Medieval jainism
  Contributions of Jainism to Indian culture

Chapter VII

Ancient Jain T�rthas and historical places

The T�rthas are connected with the incidents of the lives of the T�rtha�karas and other great persons. The places, where the T�rtha�karas were born, first renounced the �a�s�ra and initiated into religious life, practised austerities and achieved kavalaj��na (omniscience), are known as Kaly��aka Kshetras. The places where the T�rtha�karas realised emancipation are called N�rv��a Kshetras. Such places are Kail��a, Champ�, P�v�, Urjayanta and Sammeda �ikhara. The places, where the great ascetics lived and achieved liberation, are also known as the Tirthas. Generally, such T�rthas were established on the basis of imagination in medieval times in order to increase their importance. At times, the idols in certain places are believed to bestow great favours on their devotees. Hence such places are also considered as Ati�ayakshetras. Some sites are important from the point of view of art and history.

The Pr�k�it Nirv��ak�n�a of Kundakunda1 and Sanskrit Nirv��a Bhakti of P�jyap�da give information about the ancient Jaina T�rthas. As ���dhara mentions these belong to earlier period than the 13th centry A.D. The Sakalat�rtha Stavana by Siddharshi (of the 12th century A.D.) contains a list of holy places. The Vividhat�rthakalpa of Jinaprabhas�ri written in about the 14th century A.D. gives a biref history of the holy places. The number of T�rthas increased in the medieval period. There are even different traditions about the origin of some of these T�rthas. In the medieval Jaina literature, we come across many examples where rich Jainas led a Sa�gha or a large group of people to the places of pilgrimage. Bhaiya Lal has written The Nirvankala. (Bhora) in V.S. 1741 in Hindi language giving the list of holy places.1 In commemoration of this act, they are given the honorific title of Sa�ghapati by the Jainas. It is felt that they are helpful in creating self-enlightenment (Atmaj�g�iti) in the minds of the people who visit them. When Jainism began to decline, some of the Jaina T�rthas have been forgotten, and were even occupied by other sects. These ancient Jaina T�rthas have been classified on regional basis.

Eastern India

Bihar, bengal and orissa

Bihar

Sammeda �ikhara : The Sammeda �ikhara mountain is situated in the Girdi District of Bihar. Excluding �ishabha, V�sup�jya, Nemin�tha and Mah�v�ra, the remaining twenty T�rtha�karas got emancipation on this mountain. In honour of the twenty-third T�rtha�kara, P�r�van�tha, the place is known as P�r�van�tha hill. On the different summits of the mountain, twenty temples containing the foot-prints of the twenty T�rtha�karas have been erected to commemorate their memories. Gu�abhadra in the Uttara Pur��a, Ravishe�a in the P�dma Pur��a, Jinasena in the Hariva��a Pur��a and other Jaina literary works mention it as Nirv��a Bh�mi of Twenty T�rtha�karas and innumertable Munis.2 Muni Arvinda, poet Mah�chandra (Say 1587), Bha���raka Ratnachandra (Sam. 1683) and others led pilgrimage to this holy place. From the  Pra�asti of Ya�odhara Charita1 dated V.S. 1659 of Bha���raka J��nak�rti, it is known that N�nu, Minister of king M�nasi�ha of Amber in Rajasthan, built twenty temples of the twenty T�rtha�karas respectively.

P�v�pura : T�rtha�kar Mah�v�ra attained liberation at P�v�pura. It is situated in the Patna District. Some scholars identify it with P�v�pur� of the Nalanda District, while others suggest that it was near Ku�in�r�, the place of Buddha's death in Gorakhpur District. Bha���raka Ya�ahk�rti (15th century) of Gwalior describes P�v�pura in the Ji�aratti.2

R�jag�iha : R�jag�iha remained associated with the activities of Mah�v�ra. According to the Jaina tradition, it was also the birth-place of Munisuvrata. A few Jaina antiquities of the Gupta period were also found from this place. Even in later times, Jaina monks in Gujarat and South India used to visit this ancient  city.

P��ali-putra : P��ali-putra is now known as Patna. Several early Jaina teachers such as Bhadrab�hu I, Sth�labhadra Mah�giri and Suhastin were connected with this city. The Jaina philosopher Um�sv�ti composed his Tattv�rthadhigams�tra here in this city. The first Jaina council was held here during the reign of Nanda for deciding the scriptures (V�chan�). In Jinaprabha's time, P��aliputra was consider to be sacred. Muni Sudar�ana attained Nirvana from here.

Champ� : This celebrated city was the capital of A�ga Janapada. It remained associated with the Jaina T�rtha�karas V�sup�jya and Mah�v�ra. It is the only one place where the five Kaly��akas of Vasup�jya were held. Mah�v�ra also spent three years of his missionary life in Champ�. At this time, Dadhiv�hana was the ruler of this city. There was the Chaitya of P�r�abhara existing here. The work Da�avaik�lika was composed at this place by �ayambhava. The V�sup�jya temple of this place was recognised as a celebrated shrine, and several literary texts from the early period mention the V�sup�jya temple complex of this city. Jinasena II, the author of the Hariva��a, describes this temple-complex. He also refers to the M�nastambha of this great temple. Jinaprabha mentions in the Vividhat�rthakalpa that this city was destroyed by the Bengal Sultan Shamsuddi�n in V.S. 1360.1

Vai��l� : The anciant city of Vai��l� is identified with the modern town of Bas��ha a suburb of Vai�al� Mah�v�ra was born here, and it was connected with the childhood of Mah�v�ra. It was the capital of Vajji republic, and Chetaka was the influential king. Even before the birth of Mah�v�ra, the teachings of P�r�van�tha were accepted by a number of people of this town including Mah�v�ra's parents.2

Bhaddilapura : Bhaddilapura was the capital of Malaya. It is said that this place was visited by Ari��hanemi and was the birth place of the tenth T�rtha�kara Sitalnath. It is identified with Bhadia, a village near Kukuh� hill about nine km. from Hunterganja in the Hazaribagh District.3 According to Jaina Pa���val�s of the M�lasa�gha the first twenty-six pontificates belong to Bhaddalapura. After that, the 27th pontiff transferred his seat from Bhaddalapura to Ujjain. According to the four Pa���val�s, Bhaddalapura is identified with Bhilsa in Malwa while the fifth, which is the oldest, tells us that it was in the South. It is reasonable to identify this place with Bhadrika or Bhadr�vat� located near Ellora.1 It was one of the early capitals of the Imperial R�shtrak�tas.

Mithila : According to the Jaina tradition, Malli and Namin�tha were botn in Mithil�, Mah�v�ra himself stayed for six years in this city. The Jaina rebel Assmitta was associated with this city in the third century B.C. According  to the Vividhat�rthakalpa, this ancient city was situated on the confluence of the B��aga�g� and the Ga��ak� and was known as Jagai in Jinaprabha's time.2

K�kand� : K�kand� is generally identified with K�kan in Munger District. This T�rtha is associated with the birth of the ninth T�rtha�kara Pushpadanta.3 According to J.C. Jain4, Khukund in Gorakhpur District of U.P is modern site of K�kand�. Mah�v�ra is said to have visited this place. K�kandiy� ��kh� of the Jaina �rama�aas was named after this place.

Gay� : J���as�gara, who flourished in the sixteenth century, in his Sarvat�rthavandan� associates Gaya with Akala�ka, and mentions that the latter had erected the temples of Sambhavan�tha, Nemi and Sup�r�va at that town.5

Bengal

Ko��t�rtha : Ko�i�il� T�rtha has been described in the Pur��as such as the Hariva��a Pur��a and Padmapur��a. Some scholars indentify it with the Kum�r� Mountain of Udayagiri and Kha��agiri, and with M�lal� mountain of Ganjam District in Kali�ga.1 In the Vividhat�rthakalpa, it has been described near Da��r�a Mountain in Magadha.2 On the basis of Brihat Kath� Ko�a and also Prabh�chandra's Kath� Ko�a, it has been located in Varendra (North Bengal).3

Pu��ravardhana : There was the Pu��ravardhaniy� ��kh� mentioned in the Kalpas�tra. At the time of Hiuen-Isang's Visit (in the seventh century), there were numerous Digambara Jainas at this town. The Vividhat�rthakalpa mentions the V�ra temple at Pu��ra-parvata which may be identical with Pu��ravardhana.4

T�mralipti : Tamralipti was the famous port in Bengal in ancient times. Even in Mah�v�ra's time, the residents of T�mralipta were attaracted towards the religion of the Nirgranthas. The Tamralipti �akh� of the �rama�as was named after this place. Prabh�chandra's Kath�ko�a (11th century) refers to the P�r�va temple of this town.5

Orissa

Kha��agiri : Kha��agiri situated in Kali�ga (Orissa) was associated with Jainism from the Nanda period (4th century B.C.). The evidence of Kh�ravela inscription shows that it was known as Kum�r� hill in the second or first century B.C. This particular name is found in the tenth century epigraph from the same hill, and also in the B�ihatkath�ko�a of Jarishe�a, composed in 931 A.D. The inscriptions of Udyotake�ar� proves that this hill, continued as a popular Jaina centure, for a very long time, and the evidence of Harishe�a's work alos proves the same.

North India

Uttar Pradesh, Delhi region, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Madhya pradesh

Uttar pradesh

 Ayodhy� : This ancient T�rtha of Ayodhy� is represented as the birth place of the five T�rtha�karas, namely �ishabha, Ajita, Abhinan�ana, Sumati and Ananta. Jinaprabha saw a number of Jaina temples in this town. Probably, the earliest temple of this town, was dedicated to the T�rtha�kara which has been mentioned in the Paumachariyam. It has recognised as eternally very pious place of  the Jainas.

V�r��as� : According to the Jaina traditions, Var��as� is associated with the two T�rtha�karas, namely Sup�r�va and P�r�van�tha. Jinaprabha mentions the P�r�va temple-compex of V�r��as�. J��nas�gara (16th century) has mentioned two temples of P�r�va and Sup�r�va of this city.8 Acarya Samathabhara (2 A.D)   composed Brhassvabhu stotra here.

Ahichchhatra : Ahichchhatra is identical with the present Ramnagar in Bareilly District. Jinaprabha has connected this place with P�r�van�tha, and he mentions two Jaina temples. The Nirv��ak���a written in the 12th century refers to this Jaina T�rtha.1

�r�vast� : �r�vast� is situated in Bahraich District. According to the Jaina tradition, this place was the birth place of the third T�rtha�kara Sambhavan�tha. This city was visited byr Mah�v�ra himself. �r�vastik� ��kh� of the �rama�as was named after this city. The discovery of the pre-Gupta Jaina images from this place proves that it was a Jaina sacred place in earlier days. The Sambhavan�tha temple was standing during the time of Jinaprabha, who gives an interesting informaton of its being destroyed by Alaudd�n's general Habbasa. There is mention of this city in the Briha�kath�ko�a of Harishe�a.2

Hastin�pura : According to the Jaina tradition, Hastin�pura was the birth place of the T�rtha�karas �antin�tha, Kunthun�tha and Aran�tha. In ancient times, the Jainas forgot about the exact location of this place. it appears from the Vividhat�rthakalpa  that this place was practically rediscovered by Jinaprabha. The shrines of ��nti, Kunthu, Arahan�tha and Mallin�tha were installed in his time.3

K�mpilya : Kampilya is identified with modern Kampil in Farrukhabad District. It is claimed to be the birth place of the 13th T�rtha�kara. According to Jaina canonical tradition, �samitta, the fourth Ni�hava (Schism), flourished 220 years  after Mah�v�ra. Early Jaina inscriptions have been discovered from this place. The author of the Vividhat�rtha refers to this T�rtha.1

Mathura : Mathura is recognized as a great Jaina T�rtha because Jambusv�m� attained Nirv��a here, The Devanirmita (divine made) St�pa of this place belonged to the third of second century B.C. A few sculptures of this place belonged to the pre-christian period. The Jaina sculptures and �y�gapa��as of the Kush��a period  discovered in large number prove the great popularity of Jainism. People of common classes such as iron-smiths, gold-smiths, potters and perfumers followed Jainism. The names of Kulas and ��kh�s mentioned in the Jaina inscriptions confirm to those found in the text of the Kalpas�tra. Jainism also continued during the Gupta period as known from the remains. The Pa�chast�panik�ya sect of the Digambaras originated from this place. Bappabha��as�ri visited this holy place. The Vividhat�rthakalpa mentions this T�rthas. From the Brihatkath�ko�a, it is known that Jainism was popular here. Five hundered and fourteen stupas were built or broken lod st�pas during the reign of Akbar when this T�rtha was renovated by S�ha �odara. Jainism suffered greatly in Mathura from time to time because of invasions.2 Chinese Huensang (7 century) has recorded in his travels that there were more than five hundred Jain temples here3.

Si�hapura : Si�hapuri is the place, where according to the Jaina tradition, the 11th T�rth�nkara �rey���a was born. There  is a controversy among scholars about the identification of this place. Some identify this place with S�rn�th. The evidence of Yuan Chwang seems to suggest that this place is identical with Si�hapura, situated in the salt range (Punjab, Pakistan), which has been described by that pilgrim as connected with a 'founder' of the 'White-Cloth' sect.

According to the Digambaras, this place sacred to Nemin�tha, was located on the river K�ver�. J��nas�gra, who lived in the 16th century, has described this place. It was also called Narasi�hapa��ana.1

 Kau��mb� : Kau��mbi is identified with the present Kosam in the Allahabad District. According to the Jaina tradition, this place was birth place of the sixth T�rtha�kara Padmaprabha. Mah�v�ra is known to have visited this place personally during the reign of Udayana. The Kalpas�tra suggests that there was a ��kh� named after this city. Jinaprabha has also written on this T�rtha.2

Pabh�s� : Pabh�s� is situated near Kau�a�b� in Allahabad District. There Jaina inscriptions of the �u�ga period have been discovered here. These inscrptions inform that Ash��hasena constructed the caves in the Pabhos� mountain for the Arahantas of the K��yapagotra. Some ancient Jaina sculptures have also been discovered here. One is a magnificent sitting icon of Padmaprabha.3

Chandrapur� : Chandrapur� is stituated near Var��as�, and it has been identified with the place of the same name. According to the Jaina tradition, it was the birth place of the eight T�rtha�kara Chandraprabha. Jinaprabha mentions this T�rthas in the Vividhat�rthakalpa.1

Ratnapur� : Ratnapur is located in the Faizabad District. According to the Jaina traditions, it was the birth place of Dharmanatha, the 15th T�rtha�kara. Jinaprabha describes it as situated near Ayodhy�.2

Devagarh : Devagarh is situated in the Lalitpur District. It was the great centre of Jainism during the early medieval period. The earliest Jaina epigraph from this place is dated 862 A.D. of the reign of Pratih�ra Bhoja. In the ninth century A.D., it was called Luachchhagira. Afterwards, it was given the name K�rtigiri. A Chandella epigraph also was discovered from this place. There was the temple of �antin�tha here. From the inscriptions of the 15th century A.D., it is known to be a centre of the M�lasa�gha. A large number of Jaina images of the T�rtha�karas, Yakshas and Yaksh�s have been unearthed here.3

Chandrav��a : Chandrav��a is a place on the Yamun� near Firozabad in Agra District. It is sacred to Chandraprabha. The Jaina temple of this T�rtha�kara was constructed in 996 A.D. This town was founded by the Chauh�na ruler Chandrap�la who was the follower of Jainism. This ruler and his successors ruled up to the 16th century A.D. Most of these rulers, and all their Ministers were devoted to Jainism.1

�aur�pura : (Sauryapura) According to the Tiloyapa�natti, Hariva��apur��a and �r�dhan� Kath� Kosha of Nemidatta, Arish�anemi was born at �aur�pura. This place is identified with the place near Bate�vara in Agra District. The remains of old Jaina temples and images have been discovered at this place. In the medieval period, it remained a seat of the Bha���rakas of the M�lasa�gha. Bha���raka Vi�vabh�sha�a of this Sa�gha constructed the Jaina temple and performed its installation ceremony in 1667 A.D.2

Uchchanagara : It is difficult to identify Uchchanagara correctly on the basis of present state of knowledge. J.C. Jain identifies it with Bulandshahar. It was, in all probability, in Rajasthan or Sindh. An early Jaina ��kh�, mentioned in the Ther�val�, originated from this place. It is mentioned several times in the Kharataragachchha B�ihad Gurv�vali, and it was intimately connected with the activity of the monks of the Kharatarai gachchha.3

Delhi Region

Delhi : The ancient name of Delhi was Yogin�pura in the pre-Muslim period. The king Madanapala of this place gave a cordial reception to the Jaina saint of the Kharatara  gachchha in V.S. 1222. The Kharatara gachchha Pa��avali informs that P�r�van�tha temple existed here. Even in the Muslim period, the Jainas played an important part in the religious affairs of Delhi. The Prabandhako�a of R�ja�ekhara was written here in 1317 A.D. The well-known Pheru belonged to Delhi and he accepted the teachings propounded by the Jaina saints. A temple of Mah�v�ra was built in Delhi around 1328 A.D., under the patronage of Muhammad Bin Tughluq. Afterwards, also the manuscripts of Jaina works were written at Yoginipura or Delhi.1

Rudrapalli : Rudrapalli was situated near Delhi. The Rudrapall�ya Gachchha originated from this place in 1147 A.D. The Kharatara Gachchha Pa���vali mentions two temples of this place namely those of P�r�va and �ishabha.2

Ash��pada : Ash��pada is generally identified with Kail��a, and according to the Jaina tradition, Rishabha attained Nirv��a on the summit of this mountain. The Vividhat�rthakalpa also mentions this T�rtha.3

Kany�nayana : Kany�nayana was probably situated near Delhi. The icon of Mah�v�ra was installed in the existing Chaity�laya of this place in V.S. 1233 by the Kharatara �ch�rya Jinapati This T�rtha, according to the Vividhatirthakalpa, was destroyed by the Muslims in V.S.1385, and afterwards, the author of this work, namely Jinaprabha, with the help of Muhammad Bin Tughluq, repaired the T�rtha and once more, installed the icon of Mah�v�ra,4 in the same temple-complex of Kany�nayana.

Haryana

Rohitaka : The modern name of this place is Rohtak in Haryana. A Yaksha shrine of this place is mentioned in the Up��ga text, the N�rayavalik�. It is also mentioned in the B��hatkath�ko�a. A temple of P�r�van�tha of this place was in existence during the time of Emperor Babar in V.S. 1584 and 1586. The temple was under the supervision of the Digambara monks of the K�s�h� Sa�gha.1

Himachal Pradesh

Nagarako��a : Nagarako��a is situated in the Dharmsala District of Himachal Pradesh. It is mentioned in several Jaina works. The Kharataragachchha Gurvav�li proves that there was a temple of ��ntinatha at this place in the 13th century. The Vij�aptitrive�� by Jayas�gara in 1426 A.D. mentions this place as a Mah�t�rtha and also calls it by the name Su�armapura. It also mentions the great ��ntin�tha temples-complex of this place. The same work also mentions the temples of Mah�v�ra, �din�tha and Nemin�ta of this place. The king of this place in V.S. 1484 was patron of Jainism. The Nagarako��a Chaityaparip��� of Jayas�gara mentions also these four Jaina temples of this place and also the temple of Ambik�.2

Punjab

Taxila : Taxila remained associated with Jainism in early times as known from the archaeological remains. The Vividhat�rthakalpa recognizes it as a Jaina T�rtha and associates this place with B�hubali.1

Madhya Pradesh

Ujjain : Mah�v�ra is known to have visited Ujjain where he did penance in a cemetery when Rudra and his wife tried in vain to interrupt him. Jaina traditions ascribe that Pradyota was a follower of Jainism and tried for its propagation. Chandragupta Maurya was admitted to monkhood of Ujjain. When �rya Suhastin visited Ujjain in order to worship the image of J�vanta Sv�m�, Avanti Sukum�la took the vocation of monkhood from him. After the death of Avanti Sukum�la, a st�pa was erected in order to commemorate him and the image of P�r�van�tha was installed in it. After some time, the st�pa became barren, and it was known by the name of Ku�u�ge�vara (God of the great Forest). Vikram�ditya of Ujjain is known to have been devoted to Jainism It was a seat of the Pontiffs of the M�lasa�gha. In the middle of the thirteenth century, Devadhara seems to have been the head of a Jaina monastery at Ujjain. In the Vividhat�rthakalpa, Jinaprabhas�ri mentions Ku�u�ge�avara of Ujjain.2

Da�apura : Da�apura is identified with the modern city Mandsor. After Si�hagiri had taught him the eleven A�gas, Vajra went from Da�apura to Bhadragupta at Avanti (Ujjayin�) to learn the twelfth viz. the D�ish�iv�d��ga. Da�apura is the birth place of the Jaina saint �ryarakshita who learned from Vajra nine P�rvas, and a fragment of the tenth, and taught them to his pupil Durbalik�pushpamitra. The seventh schism in Jainism occurred at this place. Jinaprabhas�ri mentions Sup�r�va at Da�apura.1

Vidi�a : The king Pradyota is said to have installed the J�vantasv�m� (lifetime) image of Mah�v�ra at Vidi��. Jaina traditions aver that Vajrasv�m� and other Jaina Pontiffs obtained liberation in the hills Kunjar�varta and Rath�varta in the neighbourhood of Vidi��, now known as Bhilsa. Three stone images of Jaina T�rtha�karas of the fourth or fifth century A.D. made by Mah�r�j�dhir�ja R�magupta have been discoverd from Vidi��. The Udayagiri cave inscription of 425-426 A.D. in the neighbourhood records the installation of an image of the T�rtha�kara P�r�van�tha by �ankara, the disciple of saint Go�arman. Jinaprabhas�ri refers to Mah�v�ra of Bh�ilasv�m�ga�ha.2

Ma�galapurA : Ma�galapura was sacred to Abhinandana, the fourth T�rtha�kara as mentioned by Jinaprabhas�ri in the T�rthakalpa. The ��sanachatustri��atik� of Madanak�rti also refers to Abhinandana Jina of Ma�galapura. it was destroyed by the Muslims apparently in the 13th century and was again rebuilt. Jinaprabha tells that this temple once received a grant of land from Jayasi�ha II, the Param�ra king of Malwa who ruled in the third quarter of the 13th century.3

Ch�lagiri : Ch�lagiri, known to be the Siddhakshetra, is situated in the West Nimar. it is now identified with the present Ba�aw�n�. According to the Prakrit Nirv��a K���a. Indraj�ta kumbhakar�a Munis have attained liberation from here. Mandanak�rti, a scholar of the 12th or 13th century A.D., tells the image of �din�tha as B�ihaddeva in the ��sanachatusti��atik�. There are two inscriptions dated 1166 A.D. engraved in the Jaina temple. In one, R�machandra Muni has been praised and in the other, Muni Lok�nanda, Dev�nanda and thier disciples who built this temple. It is possible that the king Arkak�rti, at the preaching of Muni  R�macahndra, got the main temple and big image of �din�tha excavated in the hill. This is larger than the Buddha image excavated in the hill of Baniyan in Afghanistan. It is 84 feet in height. There are two images of Munisuvrata dated V.S. 1231, two of P�r�va dated V.S. 1242 and one of Nemin�tha dated V.S. 1380 in this temple. The image and temple were renovated in 1516 A.D.

Bha���raka �rutas�gara in the Bodhaprabh�ita has described this T�rtha. According to J��nas�gara in the Sarvat�rthavanda�� mentions fifty-two Sa�ghapatis who performed the installation ceremony of several images. The number of images installed in V.S. 1380 was large.1

Pavagini (U�a) : ��a is situated in the West Nimar. It is known to be the Siddha Kshetra by the name of P�v�giri which is popular known as �na. It is mentioned in the Prakrit Nirv��ak�n�a that Svar�abhadra and four Munis attained Nirv��a here. Bha���raka Gu�ak�rti mentions it in the T�rthavandan� Sa�graha while Bha���raka �rutas�gara refers to it in the Bodha-prabh�ita ��k�.1 The Chaubara Der� II and the Gole�vara temple are the Jaina temples of the Param�ra period here. In the two Jaina temples, a few colossal Jaina images of the twelfth century have been found. An epigraph mentions the Param�ra ruler Uday�ditya. The Valle�vara temple appears to be built by R�ja Ball�la. These archaeological remains2 prove that ��a became a Jaina T�rtha even in the 11th century A.D.

Siddhavarak��a : Siddhavarak��a is known to be the Siddhakshetra, and it has been mentioned in the Pr�k�ita Nirv��a K���a. It is believed that the two Chakravat�s, ten K�madevas, and three and half Ko�i Munis attained Nirv��a from Siddhavarak��a located in the west on the bank of the Rev�. The images of Chandraprabhu and other T�rthankaras have been discovered in its neighbourhood.3

Dro�agiri : In the Prakrit Nirv��ak���a, Dro�agiri has been mentioned as Nirv��a-Kshetra. From the top of the hill of this place Gurudatta, Munis etc. obtained Nirv�na. In the Sanskrit Nirv��a Bhakti, only its name has been given. Bha���raka �rutas�gara refers to its name the Bodhapr�bh�ta ��k�. Dro�agiri is generally identified with a small hill near the village Dro�agiri in the Chhatarpur District. It has the temple of �di�vara and also a few other shrines. The earliest temple dedicated to �din�tha, has an epigraph of V.S. 1549.1

Son�giri : Son�giri, a Siddhakshetra, is situated in the Datia District. From the Prakrit Nirv��ak�n�a, it is known that Na�ga, Ana�ga etc five and half Ko�i Munis obtained liberation after performing penances.2 An inscription3 found in the pedestal of an image of the temple No. 76 has been assigned to the seventh century A.D. Several other image inscriptions of the period between 1200 and 1600 A.D. have also been discovered from different temples of this T�rth. These inscriptions prove that this T�rth began to be recognised from the early times.

Reshand�giri : According to the Prakrit Nirv��ak���a, Varadatta etc five Munis obtained Moksha from the top of the Reshand�giri. Hence, it is known as the Nirv��a Kshetra. The other name of this place is Nain�giri. This place has been located in the Chhatarpur District. It is dedicated to P�r�van�tha. One temple and thirteen images were discovered in the excavation. One inscription dated V.S. 1109 engraved on the wall indicates the time of the temple and images.4

Ah�ra : Ah�ra is situated in Tikamgarh District. Some people say that it is Atis�ya Kshetra while others regard it as Siddaha Kshetra. According to them, Madanakum�ra obtained Keval J�ana from the T�rtha of Mallin�tha, and Shri Nishka�vala from the T�rtha of Mah�v�ra. Actually, the ancient name of this place was Madane�as�garapura, named after the Chandella ruler Madanavarman. This place is known to be associated with one P�����ha who built a Jain temple here. There are inscriptions dated V.S. 1123 and V.S. 1136 engraved on the images available here.

Gwalior : The mountain in Gwalior is known as and it preserves Gop�chala. Two rock-cut 40 feet height bidol to payrath in sing posibles along with fiftin hours Swker Jain scuepire reliefs at this place, The highters in India one showing Tirthankarara standing in meditation and the other representing a Jina meditating in the Padm�sana posture, seem to be of the Gupta period2. Bappabha��as�ri built a Mah�v�ra temple at this place. During the Tomara period, Jainism became a great dynamic and cultural force. Temples and caves were built, and numerous images were installed in them during the medieval period. Raidh�, who was a great poet, belonged to this place.

Badnawar : Badnawar is situated in the Dhar District. Its ancient name was Vardham�napura kept after the Jaina T�rtha�kara Vardham�na. Jinasena of the Pu���ta Sa�gha finished the Hariva��a Pur��a at (Va�ham�na) Vardham�napura in 783 A.D. Harishe�a, who belonged to the Pu����as�gha, composed the Kath�kosha in 931 A.D. at Vardham�napura3. Some image inscriptions with the name of Pu����asa�gha have been discovered at this place. Most of the Jaina images with the 12th-13th centuries inscriptions of the Param�ra period have been discovered here.

Dh�ra : Dh�ra was the capital of the Param�ra rulers, and it remained associated with Jainism. Devasena wrore the Dar�anas�ra in V.S. 990 (933 A.D.) in the Jaina temple of P�r�van�tha at Dh�ra. Nayanandi composed the Sudarsana-Charita in 1043 A.D. while staying in the Jinavaravih�ra of Dh�ra. Madank�rti of the 13th century has also mentioned the temple of P�r�va at Dh�ra. Dharasena lived in Dh�ra, and his disciple was Mah�v�ra, a learned �ch�rya. ���dhara migrated to Dh�ra from M���algarh in 1192 A.D. because of the Muslim invasion. Jaina �ch�ryas of the Kharatara Gachchha visited Dh�ra from time to time. In 1207 A.D. (V.S. 1264), Jinapati visited Dh�ra and propagated Vidhim�rga in the temple of ��ntin�tha. Jinavallabha S�ri, Jinadattas�ri and others also visited Dh�ra for the propagation of Jainism.1

Khajur�ho : Khajur�ho is situated in Chhatarpur District, and there are templse of ��nti, P�r�va and �din�tha. These Jaina temples are important from artistic point of view. The Jaina �c�rya V�savachandra has been represented as the teacher of king Dha�ga. The inscription dated 953-954 A.D. in the temple of P�r�van�tha records a number of gifts and endowments by one P�hila who claims to have been held in esteem by king Dha�ga. The devotion of the Grahapati family to which P�hila belonged is also evidenced by ��ntin�tha image inscription of V.S. 1132. This place has a large number of Jaina images of the tenth to the twelfth century A.D.2 Seven dancing damsels at the outer portion of Shatinath temple are world- famous.

Nalakachchhapura : N�lakachchhapura is located in Dh�r District. It was connected with the activities of the great scholar ���dhara who wrote his works in the Nemin�tha temple of this place. It is alos mentioned along with Dhara in the colophon of a manuscript dated V.S. 12951.

Tripuri : Tripuri was the old capital of the Kalachuris, and is situated near Jabalpur. A Jaina temple of this place called Trilokatilaka, has been mentioned by Uadayak�rti who flourished in all probability in the 13th century. Some of the beautiful Jina icons from Tewar (present Tripuri) have been preserved in the Jabalpur Museum.2

Bahuriband : It is situated in Jabalpur District. That Jainism flourished during the Kalachuri period is shown by the Bahuriband stone inscription of Gay�kar�a and other archaeological remains. This inscription records that one Mah�bhoja, son of S�dhu Sarvadhara, erected a temple of ��ntin�tha. The inscription further notes that white canopy over it was, built by S�tradh�ra. The image of ��ntin�tha was consecrated by the �ch�rya Subhadra who belonged to the line of De��ga�a in the �mn�ya of Chandrakara �ch�rya.3

Gyaraspur : Gy�raspur is situated at a distance of 28 kms. from Vidisha. As it is believed to be the place of penance (Tapobh�mi), It is regarded as Kaly��a Kshetra. It is alos an art centre.1 The M�ladev� temple, which is partly rock-cut and partly structural, is a mature example of Prat�hara temple style. From the decorative motifs and architectural factures, this temple appears to be of the ninth century A.D. The B�jr�ma�ha is an example of rare class of temple. Some scholars consider it to be a Jaina temple. The sculptures enshrined in the temple of M�l�dev� are remarkable from the artistic point of view. The beautiful figure of ��labha�jik� from Gyaraspur has attained world wide renown for its finely arranged coiffure, sharp and prominent facial feautes. Some people regard it as Ati�ayakshetra.

Lakshma�� : Lakshman� T�rtha, sacred to Padmaprabha, is situated in Jh�bu� District. It is mentioned in the Prav�sag�tik� of Jay�nanda (15th century) as a great Jaina centre with more than one hundred temples and 2000 devotees.2

Am�jhar� : Am�jhar� is identified with modern Amjher� in Dh�ra District. It is dedicated to P�r�van�tha and it became a Jaina T�rtha from roughly 1500 A.D.3

M���avaga�ha : M���avaga�ha. sacred to Sup�r�va, is situated in Dh�r District, and at present, is known as M���u. There is also an old temple of ��ntin�tha at this place. Sumatis�gara (16th century) and J��nas�gara (C.1575 A.D.) have mentioned the Mah�v�ra temple of this place. During the reign of the Sultans of M��du, it became a great T�rtha.1

T�lanapura : T�lanapura in Dh�r District is sacred to �din�tha and is respected by both the �vet�mbaras and the Digambaras. There are a few old icons in this temple-complex. One image was installed by Vi��lak�rti of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha in 1268 A.D.2

Ku��alapura : Ku��alapura is situated in Damoha District. According to the Tiloyapa��ati of Yativ�ishbha, �r�dhara attained liberation from Ku��alagiri. There is mention of Ku��alapura in the Sanskrit Nirv��a Bhakti of P�jyap�da. The main deity at this T�rtha is of �shabha 6th century A.D. but not of Mah�v�ra, as is generally believed. This T�rtha was renovated by Mah�r�ja Chhatras�la in V.S. 1757 through the Bha���rakas. It is regarded as the famous Ati�aya Kshetra3 and at this place there also exists sixty Jain temples.

Thuvauna : Thuvauna, dedicated to �din�tha, is situated in Gun� District. It is said that a �r�vaka named P�����ha belonged to this place, and built the jaina temple. This T�rtha is believed to be the famous Ati�aya Kshetra.4 Here there are 26 temples as in these temples various idols are 30 feet in height.

Bajara�ga Ga�ha : Bajara�ga ga�ha is situated at a distance of 07 kms. from Gu��. There are three K�yotsarga images of Jaina T�rtha�karas �a�tin�tha. Araha N�tha and Kuntun�tha. Their installation ceremony was performed in V.S. 1236 by L�����ha who belonged to the Gaho� Vai�ya caste. The main deity (M�lan�yaka) of this place was of ��ntin�tha. the Jaina images of V.S. 1075, 1115, 1225, 1312, 1320, 1321 and 1329 have been found here. There images prove the antiquity of this place. It is well-known as the Ati�aya-Kshetra.1

B��h� Chander� : B��h� Cahnder� is at a distance of fourteen kms. from the modern Chander�. This place was ruled by the Chandellas. This place flourished between V.S. 1335 and V.S. 1334. It became a great art centre. Innumetable Jaina images of this period have been discovered. These Jaina images possess peculiar certain characteristics. No inscription and �r�vatsa are found on these Jaina images. Some Jaina images have no symbols. These Jaina images are important from the artisic point of view.2

Sihoni� : Sihoni� is situated at a distance of 30 kms. from Mure��. About 141 Jaina images of the 11th century A.D. are found here. The there Jaina images of ��ntin�tha, Kunthun�tha and Arahan�tha wer together installed here. These there were K�madevas  and Chakrivat�s, and were the natives of Hastin�pura. Sihoni� is known to be Ati�aya Kshetra because of the image of ��ntin�tha.3

West India

Rajasthan, Gujarat and Mah�r�sh�ra

R�jasthan

Nagar� : Nagar� is situated eighteen kms. north of Chittor. Its ancient name was Madhyamik�, The Madhyamik� branch of the  Jaina Sa�gha organization, as mentioned in the Sthir�vali of the Kalpas�tra, became famous after the name of this place. Priyagrantha, the second pupil of Susthita and Supratibudha, founded this branch probably in the second century B.C. A Kush��a inscription of the second century A.D. mentioning Madhyamik� s�kh� has been found at Mathur�. An inscription of the third or second century B.C., which states that something was constructed for the welfare of all living beings, has been discovered at this place.1

Jh�lr� P��an : The ancient name of Jh�lr�p��an is said to be Chandravat� which was situated on the banks of Chandrabh�ga. There was a famous old temple of ��ntin�tha which is unique for the point of view architects  which was built by S�ha P�p� in 1046 A.D., and its installation ceremony was performed by Bhavadevas�ri. An inscription dated 1109 A.D. on a pillar of S�tsal�k�puh�ri records the death of �resh� P�p�. This temple was often visited by �r�vakas and Jaina �ch�ryas. An inscription of 1047 A.D. records the name of a visitor to the shrine. Jaina �ch�ryas used to reside at this place because we find a vast number of funeral memorials termed 'Nishedhikas' of Jaina priests.2

Bay�n� : Bay�n� is situated about forty-eight kms. to the South-West of Bharatpur. Its ancient names were �r�path� and Brahmav��a. An inscription of 994 A.D. on the image of Jina reveals that it was caused to be made in accordance with the instructions of ��rasena of apparently the V�ga�a Sa�gha by three brothers. During the Muslim period, the activities of Jainism remained unrestrained. Images were installed in the Jaina temples, and manuscripts prepared in order to present them to monks. The installation ceremonies of images were performed in 1403, 1439, 1448 and 1456 A.D. at Brahmav�da, another name of Bay�n�. A copy of the �tmaprabodhana was written in 1490 A.D. at �r�path�, the alternative name of Bay�n�.1

Bhinm�l : The old name of Bhim�l, which is situated about one hundred sixty nine kms. south of Jodhpur is �r�m�la. An inscription of 1276 A.D. found here tells that Mah�v�ra in person came to �r�m�la. It is supported by the �r�m�lam�h�tmya, a work of the 13th century A.D. Siddhasena S�ri refers to this place as a holy place in the Sakalat�rthastotra. Dhanap�la of the 11th Century informs about the Jaina image of Mah�v�ra. Jinaprabhas�ri in the Vividhat�rthakalpa mentions it as a holy place of V�ra. Besides, there were other Jaina temples such as ��ntin�tha and P�r�vanatha. The �r�m�l�s among the Jainas originated from this place. They were converted to Jainism by the Jaina saints about the eighth century A.D.2

Vasantagarh : Vasantagarh is situated eight Kms. to the south of Pi��w�r� and its old names were Vat�kara, Va�anagara and V��ish�hapura. The inscription of the seventh or eighth century A.D. engraved on the walls of this temple definitely proves its ancientry. Besides, a pair of images of R�shabhadeva with the inscription of 687 A.D. has been discovered from under the ground. It is the earliest Jaina inscription discoverd in Rajasthan. It is recorded that Dro�ovaka Ya�odeva caused to be constructed the beautiful pair of Jaina images. The Jaina temple of this place appears to be renovated in 1450 A.D. by Ma�isundara S�ri during the reign of Kumbhakar�a1

Mandor : Ma��or, the ancient capital of M�rw�r, is situated at a distance of eight kms. from Jodhpur. Its old names were Ma��odara and M���avyapura durga. Kakkuka, the Prat�h�ra ruler of this place, was a great patron of Jainism. He constructed a Jaina temple at Gha�iy�l�. There are remains of the Jaina temple of the tenth century A.D. In 1186 A.D., the �r�vakas of this place went on pilgrimage with the Sa�gha led by Abhayakum�ra to the holy places. The �r�vakas of Ma��or built, and repaired temples of other places, and placed images in them. In 1311 A.D., Gosala with his brother and sons renovated the temple of Vimalavasah� at �b�. In 1461 A.D., Sa�jaka of Ma��or with the members of his family prepared Nandi�vara Pa��ik�, and installed it durring the reign of Ch�chigadeva in the temple of P�r�van�tha at Jaisalmer through Jinachandras�ri. The Ma��ovara gotra of the Osav�las became famous after Ma��or. The Ma��ora-gachchha, a branch of the Kharatara-gachchha, originated from this place in 1497 A.D.1

Gha�iy�l� : At a distance of thirtyfive kms. north west of Jodhpur is situated the town of Gha�iy�l�. In early times, It was famous by the names of Rohi�saka and Rohi�sak�pa. The Prat�h�ra ruler was a patron of Jainism, and caused ot be built a temple of the god Jina for the several merchants whom he invited to settle there, He entrusted this temple to the community, presided over by the ascetics, Jambava and �mraka and the merchant Bh�kuta in the Gachchha of the holy Dhene�vara. on the right side of the temple is sculptured the figure of a Jaina goddess seated on a lion.2

Mert� : At a distance of one hundred seventeen kms. north- east of Jodhpur stands the town of Mert�. Its ancient names were Me�antaka and Me�atapura. In medieval times, it was called Medan�pura. After converting the Yaksha, Ka�ame�a and a large number of Br�hma�as to Jainism, Abhayadevas�ri, who lived in the eleventh century A.D., caused the temple of Mah�v�ra to be built in this city. At the request of the Chauh�na king M�ladeva, Jinachandras�ri in 1322 A.D., visited Mert�. In 1323 A.D., Se�ha R�yapati of Delhi, while leading Sa�gha to holy places along with Jinaku�alas�ri, came to Mert�. The activities of Jainism continued even during the Muslim period. Copies of the manuscripts were written and images installed in them. H�ravijaya S�ri, on whom Akbar conferred the ritle of Jagadguru, visited this place. Samaysundara, a distinguished scholar of medieval times, wrote several works from Mert�. ��ntiku�ala in his �r� Gaud� P�r�va T�rtham�l�, written in 1670 A.D., refers to Mert� as a holy place of the Jainas.1

Osi� : Osi� is situated fiftytwo kms north-west of Jodhpur. The Jaina temple dedicated to Mah�v�ra was famous. It appears to have been first built at the end of the eighth century A.D. Osi� remained specially associated with Jainsim. It is known as the cradle of a class of Bani�s called Osav�las. It is said that Ratnaprabhas�ri visited this place and converted the king and his subjects to Jainism. At the request of the temple committee, a merchant called Jindaka renovated the temple of Mah�v�ra. The temple of Mah�v�ra continued as a holy place. The N�bhinandana Jinodh�ra written by Kakkas�ri in 1338 A.D. gives us useful information about the town. Siddhasena S�ri refers to Osia as a holy place in the Sakalat�rthastotra. Upake�a gachchha was also named after Osi�. From the Upake�a gachchha prabandha, it is known that the Muslim army while passing through destroyed the town in 1195 A.D.2

J�lor : Jalor is situated about one hundred twenty one kms. south of Jodhpur. From the Kuvalayam�l� composed in 778 A.D. by Uddyotanas�ri, it is clear that it was a flourishing town adorned with temples and buildings of rich men. The famous Jaina temples were of �din�tha, Mah�v�ra, P�r�van�tha and ��ntin�tha. J�lor was regarded as a holy place of the Jainas in early times. Siddhasenas�ri pays high respect to it in his T�rtham�la. The Vidhichaitya movement gained strength, and popularity by the frequent visits of the Jaina saints to this place. In 1168 A.D., Jinachandras�ri visited this place and propagated the teachings of Vidhim�rga to the �r�vakas. Jine�varas�ri remained specially associated with this place. J�lor was a seat of learning in early times. Uddayotana S�ri, Buddis�gara and Jine�vara S�ri composed their respective works. Jinabhadras�ri founded ��strabha���ra at this place in the fourteenth century A.D.1

D��w�n� : ���w�n� is situated at a distance of two hundred nine kms. north-east of Jodhpur. It remained associated with Jainism from very early times. Jine�varas�ri, who visited this place in the tenth century A.D. composed the Kath�ko�a. �r�dattas�ri of the P�rnatala gachchha, the teacher of the famous scholar Hemachandrasuri, visited D��w�n� and addressed the ruler Ya�obhadra of this place. Ya�obhadra got a big Jaina temple constructed known as Chauv�sa Jin�laya. Siddhasena S�ri mentions this holy place in his Sakalat�rtham�l�.2

N�laka��ha (Rajora Garh) : N�laka��ha (R�jorgarh) is situated fortyfive kms. to the south-west of Alwar. In the tenth century A.D., its name was R�jyapura and it was capital of the Ba�a Gurjara R�jputs. Jainism made marked progress during the reign of the Ba�a-Gurjaras. Jaina saints performed penances in some caves. By their inspiration, their followers constructed magnificent temples, and images in them. An inscription dated V.S. 979 (923 A.D) of the reign of king S�va�a records the construction of the temple as well as the installation of an image of ��ntin�tha therein at Rajyapura by Saravadeva, son of Dedullaka, and grandson of Arbha�a of Dharka�a family. Three life-size Jaina figures are all standing upright. One colossal Jaina figure known as Nowgaza is said to have been built by Bhai�s� Mah�jana during the reign of some Ba�a Gujara ruler.1

Sanchor : Sanchor is situated about two hundred kms. south--west of Jodhpur. Its old name was Satyapura. Under the Muslim rule, It was named Mahamud�b�d. Sanchor was a great centre of Jainism. Because of the celebrated temple of Mah�v�ra, it was considered a holy place of the Jainas. In the old Chaityabandana stotra of Jagachintamani, this T�rth has been described with deep devotion. Dhanap�la composed the poem Satyapur�ya Mah�v�ra Uts�ha in honour of the order of Mah�v�ra. From the account of Jinaprabhas�ri, it was believed to have been built by N�ha�a of Ma��or. This Jaina temple of Mah�v�ra was destroyed by the Mulsims. Sanchor, being a holy place, was visited by Jaina saints such as Jinakusalas�ri and Jinapadmas�ri from time to time. Some of them composed their literary works, and got the copies of manuscripts prepared in order to spread knowledge. It was a birth place of the great scholar named Samayasundara.1

Ch�tsu : Ch�tsu is situated about fortytwo kms. south of Jaipur. Its early name was Champ�vat�. the temple, crowning the hill, was originally a temple of the eighth century A.D. The religious activities of Jainism continyed during the reign of the Muslim ruler Ghiy�sudd�n. Under the patronage of the Sola�k� ruler R�machandra, a feudatory ruler of Sa�gr�ma Si�ha of Mew�r, Jainism flourished exceedingly. Several copies of manuscripts were prepared, and the consecration of the images took place. Bha���raka Chndrak�rti of M�lasa�gha seems to have removed his seat from Chitor to this place. It also became a centre of learning in medieval times. �hakurra, and author of the sixteenth century A.D., composed some Apabhra��a works here.2

N�gd� : Nagda is situated at the fort of the hill of Ekali�gaj�. Its old names are N�gah�ida and N�gadraha. The temple, now, known as the temple of Padm�vat� was originally the famous temple of P�r�avan�tha. The Jaina temple known as Adbhudj� is so called, because it contains a wonderful image of ��ntin�tha. It was constructed by a merchant named S�ra�ga of the Porav�la caste during Kumbhakara�a's reign. N�gd� was well known as a holy place of the Jainas in early times. Vi��lak�rti's disciple named Madanak�rti, who lived in the thirteenth century A.D., prayed to P�r�van�tha of N�gadraha along with other T�rtha�karas in the ��sanachatustri��atik�. Jinaprabhasuri also refers to it in his Vividhat�rthakalpa, written in 1332 A.D. This T�rtha has been described in the T�rtha��l�s of the late period. Sundaras�ri composed an independent stotra in devotion to N�gah�ida P�r�van�tha.1

�h�r : �h�r is about three kms. east of Udaipur city. Its ancient names were �gha�apura and �tpura. Jainism flourished here under the patronage of the Guhila rulers. Pradyumnas�ri of Chandra Gachchha is siad to have defeated the Digambara saints in discussions in the royal court of Alla�a at �gh��a. From the R�sasa�graha, it is known that the Minister of Alla�a, built the Jaina temple, and got the image of P�r�van�tha installed through Ya�obhadras�ri of Sa��eraka Gachchha who passed away in 972 A.D. This is further confirmed from the Jaina inscription fond on devakulik� of the Jaina temple. In this inscription, May�ra, �r�pati and Matta�a have been described as Akshapatalikas respectively of Alla�a, Narav�hana and �aktikum�ra. They might have constructed this Jaina temple. Dhanadeva, who lived in the tenth century A.D., refers ot the temple of Mah�v�ra in his poem 'Satyapur�ya Mah�v�ra Uts�ha, Siddhasenas�ri, an author of the twelfth century, refers to this place in the Sakalat�rtha Stotra. Jagachandras�ri was a great Jaina ascetic who performed hard penances. Seeing him, Jaitrasi�aha, the ruler of Mewar, gave him the title Tap� in 1228 A.D. at �gh��a., By the inspiration of Jaina saints several copies of manuscripts were prepared under the royal patronage. Jh�njha�a, in the company of his teacher Dharmaghoshas�ri, organized the Sa�gha to holy places and visited �gh��a also.1

Chitor : Chitor is situated at a distance of about one hundred eight kms. to the north-east of Udaipur city. Its ancient name was Chitrak��a. The great Jaina scholar named Haribhadras�ri of the eighth century was a native of this place. He wrote the Dh�rt�khy�na at Chitor. V�rasena learnt the Sha�kha���gama and the Kash�yaprabh�ita from El�ch�rya at Chitor. Harishe�a, who originally a resident of Chitor, wrote the Dharmapar�ksh� in 987 A.D. Jinavallabha made Chitrak��a his headquarters for the propagation of Vidhim�rga in the early twelfth century A.D. The reformed temples were established at his persuatsion. After Jinavallabha, the function of Pa��a ceremony of Jinadattas�ri was celebrated in 1112 A.D. with great rejoicings. V�didevas�ri defeated �ivam�rti in discussions. This place was also a seat of Digambara Bha���rakas in the twelfth century A.D. The kings and officers, though followers of Brahmanical religion, were highly influenced by the teachings of the Jaina �ch�ryas. The ruler Samarasi�ha issued an ordinance prohibiting the slaughter of animals in his kingdom on certain days.

Chitor was considered to be a holy place of the Jainas as known from the Sakalat�rtha Stotra of Siddhasenas�ri. The Jaina K�rtistambha was built in honour of the Jaina T�rtha�kara Adin�tha by Punasi�ha, the son of Jij� of the Bhagherv�la caste during the reign of Kumbha. Kumbha's treasurer Bha���r� Bel�, a Jaina erected the charming temple known as Sri�g�ra Chaur� in honour of the Jaina T�rtha�kara ��ntin�tha. Some Chittrak��a Chaitya Parip���s, written in the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries, are important as they point out  that there were temples of different Gachchhas. Various copies of manuscripts on religion and philosophy were prepared for presentation to the Jaina monks in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.1

Shergarh : Shergarh is about one hundred forty-five kms. to the south-west of Ko�ah. Its ancient name was Ko�avardhana. In the tenth century A.D., one R�jap�ta Sarad�ra installed three Jaina images, which are now in dilapidated condition. An inscription of 1105 A.D. records how a great festival of the Jaina T�rtha�kara  Nemin�tha was celebrated at the new Chaitya. At this time, the Jaina saint V�rasena was residing here in 1134 A.D, Devap�la caused to be made the ratnatraya (images of three T�rtha�karas ��ntin�tha, Kunthan�tha, and Aran�tha); and performed their installation ceremony in association with his son, parents, relatives and Gen�hins at Ko�avardhana.2

N�Gaur : Nagaur, the chief town of the District of the same name, is situated in Jodhpur Division. It was known by various name such as N�gapura, Nagapattana, Ahipura and Bhuja�ga-nagara. From the literary sources, it is known as a great centre of Jainism. Jayasi�has�ri wrote the Dharmopade�am�l�vivara�a in 858 A.D. Chandras�ri started to write the Upade�av�itti in 1177 A.D. In 1105 A.D., Hemachandras�ri was ordained as �ch�rya by Devas�ri. Jinavallabhas�ri and Jinadattas�ri of the Kharatara gachchha visited this place, and established Vidhichaityas in the twelfth century A.D. In the fifteenth century A.D., Jinabhadras�ri set up grantha-bha���ra at this place. Bha��ar�ka Ratnak�rti established a different seat of the Mulasa�gha at Nagaur in the fifteenth century A.D. The Nagaura Bha���ra containing about 15,000 manuscripts is famous. N�gapur�ya gachchha, a branch of the Tap�gachchha, among the Jainas, originated from N�gaur. There were several Jaina temples at this place. Siddhasena refers to N�gaur as a holy place in the Sakalat�rtha Stotra. The temple of N�r�ya�avasah� built in 860 A.D. was in existence in the Seventeenth century A.D. as known from the N�gaurachaitya Parip��i. Dhanadeva got the installation ceremony of the temple of Nemin�tha performed from Jinavallabhas�ri. �h�kura Achalasi�ha of this place got the ordinance from Qutbuddin, the Khilji Sultan of Delhi for pilgimage to holy places in 1317 A.D.1

Kha��el� : At a distance of fortyfive kms. from Sikar stands the town of Kha��el�. Its old name as known from literary sources were Kha��illa and Kha��elapura. Jinasen�ch�rya, in the line of the saint Apar�jita, is said to have converted the Chauh�na ruler of this place with his subjects to Jainism, and formed the Kha��elav�la caste. When this incident took place, is not definitely known. Probably, it happended in the eighth century A.D. because the Kha��elav�la caste is not known to be in existence earlier. Its earliest mention is found in the inscription of 1197 A.D. When these Kha��elav�las increased in number, They formed gotras after the names of villages, surnames, etc. From a Pra�asti of the Dharmaratn�kara written in 998 A.D., it is known that its author Jayasena visited Kha��alika, and there, he impressed the people with his teachings. In 1287 A.D., Jinaprabhas�ri also came to Khan�elapura and he converted the people to Jainism by his teachings. Br�ma�ika, a pupil of Bha���raka Jinachandra of M�las�gha, paid visit to Kha�delapura in 1461 A.D. Kha��el� remained a great holy place of the Jainas as is mentioned in Sakalat�rtha Stotra of Siddhasenas�ri. Probably, Kha��ila gachchha among the Jainas was named after this place. There are remains of an old Jaina temple at this place.

K�m�n : K�m�n lies at a distance of sixtyfour kms. from Bharatpur. There are remains of the old Jaina temples. K�myaka gachchha originated from this place, Durgadeva, the Jaina author, furnished the Rish�asamuchchaya in a fine temple of ��ntinatha at Kumbhanagara ruled over by Lakshm�niv�sa. Kumbhanagara may be identified with K�man. As regards the king Lakshm�nivasa, he may be the S�rasena ruler named Lakshma�a.2

Hathu��� : Hathu��� is about five kms. south-east of Bijapura, and its old name was Hastiku���. In the tenth century, it was a capital of the R�strak�tas who were the followers of Jainism. Vidagdha, at the preaching of V�sudev�ch�rya, built a temple of  �ishabhadeva at Hathu���, and also made a grant in favour of his teacher Balapras�da and the temple. His son Mamma�a renewed this grant. Dhavala, son of Mamma�a, renovated the Jaina temple built by his grand-father. After the rule of the R�sh�rak��as, Hathu��� probably suffered from the Muslim attack, which is responsible for the change of M�lan�yaka from �ishabhadeva to Mah�v�ra in the temple of this place. Gradually, it became a famous holy place by the name of R��a Mah�v�ra. Pilgrims from different places came to visit it. �ilavijayas�ri and Jinatilakas�ri describe their holy place in their T�rtham�l�s. The Hastiku���ya gachchha was started by V�sudev�ch�rya in the tenth century A.D. after the name of this place.1

Varman : At a distance of forty-five kms. from �b� station, there stands a village of Varm��. Its old name was Brahm��a. Varm�� remained a stronghold of Jainism. Siddhasenas�ri refers to this place in the Sakalt�rtha Stotra, Br�hma�aka Gachchha among the Jainas originated from the place Varm�n, whose ancient name was Br�hma�a-Mah�sth�na. The Mah�v�ra Jaina temple of this gachchha was built in 1185 A.D. or even before by the �r�vakas of this place2.

N��ol : N��ol, now a village, is situated at a distance about thirteen kms. from Jaw�lia Station. It was the capital of the Chauh�nas. Jainism made a striking progress here under the patronage of the Chauh�na rulers. This town became one of the celebrated Pa�chat�rthas of the Jainas of M�rw�r. The Jaina temple of Mah�v�ra was very famous. The king A�var�ja, who was a feudatory of Kum�rap�la, gave commands for the strict observance of Ahi�s� on certain days. In 1171 A.D., �lha�adeva also forbade the slaughter of animals on certain days, �lha�adeva and his son K�rtip�la made gifts to the temple of Mah�v�ra.1

Kor�� : The old name of Kor��, situated twenty-six kms. to the south-west of Sa��era, is Kora��aka. Kor�� was a famous place of pilgrimage of the Jainas. In the tenth century A.D., Dhanap�la, in his poem Satyapuramah�v�rauts�ha refers to the temple of Mah�v�ra of Koranta. This place is also mentioned in the Sakalat�rtha Stotra of Siddhasena S�ri. According to the Prabh�vaka Charitra, Kora��apura was a prosperous town inhabited by rich people who were devoted to their religion. This town remained a place of pilgrimage in medieval times also. Megha, ��lavijaya and J��vimalas�ri describe this place in their T�rtham�l�s. The people of this place led Sa�ghas to holy places. Kora��a gachchha originated from this place.2

Sa��er� : Sa��er� is about sixteen kms. north-west of B�li in Jodhpur Division. It seems to have been founded by Ya�obhadras�ri in the tenth century A.D. Sa��er� remained a great centre of Jainism in the past. Siddhasena. S�ri mentions this place in the list of holy places in his Sakalat�rtha Stotra. Sa��eraka gachchha founded by Ya�obhadras�ri, originated from this place in the tenth century A.D. Its early name was V�labha gachchha. Its early influential �ch�ryas Ya�obhadras�ri ��lis�ri and Sumatis�ri rendered valuable services to Jainism. There were two Jaina temples of Mah�v�ra and P�r�van�tha of Sa��eraka gachchha. The chauh�na rulers of N��ol patronized the activities of Jainism, at Sa��er�.1

N��l�� : N��i�� is a small village six kms. north-west of Des�r� in Jodhpur Division, Jainism flourished greatly at this place under the patronage of the Chauh�na rulers. There were two old temples of Nemin�tha and Mah�v�ra here. Kings, feudatories and their subjects made donations to these temples. These temples were destroyed by the Muslims, and therefore rebuilt by the Sa�ghas of the various places. N��l�� also remained a holy place even in medieval times. The founder of Ka�u� sect, named Ka�u� ��ha, was born here in 1440 A.D. ��ntiku�ala mentions the temple of P�r�van�tha in his Gau�� P�r�vat�rtham�l� written in 1610 A.D. Samayasundara, a poet of the Seventeenth century A.D., has given a lively and beautiful description of N��ul��, and its Nemin�tha temple in his poem. ��tavijaya also refers to it in his T�rtham�l�.2

P�li : P�li is situated seventy-two kms. south-east of Jodhpur. It remained a place of pilgrimage of the Jainas. Siddhasenas�ri offers high respect to this place in his Sakalat�rtha Stotra. This place was well known by the name P�r�abhadra Mah�v�ra. Madanak�rti mentions Palli Jine�vara along with other holy places in the �asanachatu�tri��atik�, written in the thirteenth century A.D. Vi�van�tha, pupil of some old Bhatt�raka, records P�li��ntijina in the list of holy places. This definitely proves that there was a Jaina temple of ��ntin�tha of the Digambara Jainas in early times. P�li was visited by the Jaina saints from ime to time. Some monks devoted themselves to learning, and writing literary works. Copies of the manuscripts were prespared. Palliv�la gachchha among the Jainas was named after P�li in 1093 A.D. Kumarap�la's ordinanace of forbidding the slaughter of animals on certain days was strictly enforced at this place. The caste of Palliv�las among the Jainas was named after P�li in about the eight century A.D.1

Kheda : Khe�a, the old capital of the R��hors of Marwar, is situated at a distance of eight kms. from Nagara. Khe�a was a great centre of Jainism. Siddhasenas�ri refers to it as a holy place. It was frequently visited by Jinapati S�ri, and other saints. Different functions were organized by people in honour of Jaina saints. There was the existence of Jaina temple of �ishabha in the twelfth century A.D. Uddhara�a constructed a beautiful temple of ��ntin�tha at this place, whose consecration ceremony was performed by Jinapatis�ri in 1201 A.D. The Chauh�na ruler P�ithv�r�ja of Ajmer paid visit to Khe�a in order to see Uddhara�a. Lakshm�ga�i, a poet of the fourteenth century, describes it in his ��ntin�tha Devar�sa. From the old remains, it is known that there was also Jaina temple of Mah�v�ra at Khe�a in early times.1

Ajmer : Ajmer former called as Ajayameru was founded by the Chuahana ruler Ajaip�la in about 1123 A.D. It was frequently visited by Jaina saints for the propagation of Jainism. During the reign of Arhor�ja, Jinadatta S�ri came to this place to perform the installation ceremony of the Jaina temple built by �hakura ���datta. He died here, and was cremated at a place, which came to be known as D�d�b�r�. His disciple Jinapatis�ri spent the rainy season in 1178 A.D. The Sa�gha of Ajmer participated in a pilgrimage to holy place organized by Abayakumara with Jinapati S�ri. In the thirteenth  century A.D., it was a seat of Bha���rakas of the Mulasa�gha. There are strong traditions among the Jainas that presently known as A�h��-din-k�-Jho�para was a Jaina temple. Jaina Bha���rakas and their disciples rendered a valuable sevice to Jaina literature in medieval time. Several copies of the manuscripts were prepared.2 So�s temple is renowned for golden painting wood carvings and Samavasarana (replica of the discouse assembly of Tirthankar).

Narai�� : Narai�� is a small station on the metre-gauge line of the Western Railway between Phulera and Ajmer. Its ancient name was N�r�ya�a. During the reign of the Chauh�nas, it became a great centre of Jainism. Siddhasenas�ri in his Sakalat�rthastotra mentions it as a holy place of the Jainas. Jaina saints used to reside here. The Bijauli� rock inscription dated 1169 A.D. tells that P��yar�s�, one of the ancestors of Lol�ka of the Pr�gv��a caste, built the temple of Vardham�na. Dhanap�la, an author of the eleventh century A.D, refers to the famous temple of Mah�v�ra of this place in his poem 'Satyapur�ya Mah�v�ra Utsaha. From the archaeological remains of images, pillars, doorways and other remains discovered from the underground, it appears that they belonged to the temple of Mah�v�ra. It was excellent in construction from the architectural point of viw. It was probably destroyed by the Muslim invasions in the twelfth century A.D.1

Narha� : Narha� is situated at a distance of eight kms. from Pilani in Jhunjhunu District. Its ancient name was Narabha�a. It remained a place of pilgrimage in  early medieval period. The Sa�gha, which started on pilgrimage to Hastin�pura in 1318 A.D. along with Jinachandras�ri, stayed at this place to worship P�r�van�tha and they were all cordially welcomed. The �r�vakas of this place also joined this Sa�gha for pilgrimage to Hastin�pura. In 1319 A.D., on his way to Mert� from Delhi, Jinachandras�ri stayed at Narha�. In 1323 A.D., when Jinaku�alas�ri started on a pilgrimage to holy places such as Ujjayanta, he dropped at Narhad to worship the image of P�r�van�tha installed by Jinadattas�ri in the twelfth century A.D. Vinayaprabhas�ri, an author of the fourteenth century A.D., in his T�rthay�tr�stavana mentions this holy place, and refers to the image of P�r�van�tha.2

Bagher� : Bagher� is situated about seventy-four kms. south-east of Ajmer. It was a stronghold of Jainism. Frm the Bijauli� Rock inscription dated 1169 A.D., it is known that Vai�rava�a, the ancestor of Lol�ka, built many a temple at Bagher� and other places. This place was a seat of the Bha���rakas of the M�lasa�gha in the twelfth century A.D. They placed several Jaina images in the temples of this place. The images of Jaina goddesses found here are notworthy from the artistic point of view. The importance of Bagher� is further clear from the fact that the Bagherav�l� caste among the Jainas originagted from this place in the eighth century A.D.1

Harasaur : Harasaur is situated between Pushkar and Deg�n� in the District of Nagaur, and its early name seems to be Harshapura Jainism prospered here under the Chauh�na rulers. Siddhasenas�ri mentions this town in his Sakalt�rtha Stotra. Harshapura gachchha a branch of �r� P�r�van�tha Kula, originated probably from this place. Some Jaina �ch�ryas of this gachchha were very powerful, and they had a great influence over their contemporary rulers. The name of this Gachchha is mentioned in the inscription of 1496 A.D. found at Nagaur. A Jaina stone image with the inscription of 996 A.D. has been also discovered. One of the Mah�jana castes named Harasaur� originated from this place.2

M�roTh : At a distance of eleven kms. from Cuch�man Road Station in Nagaur District stands the town of M�ro�h. It remained a stronghold of Jainism from early times. Many Jaina images of the eleventh and twelfth centuries have been found here. From some of their inscriptions, it seems that their consecration was performed by Sakalak�rti of the M�thura Sa�gha in 1165 A.D. (V.S. 1232). The temples of the early period could not survive by now, however there are four Jaina temples of the medieval period. Be�ir�ma Ajmer� performed an installation ceremony of the temple of �din�tha Chaity�laya in 1328 A.D. Chandraprabhu Chaity�laya was built by J�vanad�sa P��od� in 1425 A.D. R�masi�ha, the chief minister of Bair�s�la, performed an inauguration ceremony of the temple and images with great rejoicings in 1737 A.D. through Bha���raka Anantak�rti of Ajmer.1

Chand�vat� : Chandr�vat�, situated near �b�, was the capital of the Param�ras. As it remained a place of pilgrirmage, it was visited by Jaina saints, scholas and laymen from time to time. Sidhasenas�ri refers to this place in the Sakala T�rtha Stotra. Jinaprabhas�ri, author of the Vividha T�rtha kalpa, Written in 1389 A.D., describes the city as full of wealth, and he also mentions the temple of Chandraprabhu. Megha in his T�rtham�l� (written in about 1443 A.D.) describes its prosperity and compares it to L��k�. According to him, there were about 1800 Jaina temples and the most prominent among them was the temple of �ishabha. From the Upade�a Saptati of Somadharma written in 1446 A.D., it is known that there were 444 Jaina temples, ��lavijaya in his T�rtham�l� of 1689 A.D. writes that there were about 1800 beautiful Jaina temples at the time of Vimala. All these statements show that there was a large number of Jaina temples in the past. The predecessor of Padmadevas�ri, who lived in 1235 A.D., built the Jaina temple of Chandraprabhu. When Pe�ha�akum�ra and Sa�gar�ma, ministers of the Sultan of Malwa, came for a pilgrimage to this place, they constructed the Jaina temples.1

B�rmer : B�rmer is situated at a distance of about two hundred nine kms. south-west of Jodhpur. Jaina saints such as Jine�varas�ri, Jinaku�alas�ri and Jinapadmas�ri visited this place and urged the �r�vakas to organize religious functions. Vinayaprabhas�ri in his T�rtham�l� mentions the temples of �ishabha and ��nti. There was also the temple of Mah�v�ra. The �r�vakas from various places such as Jaisalmer, L��ah�ida and P�lanpur came to participate in them.2

Barod� : Barod�, the old capital of V�ga�a, is situated at a distance of forty-five kms. from Dungarpur. Its early name was Va�apadraka. It was also a centre of Jainism in early times. Vinayaprabhas�ri, an author of the fourteenth century, refers to  temple of this place in his T�rthay�tr� Stavana. There are several remains of the old Jaina temples. One of them is the temple of P�r�van�tha. Jinachandras�ri of the Kharatara gachchha performed the installation ceremony here. Various copies of the Jaina manuscripts were writtin here in medieval times.3

��ngarpur : �ungarpur is located at a distance of about one hundred five kms. south of Udaipur. It was the capital of the same name. From the Prav�saj�tik�traya of Jay�nanda written in 1370 A.D., it is known that there were five Jaina temples and about nine hundred Jaina families living at that time. The Jainas were given high posts of Ministers of the State. They constructed temples and celebrated the consecration of the images with pomp and show. D��garpur was visited by the Jaina saints from time to time, and manuscripts were presented to them as a mark of honour. In 1404 A.D., Prahl�da, the Minister of R�vala Prat�pa Si�ha, constructed a Jaina temple. It is clear from the Gurugu�aratnakara K�vya that S�lha, who was the chief Minister of Somad�sa, renovated the temple of P�r�van�tha. The Bha���rakas of the M�lasa�gha and the K�s�h� Sa�gha had a great stronghold at ��ngarpur.1

Tahangarh : Tahangrah is twenty-three kms. to the south of Bay�n�. Its old name was Tribhuvanagiri. During the reign of the Y�davas, Jainism remained specially associated with Tahangarh. Pradyumnas�ri defeated his opponents in the coutrs of the rulers of Sap�dalaksha and Tribhuvanagiri. Kardamabh�pati, the ruler of this place, is said to have been initiated to monkhood by Abhayadevas�ri. Jinadattasuri and his disciples visited this place. From the Upake�a gachchha Pa���vali, it is known that there was an old temple of this gachchha. From a Pra�asti of the Jinadattachariu written in 1218 A.D., it is known that Lakshma�a fled to Vil�sapura from Tribhuvanagiri in panic on accoutn of the Muslim persecutions.1

Jaisalmer : Jaisalmer was the capital of the Bh���s, and it was founded after 1163 A.D., They were great patrons of Jainism which made a striking progress during their reign. The great Jaina temples of Chintama�i P�r�van�tha, �ishabhadeva, �a�tin�tha. Sambhavan�tha and Mah�v�ra in the fort of Jaisalmer constructed one after another in period between the twelfth and the fifteenth centuries were excellent. Scholars here pursued their literary activities. It is said that hinabhadras�ri, who live in the fifteenth century A.D, spent the best part of his life in establishing the store- house of knowledge at this place. Various copies of the manuscripts brought from other places for presentation were prepared. The installation ceremony of the images was performed.2

Alwar : There is a definite evidence of the association of  Jainism with Alwar from the fifteenth century A.D. In the T�rtham�l�s, Alwar, a place of pilgrimage, was known as R�va�a P�r�van�tha. Jaina literature was written in Alwar. There is mention of its name in the inscription. In 1531 A.D, a �r�vaka of Alwar installed the image of Sumatin�tha through Siddhas�ri. An inscription of 1589 A.D. records the building of a temple of R�va�a P�r�van�tha at Alwar. It is a place of pilgrimage known as ��va�a P�r�van�tha T�rtha. It means that R�va�a worshipped the image of P�r�van�tha at this place. It is legendary, but it points out the importance of Alwar as a centre of Jainism.1

�mber : �mber is situated at a distance of ten kms. from Jaipur. Jainism flourished exceedingly during the reign of the Kachchhav�ha rulers who were on friendly terms with the Mughal Emperors of Delhi. A large number of Jaina temples were constructed, and images placed in them. Various copies of manuscripts were written for presentation to Jaina monks by the �r�vakas, Encouraged by their preachings, they also led Sa�ghas to holy places from this place. Even the Jaina pontiffs of the M�lasa�gha transferred their seat from Ch�tsu to �mber in the eighteenth century A.D. The ��strabha���ra was established by Mahendrak�rti at this place, and it became famous by the name of Mahendrak�rti Bha���ra.2

Bijaulia : Bijaulia became a holy site of the Jainas after the manifestation of an image of P�r�van�tha in the twelfth century A.D. In accordance with the instructions or his preceptor Jinachandrasuri, Lol�ka, a Porav�la Mah�jana, constructed or repaired the temple of P�r�van�tha, and surrounded it with seven smaller temples. The Chauh�na ruler P�ithv�r�ja II, who lived in 1168 A.D., gave the village Mor�jhar�, and Some�vara endowed the temple of P�r�van�tha with a village named Rev�n� in charity. The Bijauli� inscription records various donations made to the temple by certain persons of the neighbouring places. A mythological treatise called the Uttama �ikhara Pur��a was composed and engraved on a large rock nearby. Being a holy place of the Jainas, this place was visited by the Jaina saints from time to time. In early times, It was a seat of the Jaina �ch�ryas of the M�thura Sa�gha. The author of the Bijauli� inscription dated 1170 A.D. was Gu�abhadra, a Mah�muni, who belonged to the M�thura Sa�gha. Afterwards, it became centre of the activities of the Mulasa�gha. There are two inscriptions of 1408 and 1426 A.D. when the Jaina pontiff Subhachandra was living. On one side of the pillar is engraved the name of Bha���raka, �r� Padmanandi and on the other Bhatt�raka ��bhachandra.1 It is said that the Upasarga on Parvanatha took place in here.

Ke�or�ya Pa��ana : Ke�or�yapa��ana, located at a distance of fifteen kms. in the north-east of Kotah was a Jaina holy place. It was famous for the temple of Jaina T�rtha�kara Muni Suvrata. In this temple, Nemichandra wrote the B�ihad-dravya-Sa�graha. Madanak�rti mentions it as a place of pilgrimage in the ��sana-chatustri��atik�. In the Pr�k�ita Nirv��ak���a and the Apabhra��a Nirv��abhakti also, there is a reference to this temple of Munis Suvrata. Now, it is known as Bhuvidevara for its being on underground temple. One Kalpav�iksha Pa��a of Jaina mythology and othe Jaina sculptures were discovered at this place, and they may probably have belonged to this Jaina temple.2

Na�� : Na�� is at a distance of three kms. from the Railway-Station of the same name on the Ahmedabad-Ajmer line. N��� was specially associated with Jainism as the T�rtha of J�vitasv�m�. It means that once the life size image of Mah�v�ra was worshipped there. It is legendary, but in the tenth century A.D., there was a temple of Mah�v�ra. A small fragmentary inscription on the door of the shrine dated 960 A.D. definitely proves the existence of Jainism at this time. N���v�la or J�anak�ya gachchha was founded by Prabh�nanda at N���. The earliest mention of this Gachchha is found in the inscription of 1045 A.D.1

M��gathal� : M��gathal�, near Mount �b�, is an old village in Sirohi state. It remained famous as a Mah�t�rtha of the Jainas. Jinaprabhas�ri, in the Vividha T�rtha Kalpa written in 1332 A.D., refers to the temple of Mah�vira of this place. This place was believed to be visited by Mah�v�ra. An inscription of 1369 A.D. tells that an image was consecrated by Ke�� Ganadhara during the 37th year of the life of �r� Mah�v�ra. It is further confirmed by the literary source of the Ashtottar� T�rtham�l�. This temple of Mah�v�ra has been described in the Jaina T�rtham�l�s as the temple of the J�vitasv�m�. The temple of J�vitasv�m� means to be a temple of the life-time of Mah�v�ra. This temple of Mah�v�ra was renovated from time to time, and the images were installed. A large number of �r�vakas lived at this place, and they participated in the festivals in connection with the temples held from time to time.2

Talaw��� : The old name of Talaw���, situated at a distance of thirteen kms. from Banswara, was Talap��aka. It remained a holy place of the Jainas. From the Upade�akandal�v�itti of B�lachandra S�ri, it is known that Pradyumnas�ri, who lived in the tenth century A.D., visited this place and addressed its ruler. Siddhasenas�ri refers to this place in his Sakala-T�rtha-Stotra. Vinayaprabhas�ri, author of the fourteenth century A.D. in his Tirthay�tr� Stavana, mentions this place and temple of ��ntin�tha. By the inspiration of Jinabhadras�ri, the Jaina temple was constructed at this place and images were placed therein. At present, there is a big Jaina temples of Sambhavan�tha, with some images of the eleventh and twelfth centuries.1

Ma��ra : Ma��ra is situated at a distance of thirty-two kms. from �b�. This is famous as a holy place of the Jainas. The famous saint V�didevas�ri was born at this place in 1086 A.D. Ma��ha��ya gachchha originated from village Ma��ra. Megha, in his T�rtham�l� written in about 1442 A.D., refers to the temple of Mah�v�ra of this place. �ilavijaya in his T�rtham�l� written in 1691 A.D. describes this pace.2

Phalodhi : Phalodhi is at a distance of two kms. from Mert� Road Station. It became of famous T�rtha of P�r�van�tha from the twelfth century A.D. It was founded by Dharmaghoshas�ri. It remained closely associated with the Kharatara gachchha of the Jainas. In 1182 A.D, Jinapatis�ri visited this place. Jinaprabhas�ri describes it in his Vividha T�rtha Kalpa, and Vinaya Up�dhy�ya gives a description of the temple of P�r�van�tha. Being a holy place of Jainas, Phalodhi was visited by the Jaina saints and scholars in medieval times.1

J�r�val� : Jiraval�, a famous holy place of the Jainas, is situated at a distance of thirty-two kms. from Delw���. It is known by the name of J�raval� P�r�van�tha. This T�rtha came into existence in the twelfth century A.D. It got popularity in the fifteenth century, and people from different places began to visit it. The Jaina saints composed the Stotras in honour of the deity. Sa�ghav� Petha�a and Jh��jha�a of M���avaga�ha in Malwa visited this place for pilgrimage. They also constructed a Jaina temple. The �r�vakas of different places such as K�lavgr�, Kodin�ra, V�ghar�, V�salanagara, P�tana and Stambhat�rtha visited J�raval� in the fifteenth century. J�r�palli gachchha originated form this place. Bha���raka Padmanandi pupil of Prabh�chandra, wrote the J�r�vall� P�r�van�ha Stotra in the fifteenth century A.D.2

Nagara : Nagara is at a distance of five kms. south-west of Jasol in M�ll�n� District. Its old name was Mahev� of V�ramapura. When the image of P�r�van�tha was installed in the Jaina temple of this place, the place became famous by the T�rtha of N�ko�� P�r�van�tha. Even before the temple of P�rsvan�tha, Nagara was considered a holy place of the Jainas. There were temples of Mah�v�ra and �antin�tha. This holy place was visited by Jaina saints from early times. The K�rtiratnas�ri Viv�hala and the Kirtiratnas�ri-Chaup�� of Kaly��avijaya give information of the town regarding temples, people and other religious activities. The renovation of the N�ko�� P�r�van�tha took place in 1507 A.D. ��ntiku�ala mentions it in his Gau�� P�r�van�tha-Tirtham�l� written in 1612 A.D.1

�b� : �b� is a celebrated mountain in the south of Sirohi District. A town after the name of the mountain gradually developed at this place. On the basis of the old traditions, It has been described as a place of pilgrimage. From an inscription of 1369 A.D., it is known that Mah�v�ra visited Arb�dabh�mi. It is famous for two celebrated Jaina temples � Vimalavasah� temple and L�navasah� temple. The former dedicated to �din�tha was built by a Minister named Vimala in 1032 A.D., and latter temple Lu�avasah� dedicated to Nemin�tha was built by Tejap�la in 1230 A.D. Both the temples are important from artistic point of view. These are built in white marble and are very widely known for dedicacy of carving, beauty of details and magnificent ornamentaion. Both these temples were repaired and renovated from time to time. The temple of Vimalavasah� was renovated by the descendants of two brothers Gosala and Bh�ma of Ma��or. As �b� became the holy place of Jainas, several Stavanas, Stotras, Chaityaparip���s, T�rtham�las etc. were written about �b� by Jaina scholars from the fourteenth century onwards.1

S��g�ner : At a distance of thirteen kms. to the South of Jaipur stands the town of S��g�ner. This town is specially famous for the Jaina temple called Si�gh�j� k� Mandira which is a wonderful specimen of Jaina architecture. This temple seems to have belonged to the tenth century A.D., because there is an inscription of 954 A.D. on a Bandaraw�la of the main shrine. During the medieval period, it became a great literary centre. It was visited by Jaina monks from time to time, and therefore manuscript copies were prepared to present them.2 In the Bosenh five storeys of this Sanghiji temple having there are numerous idols of precious stones.

Dhuleva : Dhuleva is situated in Udaipur District. The famous Rishabhadeva temple of this place is popularly known as the Ke�ariy�j� temple because people worship the main deity with Ke�ara (Saffron). It seems that the image of �ishabhadeva and the original temple belonged to the eighth century A.D. The earliest known epigraph from this place is dated 1373 A.D. This temple was renovated, B�va�a Jin�laya, Sabh�m��apa etc. were constructed, and images were installed at the preaching of the Bha���rakas of the Kash�h� Sa�gha and the M�lasamgha by the �r�vakas of the H�ma�a, Narasi�hapura, Bagherav�la, Kha��elav�la castes etc. from time to time, It is a famous Ati�aya Kshetra.3

Gho��rs� : Gho��rs� is situated near Pratapgarh. The existence of a P�r�van�tha temple at this place, is provec by a fragmentary tenth century epigraph, discovered from the ruins of this place.1

Gujarat

Giranara : Giran�ra is a group of hills situated in Kathiawar. On the peaks of hills, several beautiful Jaina temples have been erected. Here, the twenty-second T�rtha�kara, Nemin�tha, practised sacrifices, preached religion and attained Moksha. Pradyumnakum�ra, Gajakum�ra, Ga�adhara Varadatta and imnumerable ascetics attained liberation on this place. The antiquity of the place is traced to the time of Rishabhadeva, the first T�rtha�kara, and it was the scene of various important events in the history of Jaina community.2 It is connected in the Jaina literature with the activities of the Jaina T�rtha�kara Nemin�tha. The Vividhat�rthakalpa gives vital information about this T�rtha.

�atru�jaya Hills : �atru�jaya or Siddhagiri is a celebrated place of pilgrimage at P�lit�n�. From here, three P���upatras and several ascetics attained Moksha. As there are three thousand five hundred Jaina temples, it is known to be the city of temples. Jinaprabhu gives an interesting information of this T�rtha. In V.S. 1369, the original image of the M�lan�yaka �ishabha was destroyed by the Muslims and it was restored by Samara Sh�h in V.S. 1371, In V.S. 1686, Ratnas�, Sa�ghapat� of Ahmedabad, installed the image of ��ntin�tha when Shahjahan was ruling.3

Aj�har� : Aj�har� is situated in Junagarh District. The earliest epigraph, from this place is dated in V.S. 1042. This Particular T�rtha is associated with P�r�van�tha in Jinaprabha's celebrated work. Bha���raka Sumatis�gara, Bhattaraka J��nas�gara and Bha���raka Jayas�gara mention this T�rtha.1

A�kale�vara : A�kale�vara is situated in Broach District. It is mentioned in the Dhaval� and other works in connection with �ch�rya Pushpadanta and Bh�tabali. It had a Jaina shrine called Chint�ma�i P�r�van�tha in the sixteenth century. Up�dhy�ya Dharmak�rti wrote the Ya�odhara Charita in V.S. 1657 in the temple of Chint�ma�i P�r�van�tha. This T�rtha remained under the influence of the Bha���rakas of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha and the M�lasa�gha. It is famous as Ati�aya Kshetra.2

�r�s��a : �r�s��a was a famous �vet�mbara centre of pilgrimage and it is at present known as Kumbh�riy�. The Kharatara gachchha B�ihad Gurv�vali calls it a Mah�t�rtha. The earliest temple of this place was dedicated to Nemin�tha. There were also temples of Mah�v�ra, P�r�va, ��nti etc. The temples of this place have yielded a number of important epigraphs of the medieval period.3

���pal� : ���pal� is still known as Ashawul and it is almost the site of the present Ahmedabad. It came into the limelight in the days of the Chaulukya Kar�a (1066-1092), as we learn from Merutu�ga. Several Jaina manuscripts, dating from the twelfth century, to the last quarter of the 13th century, were copied at this place. There is a reference to the �r� Vidy�ma�ha of this place in a manuscript of Hemachandra's Vy�karana Laghu Vritti. This place was destoyed by the Muslims.1

Bhadre�vara : Bhadre�vara is a well-known �vet�mbara T�rtha of Cutch district, and was the birth place of the great Jaina business maganate Jaga�u. The temple of P�r�van�tha of this place is well known. In the Jaga�u charita, there is a reference to the V�ran�tha shrine of this place, which was beautified by that merchant. A separate Jaina temple, containing the icons of all the 24 T�rtha�karas, was also built by Jaga�u. And lastly, a Paushadhas�la was also erected by that merchant in the same place.2

Bh�mapalli : Bh�mapall� is a village, fifteen kms. south-west of P��an and was a well-known Jaina centre from the last quarter of the twelfth century. The temple of Mah�v�ra of this place, was celebrated throughout Gujarat and this T�rtha was closely associated with the activities of the monks of the Kharatara gachchha.3

Bh�igukachchha : The ancient port city of Bh�igukachchha was associated with the Jaina religion, probably form pre-Christian times. A �vet�mbara monk called Jinadeva defeated the two Buddhist monks in a debate at this place in the second century A.D. In the Niryukti and Bh�shya commentaries, Bhrigukachchha has been recognized as a T�rtha, and there are early reference to the �akunik�-vih�ra of this place which was dedicated to the T�rtha�kara Munisuvrata. The earliest datable reference to this temple, occurs in the ninth century works of Jayasi�ha, entitled Dharmopade�am�l�. Jinaprabha, also in his celebrated work, the Vividhat�rthakalpa gives a short history of this T�rtha. There was another temple here, called the M�lavasati.1

Ch�r�pa : Ch�r�pa is situated in the P��an Taluk of Mahes�na District. From the Vividhat�rthakalpa, it is famous for the temple of P�r�van�tha. The temples dedicated ot �din�tha, ��nti and others were built afterwards. However, at present, no other temple, except that of P�r�va, exists in this place. Sumatis�gara writing in the sixteenth century mentions this particular T�rtha in the T�rtha Vandan� Sa�graha.2

Darbhavat� : Darbhavat� is situated in Baroda District. It is well known for the two temples, dedicated to P�r�van�tha. It is recognized as a T�rtha in a manuscript of Hemachandra's Yoga�astrav�itti written in V.S. 1251. In an earlier Jaina manuscript, dated V.S. 1211, this place has been mentioned. It has also been mentioned in several other later manuscripts. J�anas�gara and Jayas�gara have mentioned the p�r�va Temple � complex of this place, called by the name 'Lo�ana-P�r�van�tha' in the T�rthavandan�sa�graha. There are also epigraphic references to it.3

Devapattana : Devapattana is situated in the Junagarh District. It is also known as Prabh�sa Pa�ana. According to Jinaprabha, the Chandraprabha temple was founded here after the destruction of Valabh� in V.S. 845. Merutu�ga has also mentioned this T�rtha in his Prabandha Chint�ma�i. Hemachandra and Kum�rap�la showed their respect for this great T�rtha. Jinaprabha has also referred to the P�r�va temple of this place.1

Dhavalakkapura : The present name of the ancient town Dhavalakapura is Dholk�, situated is Ahmedabad District. It has still a few Jaina temples, including the great Kaliku��a P�r�van�tha-shrine. The Pur�tana Prabhanda Sa�graha mentions the Simandhara Sv�min temple of this town, built by the merchant called  �d�. It was popularly known as �d�vasati and it was consecrated by Dev�ch�rya in the first quarter of the twelfth century. This work also refers to the temple of P�r�va of this town and associates him with the celebrated saint Abhayadeva, the author of the A�ga commentaries. This town was closely associated with the religous activities of the two great Jaina Ministers, namely Vastup�la and Tej Ahp�la. In V.S. 1372, the P���ari-ka-charita of Kamalaprabhas�ri was written at this town.2

Gandh�ra T�rtha : Gandh�ra T�rtha, on the sea-coast in Broach District, came into limelight only during the days of the great H�ravijaya, in the sixteenth century. It has the temples of both P�r�va and Mah�v�ra and also an interesting image of H�ravijaya himself. The icon of P�r�va was consecrated by Vijayasenas�ri, the most important disciple of H�ravijaya. The Diagambaras also had a temple, dedicated to �din�tha at this place.3

Ghogh� : Ghogh� is situated in Bhavnagar District, near the sea-shore, It is well known for the temple of P�r�van�tha. A copy of the Nemin�tha Charita was written in V.S. 1512, at this town. The Jaina images from V.S. 1276 to V.S. 1379 are found in the �vet�mbara temples while images of V.S. 1511, V.S. 1513, V.S. 1643  and 1679 belong to Digambara Jaina temples. Probably, the P�r�van�tha temple of this place, is referred to by the term 'Ghoghamandira' in a literary record of V.S. 1575.1

��ar : Idar is situated in the present S�bar K�ntha District. It was also known as Il�durga, Il�padra etc. It was an old T�rtha, being associated with ��ntin�tha. Jinapati in his T�rtham�l� mentions a temple of �di�vara which was built by Kum�rap�la in this place. We have also an Idaran�yaka Rishabhadeva Stavana by Munisundara and Ilt�durga �isabha-Jinastotra by Somasundaras�ri. The Digambaras also had a separate potifical seat at this place. The Palya vidh�na kath� of Digambara Brahma �rutas�gara was written during the reign of Bh�nu of ��ar.2

Jama�apura : Jama�apura, situated in Mahes�na District has the temple of Chandraprabha. The J�ma�ak�ya gachchha originated at this place and is mentioned in a metal icon of V.S. 1285.3

Mahuv� : Mahuv� is situated in Bhavnagar District. In the Vividha t�rtha kalpa, it has been mentioned as Madhumat�. It is mentioned in the T�rtham�l� of Vinayavijaya composed in the fourteenth century A.D. This place is sacred to Mah�v�ra.4

Mahuv� : There is another place named Mahuv� in Surat District. It is a famous Ati�aya Kshetra by the name 'Sri Vignah�ra p�r�van�tha. Its ancient name was Madhukara Nagara or Mand�kanagara. Brahma J��nas�gara described the importance of the T�rtha in the Sarvaat�rtha vandan�. Bha���raka V�dichandra, disciple of Bha��araka Prabh�chandra of the M�lasa�gha Sarasvat�gachchha, composed the J��nas�ryodaya drama in V.S. 1648.1

Modhera : Modhera situated in Mahes�na District was connected with Jainism from the eighth century. According to the Prabh�vakacharita, Bappabha��i was initiated by Siddhasena, at this place, apparently in the eighth century. The Prabh�vaka Charita and the Vividha t�rtha kalpa refer to the temple of Mah�v�ra here. At present, the temple of this place is dedicated to P�r�van�tha. The Mo�hera gachchha originated from this place.2

Pattana : Pattana is situated in Mahes�na District, and its ancient name, was A�ahilapura. It remained a great centre of Jainism from the eighth century to the late medieval period. According to the Prabh�vaka charita and the Vividhat�rtha kalpa, the great P�r�va temple of this place was built by the Ch�potka�a king Vanar�ja and it came to be known as the Vanar�ja vih�ra. Afterwards, many other Jaina temples were built, at this town. Jinaprabha mentions the  great temple of Arish�anemi of this town and he represents it as the T�rtha, sacred to that T�rtha�kara. The Kharatara gachchha B�ihad gurv�vali repeatedly mentions the ��ntin�tha of this place, which was apparently in existence before 1300 A.D. A temple of Mah�v�ra was built here during the time of Jinapati of the Kharatara gachchha in 118 A.D. Several Jaina works were written at this place. Great Jaina saints and writers remained associated with this town in one way or other. Even in Muslim period, there were more than hundred Jaina temples at this town.1

P�v�ga�ha : P�v�ga�ha is situated in the Panch Mah�la District, and its ancient name was P�v�giri. According to the Prakrit- N�rv��a K���a, the two sons of R�machandra attained Nirv�na after performing penances. It is a Siddhakshetra or Nirv��a kshetra. Besides five Ko�i kings of La�ade�a obtained liberation here. Bha���raka Gu�ak�rti, �rutas�gara, J��nasagara, Chima�� Pa��ita regarded this place as Siddha kshetra. This T�rtha was in existence in the fifteenth century and the earliest epigraph from this place is dated in V.S. 1613.2

Prahl�danapura : The modern name of the ancient T�rtha Prahl�danapura is Palanpur, and it is located in Ban�s-Kantha. The Kharatara Gachchha B�ihad gurv�vali repeatedly refers to this place and mentions several temple including those of Chandraprabha and Yug�dideva. Several temples including those of Mah�v�ra, Rishabha, Nemi, P�r�va and Nandi�vara were built in V.S. 1305 during the time of Kharatara �ch�rya Jine�vara II at this town. At present, the P�r�va temple of this place is the most important Jaina shrine. The earliest reference ot Prahal�danapura is found in a Jina manuscript dated V.S. 1274.1

�ankhe�vara : Sa�khe�vara situated in Mahes�na District was associated with P�r�van�tha from early times. The Kharatara Gachchha Brihad gurv�vali mentions this temple of P�r�van�tha. The Kharatara gachchha �ch�ryas like Jinachandra III and Jinaku�ala visited this place, When Jinachandra III first came to this place in V.S. 1352, it was known as a great T�rtha. Jinaprabha in his celebrated work has devoted a Kalpa on it. The Digambara writers like Sumatis�gara and J�anasagara have mentioned the temple-complex of �ankhe�vara. Sajjana and Vastup�la were also associated with this T�rtha.2

Stambhapura : The great T�rtha Stambhapura, now known as Khambhat Cambay, is of the medieval period. The earliest reference to this place is found in the Kavi grant of Rash�rak��a Govinda III, dated �aka 749. According to the Vividhat�rthakalpa, this place came to be associated with Jainism from the days of Abhayadeva, the author of the nine A�gas. That Abhayadeva was the founder of this T�rtha, sacred to P�r�van�tha, is also supported by the evidence of the Prabh�vakacharita and also the Prabadha Chint�ma�i. A manuscript of the original Bhagavat�, which was copied at Stambhat�rtha between V.S. 1110 and 1119, is probably the earliest Jaina work to refer to this holy place. This shows that even in Abhayadeva's life time, it was recognised as a T�rtha. Hundreds of Jaina manuscripts were afterwards copied here and other temples were also built in this place.1

Surat : Surat is an important station of the Western Railway, and its ancient name was S�ryapura. The important Jaina temples of this place were of Chandraprabhu, �din�tha and V�sup�jya. Bha���raka J��nas�gra mentions Chandraprabhu temple as Ati�aya in his Sarvat�rtha vandan�. Adin�tha Jin�laya and V�sup�jya Jin�laya became literary centres. Bha���raka Devendrak�rti, disciple of Padmanandi, established the seat of the M�lasa�gha at Surat, and he established the Ratn�kara caste after converting seven hundred families to Jainism. Devendrak�rti performed the installation of several images in Avanti region. Surat was also a seat of the Bha���rakas of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha. A temple of �ishabha of this place has been mentioned in a literary record of V.S. 1664.2

T�ra�g� : T�ra�ga, a sacred hill situated in the Mahesana- District, became a holy place of the Jainas. Its ancient name was T�r�pura. According to the Pr�krit Nirv��a K���a, Varadatta Vara�ga, Sagaradatta, three and half Ko�i Munis etc. attained Nirv�na. T�ra�g� was mentioned by Gu�ak�rti in the Tirtha vandan� written in the fifteenth century A.D. �rutas�gara, Meghar�ja Dilasukha etc. also described this T�rtha. It became famous as Nirv��a Kshetra.3

Tara�g� became a holy place of the �vet�mbaras from the days of Kum�rap�la. A magnificent temple of Ajitan�tha, the second T�rtha�kara, was built by this great king on this hill. Jinaprabha also associates this hill with Ajitan�tha.1

Thar�da : Thar�da is situated in the District Banas Kantha, and its ancient name was Th�r�padra. The well known play Mah�r�ja- Par�jaya was first enacted in the Kum�ravih�ra temple, dedicated to Mah�v�ra of this place. Tar�padra gachchha originated from this place. At present, this T�rhta is sacred to �di�vara.2

�n� : �n� siturated in Junagarh District is dedicated to �din�tha, It was known as Unnatapura. It is mentioned in the fourteenth century work of Vinayavijaya called T�rtham�la.3

Upariy�l� : Upadiy�l� is situated in the Surendranagar  District. This place, sacred to �di�vara, is mentioned in the fifteenth century works of Jayas�gara, called Chaitya-Parip��i.4

Valabh� : Valabh� is situated in Bhavanagar District. Before its destruction in the last quarter of the eighth century by the Muslims, it was a great centre of Jainism and the Jaina canon was first edited here in the fifth century. It became a great centre of �vet�mbara Jainism by the fifth century A.D. The discovery of the sixth century Jaina icons from the ruins of this place also proves that it was a Jaina centre in the Gupta period. The temples of Chandraprabha and Mah�v�ra existed before the eighth century A.D.  This city has also been mentioned in the B�ihat Kath� Ko�a which was written in 931 A.D.1

Va��l� : Va��l� T�rtha, sacred to P�r�van�tha, is situated in the Sabar Kantha District. It was known in ancient times as Vatapalli. The Kharatara-gachchha-gurvav�li mentions the P�r�va temple of this place. This proves that the P�r�va temple of this town existed in the middle of the twelfth century.2

Sajoda : Sajoda is situated at a distance of eighth kms. from Ankleshwar in Bharoch District. It is an Ati�aya Kshetra. Here is an old Digambara Jaina temple. The Jaina image of ��talan�tha and that of P�r�van�tha have been discovered here. The image of P�r�van�tha is an artistic, and belongs to seventh or eighth century A.D.3

Maharashtra

Dh�r��iva : The great Dhar��iva T�rtha is situated at a distance of five kms. from the town of Osm�n�bad. It has a few very old P�r�va icons, some of which were probably fashioned from the fifth to the eighth century A.D. The history of this T�rtha has been given both in Harishena's B�ihat Kath� Ko�a and the Karaka��achariu of Kanak�mara. There is little doubt that the famous caves of Dh�r��iva, which were near the city of Ter�pura, were quaite well known in the early medieval period. These caves may belong to the third century A.D.1

Gajapanth� : Gajapanth� is situated in Nasik District. As seven Balabhadras and eight Ko�i Y�davas attained liberation according to the Pr�krit Nirv��a K���a from Gajapanth�, it is regarded as Siddha Kshetra of Nirv��a Kshetra. Only the name of Gajapanth� has been mentioned in the Sanskrit Nirv�na Bhakti of P�jyapada. It is mentioned by several authorities, including Gunabhadra, Asaga (10th century), Sumati, Jayas�gara and others. Asaga in his ��ntin�tha charita clearly refers to it, as situated near Nasik. The old Jaina remains from the fourth to the eighth century have been discovered in the region of this place.2

K�ra�j� : K�ra�j� is situated in Akola District. This T�rtha emerged into the limelight in the fifteenth century. J��nas�gara mentions Chandran�tha (Chandra Prabhu) temple of this place. Afterwards, a temple of P�r�va was also built in this place. There is the second Chandraprabha temple at this place. These temples have the respective seats of Senaga�a, K�sh�ha Sa�gha and M�la Sa�gha Bha���rakas. ��lavijya. (17th century) in his T�rtham�la, has given a very detailed account of this T�rtha, which shows that it was a flourishing Jaina centre in his time.3 In this place, in Kastha Sa�gha temple 11th century remarkable wooden carving and precious stone idols.

Kolh�pura : Kolh�pura was a celebrated Digambara T�rtha in early times. The epigraphic evidence suggests that Jainism was popular in Kolhapur region. The inscription of �il�h�ra king Vijay�ditya dated Saka Sa�vata 1073 is important. There are other inscriptions discovered here, and in the neighbourhoood. There are temples in which images of the twelfth century are found.1

M��g�-T��g� : M��g�-T��g� is situated in Mangi-Tungi District. According to the Prakrit Nirv��a Ka��a, R�ma, Sugr�va, Hanum�na and several Munis attained Nirv��a here. Hence it is called Siddha Kshetra. In the Sanskrit Nirv��� Bhakti of P�jyapada, Balabhadra is known to have obtained Nirv��a from Tu�gagiri. The later writers Udayak�rti, �rutas�gara, Abhayachandra and others have also mentioned M�ngtu�g� as Siddha Kshetra. The earliest epigraph from this place is dated in V.S. 1443 (1387 A.D.).2

Mukt�giri : According to the Pr�krit Nirv�na K���a and the Sanskrit Nirv��a Bhakti, Mukt�giri is Sidha Kshetra or Nirv�na-Kshetra because three and half Ko�i Munis attained liberation. Its ancient name was Me��h�giri. It is mentioned by the later medieval Digambara writers including J��nas�gara, Sumatisagara and others. There are about fifty-two Jin�layas. Most of them belonged from V.S. 1545 to V.S. 1950.3

N�sikya : The well-known N�sik or N�sikya is recognised as a T�rtha in the Vividhat�rthakalpa. The work mentions the J�vitasv�m� Tribhuvanatilaka Chandraprabha temple of this place. Thre is a sepatate Kalpa, on this celebraed T�rtha of N�sikya. This temple of Chandraprabha of Nasik has been mentioned in the Prabh�vaka Charita.1

Pai�h�n : Pai�h�n is situated in Aurangabad District, and its ancient name was Pratish�h�na. According to the tradition, Jainism gained a firm foothold at this town as early as the time of the S�tav�hana king H�la. Jinaprabha has written three separate Kalpas on this T�rtha which was considered, sacred to Munisuvrata. It is further learnt from this work that the saint K�lak�ch�rya visited this town, 993 years after the Nirv��a of Mah�v�ra. It is famous by Munisuvratan�tha Ati�aya Digambara Jaina Kshetra.2

R�mateka : R�ma�eka is in Nagpur District. Its ancient name was R�magiri. This place was connected with Jainism from very early period. It is mentioned by Vimala in his Paumachariyam, and by Ravishe�a in his Padma Pur��a and also by Jinasena II in his Hariva��a. R�machandra is known to have constructed several Jaina temples at R�magiri. K�lid�sa also mentions R�magiri in the Meghad�ta. The identification of R�magiri is controversial.3

Sirpura : Sirpur is situated in �kol� District, and its ancient name was �r�pura. This T�rtha is famous by the name of Antariksha Par�van�tha. The worship of this Antariksha P�r�van�tha has been mentioned in the Pr�krit Nirv��a K���a. Madanak�rti has mentioned this T�rtha in his �asana Chatu�tri�atik�. Besides Lakshama�a, Gunak�rti, Megharaja, Sumatis�gara J��nasagara, Jayasagara, Chima�� Pa��ita, Somasena, Harsha etc. have mentioned Antariksha P�r�van�tha. The P�r�van�tha temple of this place was known even to Jinaprabha who wrote a Kalpa on this T�rtha. �ilavijaya has also mentioned it. Aila �r�p�la is known to have constructed this temple probably in the tenth century A.D. The old Digambara Jaina images and other remains have been discovered at this place.1

Ukhalada : Ukhalada is located in Parbhan� District. It has yielded a number of inscribed Jina images which show that the temple here was in existence before 1215 A.D. It was a Digambara shrine under the monks of the M�lasa�gha, Sarasvat� gachchha.2

Daulat�bad : The ancient name of Daulatab�d was Devagiri. It was considered a Jaina T�rtha. Jinaprabha wrote a section of his T�rtha Kalpa at this town. At this place, a Jaina work was copied in V.S. 1383. �r�bhusha�a of the K�sh�h� Sa�gha, Nanditata gachchha composed his P�r�van�tha Pur��a in V.S. 1654 in the P�r�va temple of Devagiri. It has also been called a Mah�sth�na.3

Tagarapura : Tagarapura was known as Ter�pura, and the Jaina caves here were well-known in earlier times. Both Harishena and Kanak�mara have mentioned the P�r�va T�rtha of this place. Tagar� is mentioned in the Seventy century Chur�i on the Uttar�dhyana and the Vyavah�rabh�shya also proves its association with Jainism. It seems that in earlier times, it was a �vet�mbara stronghold, and only at a later period, it came under the influence of the Digambaras.1

South-India

Kar���ak, �ndhara Pradesh And Tamil���u

Kar���ak

�rava�a Belagola : �rava�abelagola is situated in the Hassan District. As �rama�as or Jaina ascetics used to live in large number, the place was named as �ravanabelagola. It comprises two hills, namely, Chandragiri and Vindhyagiri, and a white pond in between. The Emperor Chandragupta Maurya came here along with his preceptor Bhadrab�hu and stayed here for many years as an ascetic and breathed his last according to the Jaina fashion, namely that of Sallekha��. On the Chandragiri mountain, there are caves for the residence of ascetics and fourteen large temples. The foot-prints of Bhadrab�hu Sv�m� are kept in one of the caves. On the Vindhyagiri mountain, there are in all ten temples and the exquisitely beautiful statue of Gomma�e�vara. The importance of �rava�abelagola is further enhanced by the existence of several ancient inscriptions of great historical values.2 It is to be noted that the image of Bahubali King as Gomatesvar is 58 th height carved out of one stone standing without of lateral support. The image is the latest one.

AlB�r (Abbal�ru) : Alb�r is situated in Dharwar District. The well known Abl�r epigraph dated C. 1200 A.D proves that this place had a Jaina temple before 1200 A.D. which was destroyed by Ek�ntada R�m�yya, the �aiva teacher.1

A�aki : A�aki was an important center of Jainism in Gulbarga District and has yielded a few epigraphs of the twelfth century. The Koppa Jin�laya of this place was dedicated to the god P�r�van�tha. Its ancient name was �dakki and it had some other Digambara temples.2

Annigeri (Annigere) : Annigeri was a Jaina centre of the Dharwar District. The earliest Jaina temple of this place was built in 751 A.D. The temple of this place was in charge of the monks of the M�lasa�gha and Bal�tk�raga�a.3

Arasib��i : Arasib��i was a well known Jaina centre of the Bijapur District. It came into the limelight from the eleventh century.4

Ayy�vale (Aihole) : Ahihole in Bijapur District has supplied a Jaina epigraph dated 634 A.D., composed by the poet Ravik�rti. This inscription shows that in the first half of the seventh century, there was a Jinendra temple, built of stone at this place. Another epigraph records the reconstruction of the same temple. The merchants of this particular place were quite influential in South India.5

Badli : Badli is a place in Belgaum District. An epigraph from this place discloses the existence of a Jaina shrine, called Brahma Jin�laya, which was built by M�rasi�ha.1

Baligr�ma : Baligrama is situated in Shimoga District. This was a famous Jaina ��rtha associated with the T�rtha�kara ��ntin�tha. This temple of ��ntin�tha was originally built by Jayasi�ha II        (1015-1043 A.D.) of the Western Ch�lukya dynasty.2

Bandalike : Bandalike is situated in Shikarpur T�luk of Shimoga District, and its Sanskrit name is B�ndhavapura. This place was recognized as a T�rtha, as early as the first quarter of the tenth century A.D. The ��ntin�tha temple of this town was well known throughout Kar���aka.3

Ba�k�pura : Ba�k�pura, a great Jaina T�rtha of Dharwar District, became a Jaina centre from the ninth century A.D., as it is learnt from the Pra�asti of Gu�abhadra's Uttarapur��a. It was founded by Ba�keyarasa, a s�manta of the R�sh�rak��a Amoghavarsha I, who ruled in the ninth century A.D. Jaina inscriptions of later times also have been discovered from this place. Even in the seventeenth century, it was considered a flourishing Jaina T�rtha by �il�vijaya who visited the Jaina T�rthas of South India in the second half of that century.4

Belur : Belur is in Hassan District, and it was associated with Jainism from the early medieval period, and a few epigraphs have been discovered from the ruined temples of this place.1

Bh�ra�g� : Bh�ra�g� is a place located in Shimoga District. It was well known for the temple of P�r�van�tha which was built before 1415 A.D.2

Bha�kal : Bha�kal in North Kanara District was founded in the fifteenth century and was associated with the Jainas, from the very beginning of its existence. We find references to several temples of this place in the epigraphs, discovered from this town. The shrines, dedicated to P�r�va and Mah�v�ra are quite famous. Another temple, called the Ratnatraya basadi, dedicated to Aran�tha, Mallin�tha and Survrata, was built in the sixteenth century. It is learnt from an epigraph that this town owed its existence to the saint Vijayak�rti of the M�lasa�gha.3

Biligi : Biligi was a Jaina centre of North Kanara District. It was associated with the Jaina religion from the sixteenth century. It appears that the Ratnatraya basadi was the earliest Jaina temple of this town. It was built, according to an epigraph of that temple, in the early sixteenth century.4

Chandakavate : Chandakavate is situated in the Sindgi Taluk of Bijapur District, and its ancient name was Chandrik�va�a. This place has been mentioned as the seat of a line of Jaina teachers of the Sena Sa�gha. This T�rtha contains a few Jaina epigraphs, including one dated 1068 A.D. The earliest guru of the line, who had the seat, at this place, was Dharmasena, who founded a monastery at this place in the early ninth century A.D. His disciple Kum�rasena was a very influential monk, who afterwards left this T�rtha for Mulgund.1

Dv�rasamudra : Dv�rasamundra is situated in the Hassan District. The Pu�isa Jin�laya of this place, was built in the eleventh century, and was probably the earliest Jaina shrine of Dv�rasamudra. It was dedicated to P�r�van�tha. Another temple, built by Boppa, the son of the famous Ga�gar�ja, the Jaina general of Vish�uvardhana, was given the name Vijaya-P�r�va Jin�laya. There was another temple dedicated to ��ntin�tha, at this place.2

Yalbargi : Erambarge was the old name of Yalbargi in the Raichur District. It was also known as Erambarapuram. There was a temple of P�r�van�tha at this place. Some other Jaina shrines of this town are known; it was once a flourishing Jaina centre.3

Gabb�r : Gabb�r is a place in Raichur District, and had a Jina temple called Nagara-Jin�laya or Brahma Jin�laya in the twelfth century.4

Gerasoppe : Gerasoppe in North Kanara District, was associated with Jainism, at least from 1378 A.D., the date of the earliest dated Jaina epigraph from this town. Another name of Gerasoppe was Kshemapura. The epigraphs found from this town, disclose the existence of several Jaina temples, the earliest of which was probably the temple of Anantan�tha, built by a rich woman, called R�makka before 1392 A.D. Others epigraphs refer to the temples of P�r�van�ha (1421 A.D.), Nemin�tha (15th century), Vardham�na etc. of that town. According to a somewhat later epigraph (1560 A.D), the Anantan�tha temple was actually built by R�makka's husband Yojana Se��i. The same epigraph also mentions the temple of Nemin�tha of Gerasoppe. Vi�vabh�sha�a of the Bal�tk�ra ga�a, who flourished in the third quarter of the seventeenth century, has mentioned the temple of P�r�va of this place and the earlier writer Jnanas�gara has also described the three P�r�va temples of this place. There is therefore little doubt that this town was intimately associated with Jainism from the fourteenth century.1

H��uvalli : Ha�uvalli was also known as Sa�g�tapura and is now situated in North Ka�ara District. The rulers of this area were champions of the Jaina faith and there was a pontifical seat of the Digambaras which started from the middle of the fifteenth century.2

Hale Sorab : Hale Sorab, which has yielded a few epigraphs of the fourteenth cenury, is in Shimoga District.3

Hanturu : Hanturu is situated in Chikmagalur District and had a very large Jaina temple-complex.2

Hassan : Hassan is the headquarters of the same name. The name of the P�r�van�tha temple of this place has been mentioned in the seventeenth century Digambara writer Vi�vabh�sha�a.3

Ha��ana : Ha���na is situated in Tumkur District. It had a Jaina shrine called Nakhara Jin�laya.4

Hattiyamattura : Hattiyamattura is a place in Dharwar District. It had a Jina temple during the days of the Y�davas.5

Herag� : Herag� is a place in Hassan District. It had once a great Jaina temple-comlex, dedicated to P�r�van�tha.6

Hire-Abli : Hire-Abli located in Shimoga District has yielded a very large number of epigraphs. There was a famous temple of P�r�van�tha in this place.7

Hogekeri : Hogekeri is situated in Shimoga District. Its former name was Vogeyakera. It had a well-known P�r�va temple, from which a few epigraphs of the fifteenth century have been discovered.8

Honw�� : The ancient name of Honw�� located in Bijapur District, was Ponnav��a. A great temple of ��ntin�tha, called Tribhuvanatilaka, existed in this place, as early as the eleventh century. There were two other shrines, dedicated to P�r�va and Sup�r�va respectively at this place.1

Hosahollu : Hosahollu situated in Mandya District had once very large Jaina temple-complex called Trik��a Jin�laya, in the early twelfth century.2

Humcha : Humcha is a great Jaina centre of Shimoga District. Its ancient name was Pomburcha. This place has yielded a very large number of important Jaina epigraphs. The earliest Jaina temple of this place was built in the ninth century. Epigraphs of this place mention P�liyakka temple, Pa��ana-sv�mi temple, Nokkiyabbe temple, Urvitilaka temple and some other temples. As late as the seventeenth century, it was considered a T�rtha, as its name is found in the list of Jaina T�rthas of South India, given by �il�vijaya. The Digambara writers like J��nas�gara, Vi�vabh�sha�a, Jinas�gara and Topakavi have mentioned this T�rtha. Some of the surviving temples of this place are important for the historians of the Indian architecture.3

I�gale�vara : I�gle�vara is situated in Bijapur District, and it was a stronghold of the Digambara Jainas. The sect I�gale�vara bali belonging to the M�lasa�gha and Pustaka gachchha, was evidently associated with this place. Several epigraphs of this place, are known. There was a temple called Tirthada basadi at this place. The earliest epigraph of this village is dated 1189 A.D. The monks of this particular bali were known throughout Kar���aka.1

Ingalgi : The earlier name of the place Ingalgi situated in Gulbarga District was Ingunige. It is and old place associated with Jainism. The earliest epigraph from this place is dated 1094 A.D. The Mahum��ikyadeva temple (probably Mah�v�ra) of this place, was built, according to this epigraph, in that year, by J�kaladev�, a prominent queen of the Emperor Vikram�ditya VI.2

K��akol : K��akol was a T�rtha situated in Dharwar District. It has yielded a number of epigraphs which prove that it existed as a Jaina sacred place, before the thirteenth century.3

Kalbh�vi : The ancient name of Kalbh�v� in Belgaum District was known as Kumudav�da in the eighth century. It had a Jaina temple of that time. This temple was under the supervision of the monks of the Mait�pa anvaya and the K�reya ga�a, which was a section of the famous Y�pan�ya Sa�gha.4

Kalholi : The ancient name of Kalholi situated in Belgaum District was known as Kalpole or Sindana Kalpole. From an inscription of 1204 A.D., it is learnt that there was a temple of ��ntin�tha at this place. This temple was under the supervision of the monks of the Hanasoge Section of the Pustka gachchha, the Mulasa�gha and the Kundakunda anvaya.5

K�rakala : K�rakala in South Kan�ra District emerged as a Jaina T�rtha in the fifteenth century. There were several temples at this place, including one dedicated to Gomma�e�vara and another to P�r�van�tha. The local kings, of this area, gave full patronage to the Jainas and their temples. Karakala is extremely well known for its famous Jaina M�nastambha. This place was under the supervision of the monks of the Panasoge ��kh�. The great icon of Bahubali, of this place, was built by P���yar�ya in 1432 A.D. A detailed account regarding some Jaina shrines of this place can also be obtained from an epigraph of the place dated 1586 A.D. The sixteenth century Digambara writer, J��nas�gara has also mentioned the famous statue of Gomma�e�vara and also a temple of Nemin�tha of this place. The  seventeenth century writer Vi�vabh�sha�a has also mentioned this place as a Jaina T�rtha.1

Kopa�a : Kopana, a celebrated T�rtha, is situated in Raichur District. It emerged into the limelight in the ninth century A.D., and it was considered a most important T�rtha from that time. Several epigraphs, inscribed after 1000 A.D., are also known, and we have references to some Jaina shrines of this place, including the Ku�a Jin�laya. Even in the epigraphs from �rava�a-Belgola and other places, we get references to Kopa�a as Mah�t�rtha.2

Kuppa�uru : Kuppa�uru T�rtha is Shimoga district was well-known for its P�r�va temple, which was known as Brahma-Jin�laya. Its antiquity goes back to the eleventh century.3

Lakshme�vara : The ancient Lakshme�vara T�rtha in Dharwar District existed from the sixth century A.D., and the �a�kha Jinendra of this place was known throughout Kar���aka. There were several other temples at this holy T�rtha. Some of them were apparently built by the Western Ga�gas during their reign and some afterwards. Among the prominent Jina temples, we can mention T�rtha basadi, Mukkara basadi, Ganga-Kandarpa Jinamandira, Peram��i-Chaity�laya, �r� Vijaya basadi, Marudev� basadi, Dhavala Jin�laya, Gogiya basadi, �nesejjaya basadi and also a temple, dedicated to ��ntin�tha. That the �nesejjaya basadi of this place was one of the most prominent Jina temples of South India, is also proved by the famous Ablur epigraph Which mentions it specially in connection with the eight hundred Jaina temples. It was originally built by Ku�kumadev�, the younger sister of Ch�lukya Vijay�ditya. We have also other epigraphs from the same T�rtha. As late as the seventeenth century, this place was known as Jina T�rtha.1

Lakku��i : The ancient name of Lakku��i in Dharwar District was Lokkigu��i, and there were once several Jaina temples in this place. The great Jaina lady Attimabbe, constructed in the first decade of the eleventh century, a Jaina temple at this place. The temple of ��ntin�tha, of this place, is mentioned in an epigraph of 1185 A.D. There was also a temple of Nemin�tha at this village.2

Malkhe� : The ancient name of Malkhe� in Gulbarga District is Maleyakhe�a, and it represents M�nyakhe�a of the R�sh�rak�tas. It was considered to be great Jaina T�rtha by the Jainas in the medieval period. It is mentioned by both J��nas�gara and Vi�vabh�sh�a. The latter writer refers to its Nemin�tha temple which is mentioned by the fouteenth century epigraph.1

Maley�ra : Maley�ra was a very important Jaina T�rtha sacred to P�r�van�tha. It is situated in Mysore District and has yielded a number of epigraphs, the earliest of which is dated in 1181 A.D. The Vijayan�tha temple (probably P�r�van�tha) is mentioned in several later inscriptions.2

Maski : Maski situated in Raichur District was considered a Jaina centre, in the medieval period. There were two Jaina temples, including one called Jagadekamalla Jin�laya, apparently named after Jayasi�ha II.3

Matt�vara : The ancient name of Matt�vara situated in Chikmagalur District was Mattav�ra. It has yielded epigraphs, which prove that it was very closely associated with Jainism, from the eleventh century. The earliest epigraph, from thisl place, bears the date 1069 A.D. Other inscriptions discovered from this show that the Hoysala kings took active interest in he Jaina shrine of this village.4

M��abidri : The important Digambara Jaina T�rtha M��abidri is situated in the South Knara District, and it is also known as Bi�ure  and Bedar�. The earliest Jaina epigraph, from this place, is dated 1504 A.D. A copper plate inscription from this place, dated 1546 A.D., discloses the name of Chandran�tha (i.e. Chandraprabha) temple of this place and records some grant for the temple, by the local ruler of Biligi. This temple of Chandraprabha is mentioned by the sixteenth century writer J��nas�gara and also by Vi�vabh�sha�a. J��nasagara also mentions the P�r�van�tha temple of this place, which too is mentioned in a copper plate inscription, found from this place, dated 1563 A.D. The temple of Chandraprabha, according to the earlier inscription, was known as Tribhuvana Ch���ma�i temple. An inscription of 1622 A.D. mentions one Tribhuvanatilaka temple of this place. From this town were discovered invaluable manuscripts of the entire Dhaval� and Jayadhaval�. The seventeenth century writer ��lavijaya has mentioned nineteen Jaina temples of this place, including the temples of �di�vara, ��nti�vara, Chandraprabha and P�r�va. He has also referred to the palm-leaf manuscript, preserved at this town.1

Niralgi : Niralgi in Dharwar District, had a temple, called Mallin�tha Jine�vara in the twelfth century. An epigraph of 1147 A.D. of the reign of Jagadekamalla II, from this place, mentions a Jaina �ch�rya of the Mulasa�gha, S�rastha ga�a and Chitrak��a. anvaya.2

Halsi : The ancient name of Halsi situated in Belgaum District is Pal��ik�. This place is a T�rtha of great importance. Pal��ik� had a Jaina temple, which was probably built in the fourth century A.D. In all probability, it was dedicated to �ishabha. The Kadamba kings were good patrons of Jainism. It appears that there were several Jaina temples at Pal��ik�, in the early period. At present, there is no trace of Jainism at Halsi.1

Hungund : The ancient name of Hungund in Bijapur District is Ponnugu��a. There were at least three Jaina temples at this place namely Tribhuvanatilaka Jin�laya, Mah��r�manta basadi and Arasara basadi of the eleventh century.2

H�li : The ancient name of H�li in Belgaum District was P�li. It had a well-known temple-comlex, called M��ikyat�rtha basadi. It was apparently a sacred place of the Jainas. There were several Jaina temples, at this place, and an epigraph of the eleventh century, refers to the monks of the Y�pan�ya Sa�gha and Punn�gav�iksham�la ga�a.3

R�yab�g : R�yab�g, in Belgaum District, was once a flourishing Jaina Centre under the Ra��a kings. A few inscriptions have been discovered from the local �din�tha temple of this place. The earliest epigraph is dated 1041 A.D.4

�r�ra�gapa��a�a : �r�ra�gapa��a�a near Mysore town had temples of �ishabha, P�r�va and Mah�v�ra during �ilavijaya's time.

Tavanidhi : Tavanidhi, sacred to ��ntin�tha in Shimoga District, has yielded a few Jaina epigraphs of the Thirteenth century. It was also known as Tavanandi. It was a surely Jaina sacred place where Jaina monks embraced voluntary death.1

Tenagali : Tenagali, a place in the Gulbarga District, had a Jina temple of the twelfth century.2

Uchchha�gi : Uchchha�gi is situated in Dharwar District. This was a holy place, sacred to the Jainas from quite early times. There was a shrine at this place, under the supervision of the Y�pan�yas.3

Udri : Udri in Shimoga District has yielded a very good number of Jaina epigraphs of the medieval period. At this place, there was a ��ntin�tha temple which was built at the close of the twelfth century by a Jaina General called Mah�deva Da��an�tha in �aka Sa�vat. 1119 during the rule of the Hoysala Ball�la II.4

Uppina-Betgiri : Uppina-Betgiri in Raichur District came into prominence in the tenth century A.D. It had a Jina temple called Jayadh�ra Jin�laya, which was built by a R�shtrak��a Governor called �ankaraga��a, in the tenth century.5

Va�av�la : Va�av�la is situated in South Kan�ra District. According to Vi�vabh�sha�a, there was �antin�tha temple here, during the seventeenth century.6

V�ra�ga : The ancient name of V�ra�ga situated in South Kanara District was Var��gan�. It had several temples in the late medieval period. A fifteenth century epigraph found at this place, discloses the existence of the Nemin�tha temple. ��lavijaya, a monk of the seventeenth century, has mentioned this temple.1

V�rapura : V�rapura is mentioned as a T�rtha in an epigraph of the twelfth century, found from Se�am, in Gulbarga District. Its exact identification is still unknown.2

Y�lbargi : Y�lbargi, in Raichur District, has yielded a number of Jaina antiquities of the early medieval period. It was surely a Jaina T�rtha and its earlier name was Era�barageya. There existed here a temple of P�r�va, which was under the supervision of the monks of the De�� ga�a, and M�lasa�gha.3

�ndhra Pradesh

Bodhan : Bodhan is situated in Nizamabad District. The original Jina temple of this place was afterwards destroyed by the Muslims, and converted into a mosque. A teacher called Munichandra Siddh�ntadeva, has been mentioned in a damaged Jaina epigraph of the time of the Western Ch�lukya Emperor Vikram�ditya VI. This epigraph also mentions a Jina temple of this place. Its ancient name was Podanapura.4

Gu�iv��� : Gu�iv�d� is situated in Krishna District. It has a medieval temple of Paar�van�tha.1

Hem�vat� : Hem�vat� is situated in Anantapur District. It was once the capital of the Nolamba pallavas and a damaged epigraph from this place of the ninth century mentions a local Jaina temple. Its ancient name was Henjeru.2

Penugo��a : Penugo��a situated in Anantpur District, is known for its P�r�van�tha temple. It has yielded a few Jaina antiquities. In the sixteenth century, it was considered an important Digambara Jaina centre.3

Tamil N��u

Jinagiri : The ancient Jaina T�rtha of Jinagiri is situated in South Arcot District. It was known by several names such as Uchchandv�lamalai, Va�ap�li, Varatirumalai, Tirumetrisai, N�rapattira��u and Perumapalli. Several Tamil epigraphs from this place are known. It was the home of V�ranandi of Nandi Sa�gha. The monks of this place, afterwards popularised Jainism in other places of Tamil Nadu. The main icon of the present temple is that of P�r�van�tha.4

Jina-K��ch� : Jina K��ch� is another celebrated Jaina T�rtha, near K��ch� in the District of the same name. Its history goes back to the days of the Pallavas. The presiding deity of the T�rtha is Vardham�na, and some seventeen epigraphs, ranging from the twelfth century to the sixteenth, have been found from this temple-complex. Several inscriptions belong to the reign of Chola kings like Kulottu�ga I, and Vikrama Chola. Four epigraphs, of the time of the Vijayanagara, kings like Bukka II and Krishnadeva are also known. There is little doubt that it was the greatest Jaina centre of Tamil Nadu from early times to modern period. It was also known as Trailokyavallabha temple. There is also a temple of Chandraprabha near the main temple of Vardhm�na.1

Kalugumalai : The ancient place Kalugumalai situated in Tirunelveli District was once a flourishing centre of Jainism. Inscriptions from the third century B.C. to the eleventh century A.D. have been found from this site.2

K��ch� : K�nch� was a stronghold of Jainism during the post-Christian period. The great Samantabhadra was a resident of this city. An eighth century epigraph form this city of the time of Nandivarman II refers ot an Arhat temple of this city.3

Odalav��i : Odalav��i situated in the Pol�r T�luk had a Jaina temple of the thirteenth century. It was dedicated to Gomma�an�tha.4

Tirumalai : Tirumalai, a well known T�rtha, is situated in the North Arcot District. It is famous for the magnificent standing image of Nemin�tha. A few Jaina inscriptions of this place prove that it was a Jain sacred palce even before 1000 A.D.5

Vijayamagalam : Vijayamagalam, sacred to Chandraprabha, was a well-known Jaina centre in the present Erode District (Periyar). It was known as Kurumbunadu. Its antiquity goes back to the sixth century A.D.1

 

References

             1.      This work is a later work, and its author is different from the real Kundakuna.

             2.      Jinabhareti Samgndha PP 454-456.

             3.      BBdjt, III, pp. 148-152.

             4.      JGPS, I, P. 112, No. 171.

             5.      BBDJT, III, p. 112.

             6.      CHJ, II, No. 41, p. 293.

             7.      Ibid, II, No. 275, p. 353

             8.      Jlaidjc, p. 272.

             9.      K.D. Bajpai Feliciation Volume.

          10.      CHJ, II, p. 323.

          11.      CHJ, II, p. 313.

          12.      JDaiDJC, p. 291.

          13.      CHJ, No. 73, p. 302.

          14.      BBDJT, III, Appendix I, pp. 23-27.

          15.      Ibid.

          16.      CHJ, No. 140, p. 318.

          17.      CHJ, II, No. 204, pp. 335-336.

          18.      Ibid, II, No. 250, p. 348.

          19.      Ibid, II, No. 135, p. 317.

          20.      CHJ, II, No. 22 p. 287.

          21.      Ibid, II, No. 280, p. 354.

          22.      CHJ, II, No. 8, p. 284.

          23.      Ibid, II, No. 238, pp. 45-46.

          24.      Ibid, II, No. 89, pp. 305

          25.      CHJ, II, No. 124, pp. 314.

          26.      Ibid, No. 159, p. 322.

          27.      CHJ, II, Nos. 234 and 235, pp. 343-344.

          28.      Ibid, II No. 132, p. 316.

          29.      Ibid, II, No. 187, p. 330.

          30.      CHJ, II, No. 42, pp. 293-294.

          31.      Ibid, II, No. 216, p. 238.

          32.      Ibid, II, No. 54, p. 297, JUPJ, pp. 56-60, BBDJI, pp. 179-194.

          33.      CHJ, No. 43, JUPH, p. 64.

          34.      JUPJ, pp. 44-46, BBDJI, pp. 66-72.

          35.      CHJ, No. 262, p. 350.

          36.      CHJ, No. 290, pp. 356-357.

          37.      Ibid, No. 220, p. 339.

          38.      Ibid, No. 21, p. 287.

          39.      Ibid, No. 127, p. 314.

          40.      CHJ, No. 219, p. 339.

          41.      Ibid, No. 174, pp. 326-327.

          42.      CHJ, No. 253, p. 349.

          43.      MTJ.

          44.      MTA.

          45.      MTA.

          46.      CHJ, No. 154, p. 321.

          47.      BBDJI, III, pp. 287-297.

          48.      BBDJI, III, pp. 302-316.

          49.      MTA

          50.      BBDJI, III, pp. 316-326.     

          51.      BBDJI, III, pp. 150-160.

          52.      Ibid, III, p. 59.

          53.      JSLS, IV No. 5

          54.      BBDJI, III, pp. 160-168.

          55.      BBDJI, III, pp. 116-127.

          56.      KMTA, I, P. 289.

          57.      Ibid, II, p. 364.

          58.      MTA, pp. 400-405.

          59.      KMTA, p. 453.

          60.      CHJ, II, No. 176, p. 327.

          61.      Ibid, II, No. 261, p. 350

          62.      KMTA, p. 410.

          63.      KMTA, pp. 371-372, p. 378.

          64.      CHJ, II, No. 144, p. 318.

          65.      Ibid, II, No. 12, p. 285.

          66.      CHJ, II, No. 153, pp. 320-321.

          67.      Ibid, No. 248, p. 347; BBDJT, pp. 298-300.

          68.      BBDJT, pp. 179-202.

          69.      Ibid, pp. 84-86.

          70.      BBDJT, pp. 78-84.

          71.      Ibid, pp. 102-103.

          72.      Ibid, pp. 29-33.

          73.      ACTR, p. 99.

          74.      Ibid, p. 136.

          75.      ACTR, pp. 153-154.

          76.      Ibid, pp. 161-163.

          77.      ACTR, p. 166.

          78.      ACTR, pp. 173-175

          79.      Ibid., p. 176.

          80.      ACTR, pp. 178-179.

          81.      Ibid., pp. 182-184.

          82.      ACTR, p. 187-191.

          83.      Ibid, p. 194.

          84.      ACTR, pp. 197-198.

          85.      ACTR, pp. 201-203.

          86.      Ibid, pp. 207-208.

          87.      ACTR, p. 217.

          88.      ACTR, pp. 223-224.

          89.      ACTR, pp. 231-233.

          90.      Ibid, p. 240.

          91.      ACTR, pp. 247-249.

          92.      ACTR, pp. 262-263.

          93.      Ibid, p. 269.

          94.      ACTR, pp. 271-273.

          95.      Ibid, pp. 274-275.

          96.      ACTR, p. 284.

          97.      Ibid, pp. 285-285.

          98.      ACTR, pp. 287-288.

          99.      Ibid, pp. 290-292.

      100.      ACTR, pp. 294-296.

      101.      ACTR, pp. 299-300.

      102.      Ibid, pp. 305-307.

      103.      ACTR, pp. 317-318.

      104.      Ibid, p. 324.

      105.      ACTR, pp. 326-327.

      106.      Ibid, p. 328.

      107.      ACTR, p. 340.

      108.      ACTR, pp. 344-345.

      109.      Ibid, pp. 352-353.

      110.      Ibid, pp. 356-357.

      111.      ACTR, pp. 359-360.

      112.      ACTR, pp. 361-362.

      113.      Ibid, pp. 371-78.

      114.      ACTR, p. 384.

      115.      Ibid, p. 391.

      116.      ACTR, pp. 403-404.

      117.      Ibid, p. 415.

      118.      ACTR, P. 416.

      119.      Ibid, pp. 418-419.

      120.      ACTR, pp. 420-21.

      121.      Ibid, pp. 422-23.  

      122.      ACTR, pp. 425-27.

      123.      Ibid, pp. 427-431.

      124.      ACTR, pp. 432-433.

      125.      ACTR, pp. 449-455.

      126.      Ibid, pp. 455-457.

      127.      BBDJI, pp. 106-127.

      128.      ACTR, p. 413.

      129.      Jaina Community � A Social Survey, p. 256.

      130.      CHJ, No. 227, p. 341.

      131.      CHJ No. 9, BBDJI, IV, pp. 200-201.

      132.      Ibid, No. 13, pp. 285-286; BBDJI, IV, pp. 195-198.

      133.      Ibid, No. 16, p. 286.

      134.      CHJ, No. 20, p. 287.

      135.      Ibid, No. 32, p. 290.

      136.      Ibid, No. 36, p. 291.

      137.      CHJ, No. 38, p. 292.

      138.      Ibid, no. 46, pp. 394-395.

      139.      Ibid, no. 51, p. 296.

      140.      CHJ, No. 57, p. 298.

      141.      Ibid, No. 60, p. 299.

      142.      Ibid, No. 73, p. 302.

      143.      CHJ, No. 75, p. 303.

      144.      Ibid, No. 99, p-307.

      145.      Ibid, No, 107, p. 309.

      146.      Ibid, No. 150, p. 320.

      147.      BBDJI, pp. 185-188.

      148.      CHJ, No. 164, pp. 323-24.

      149.      CHJ, No. 192, p. 332.

      150.      BBDJI, IV, pp. 178-185.     

      151.      CHJ, No. 200, pp. 334-335.

      152.      Ibid, No. 226, pp. 340-41.

      153.      CHJ, No. 241, pp. 345-346.

      154.      BBDJI, Iv, pp. 189-195.

      155.      Ibid, Iv, pp. 137-138.

      156.      CHJ, No. 251 p. 348.

      157.      Ibid, No. 256, p. 349.

      158.      Ibid, No. 269, p. 352.

      159.      Ibid, No. 270, p. 352.

      160.      CHJ, No. 276, pp. 353-354.

      161.      Ibid, No. 273, p. 353.

      162.      BBDJI, pp. 198-199.

      163.      CHJ, No. 59, p. 299; BBDJI, p. 248.

      164.      Ibid, No. 71, p. 301; Ibid, pp. 203-207.

      165.      Ibid, No. 130, BBDJI, p. 303.

      166.      CHJ, No. 138; BBDJI, p. 233-237.

      167.      BBDJI, pp. 208-217; CHJ No. 155.

      168.      Ibid, pp. 319-330.

      169.      CHJ, No. 181, pp. 328-229.

      170.      Ibid, No. 201, p. 235; BBDJI, p. 274.

      171.      Ibid, No. 212, pp. 336-337, BBDJI, pp. 311-316.

      172.      BBDJI, pp. 288-303; CHJ, no. 239.

      173.      CHJ, No. 266, p. 351.

      174.      Ibid, II, No. 55, p. 297.

      175.      CHJ, II, No. 245, No. 347.

      176.      Jaina Community A Social Survey, p. 257.

      177.      CHJ, No. 2, p. 283.

      178.      Ibid, No. 5, p. 283-284.

      179.      Ibid, No. 18, p. 287.

      180.      Ibid, No. 19, p. 287.

      181.      Ibid, No. 19, p. 287.

      182.      CHJ, No. 24, p. 288.

      183.      Ibid, No. 27, p. 288.

      184.      Ibid, No. 28, p. 289.

      185.      Ibid, No. 29, p. 289.

      186.      CHJ, No. 31, p. 290.

      187.      Ibid, No. 33, p. 290.

      188.      Ibid, No. 35, p. 291.

      189.      Ibid, No. 39, p. 292.

      190.      CHJ, No. 45, p. 294.

      191.      Ibid, No. 66, pp. 300-301.

      192.      Ibid, No. 68, p. 301.

      193.      Ibid, No. 70, p. 301.

      194.      CHJ, No. 74, pp. 302-303.

      195.      Ibid, No. 82, p. 304.

      196.      Ibid, No. 83, p. 304.

      197.      CHJ, No. 84, p. 304.

      198.      Ibid, No. 85, p. 304.

      199.      Ibid, No. 86, p. 304.

      200.      Ibid, No. 90, p. 305.

      201.      Ibid, No. 91, p. 305.

      202.      Ibid,  No. 93, pp. 305-306.

      203.      Ibid, No. 94, p. 306.

      204.      Ibid, II, 95, . 306.

      205.      CHJ, No. 96, p. 306.

      206.      Ibid, No. 97, p. 307.

      207.      Ibid, No. 98, pp. 306-307.

      208.      CHJ, II, No. 100, p. 307.

      209.      Ibid, No. 101, pp. 307-308.

      210.      Ibid, No. 119, p. 313.

      211.      Ibid, No. 121, p. 313.

      212.      Ibid, No. 122, p. 313.

      213.      CHJ, II No. 129, p. 315.

      214.      Ibid, No. 139, p. 318.

      215.      Ibid, No. 142, p. 318.

      216.      CHJ, II, No. 145, pp. 318-319.

      217.      Ibid, No. 148, pp. 319-320.

      218.      CHJ, II, No. 151, p. 320.

      219.      Ibid, No. 152, p. 320.

      220.      Ibid, No. 158, p. 322.

      221.      Ibid, No. 160, pp. 322-323.

      222.      CHJ, II, No. 165, p. 324.

      223.      Ibid, No. 184, 329.

      224.      CHJ, II, No. 189, p. 331.

      225.      Ibid, No. 199, p. 334.

      226.      Ibid, II, No. 203, p. 375.

      227.      Ibid, II No. 217, p. 338.

      228.      CHJ, II, No. 252, p. 348.

      229.      Ibid, II, No. 254, p. 349.

      230.      Ibid, II, No. 263, pp. 350-351.

      231.      Ibid, II, No. 264, pp. 351.

      232.      Ibid, II, No. 271, p. 352.

      233.      Ibid, II, No. 274, p. 353.    

      234.      CII, II, No. 281, pp. 354-355.

      235.      Ibid, No. 288, p. 356.

      236.      Ibid, No. 289, p. 356.

      237.      CHJ, II, No. 40, pp. 292-293.

      238.      CHJ, II, No. 81, p. 304.

      239.      Ibid, II, No. 92, p. 305.

      240.      Ibid, II, No. 195, p. 333.

      241.      Ibid, II, No. 110, p. 310.      

      242.      CHJ, II, No. 111, pp. 310-311.

      243.      Ibid, II, No. 123, p. 313.

      244.      Ibid, II, No. 125, p. 314.

      245.      Ibid, II, No. 185, p. 329.

      246.      Ibid, II, No. 259, pp. 349-350.

      247.      CHJ, II, No. 286, p. 355.

      248.      Ibid, No. 288, p. 355.