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      www.jainworld.com                         Tatvarth Sutra                  English..Upadhaya  Shritsagar 

                                                             Acharya Uma Swami                       

CHAPTER FOUR

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                 Devashchaturnikayah

_The celestial beings are of four orders (classes) namely the Residential (Bhavanavasi), the Peripatetic (Vyantara), the Stellar (Jyotishika) and the Heavenly (Vaimanika).

 

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Aditastrishu pitantaleshyah

_The colouration of thought of the first three classes of celestial beings is black, blue, grey and yellow.

 

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Dashashta-pancha-dvadashavikalpah kalpopa-pannaparyantah

_The Residential, the Peripatetic, the Stellar and the Heavenly beings are of ten, eight, five and twelve classes respectively.

   

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Indra-samanika-trayastrinsha-parishadatmaraksha-

lokapalanika-prakirnakabhiyogya-kilbishikashchaikashah

_There are ten grades in each of these classes of celestial beings namely the Lord (Indra), his equal (except for the authority and the prosperity), the Minister, the councillor, the bodyguards, the police, the army, the citizens, the servants and the menials.

   

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Trayastrinsha-lokapala-varjya vyantara-jyotishkah

_The Peripatetic and the Stellar devas are

 without the ministers and the police.

   

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Purvayordvindrah

_The Residential and the Peripatetic places in the Heaven have two Lords.

   

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Kayapravichara a aishanat

_The Residential, the Peripatetic and the Stellar devas and those in the Saudharma and the Aishan (the first two Heaven) have body sex like humans and animals.

   

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Sheshah sparsha-rupa-shabda-manah-pravicharah

_The Heavenly beings in the next fourteen Heavens derive pleasure of sex by touch, sight, sound and thought of celestial beings of opposite sex.

   

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Pare(a)pravicharah

_Heavenly being residing beyond the sixteen

 Heavens are without sexual desire.

   

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Bhavanavasino(a)sura-naga-vidyutsuparnagni-vata-

stanitodadhi-dvipa-dikkumarah

_The Residential devas comprise of Asura Kumar, Naga Kumar, Vidyut Kumar, Suparna Kumar, Agni Kumar, Vata Kumar, Stanita Kumar, Udadhi Kumar, Dvipa Kumar and Dikkumaras.

   

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Vyantarah kinnara-kimpurusha-mahoraga-gandharva-

yaksha-rakshasa-bhuta-pishachah

_The Peripatetic devas comprise Kinnara, Kimpurusha, Mahoraga, Gandharva, Yaksha, Rakshasa, Bhuta and Pishacha classes.

   

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Jyotishkah surya-chandramasau-graha-naksatra-

prakirnaka-tarakashcha

_The Stellar (luminary) devas comprise the sun, the moon, the planets, the constellation and the scattered stars.  

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_In the human region (Jambudvipa-Lavanodadaya ocean, Dhatakikhanda divapa-Kalodadhi ocean dvipa and inner half of Pushkardvipa) the Stellar devas are characterized by incessant motion around Meru.  

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Tatkrtah kalavibhagah

_The divisions of time into hour, minute, day and night are caused by these Stellar devas.

   

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Bahiravasthitah

_Outside the human regions the Stellar

devas remain stationary.

   

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Vaimanikah

_The Heavenly Beings (Vaimanikah) are the

fourth class of celestial beings.

   

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Kalpopapannah kalpatitasca

_Vaimanikas are of two kinds, those born in the sixteen Heavens or Kalpas and those born beyond these Kalpas.

   

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Uparyupari

 _The habitation places for different classes of Heavenly beings are located one above the other.

   

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Saudharmaishana-sanatkumara-mahendra-brahma-

brahmottara-lantava-kapishtha-shukra-mahashukra-

shatara-sahastrareshvanata-pranatayorarana-

chyutayornavasu graiveyakeshu vijaya-vaijayanta-jayantaparajiteshu sarvarthasiddhau cha

_Heavenly beings reside in sixteen Heavens, nine Graiveyaka, nine Anudish and five Anuttar. Sixteen Heavens are Saudharma, Aishana, Sanatkumara, Mahendra, Brahma, Brahmottara, Lantava, Kapishta, Shukra, Mahashukra, Shatara, Sahasrara, Anata, Pranata, Arana and Achyuta. Nine Graiveyak are Sudarshan, Amogh, Suprabuddha, Yashodhar, Subhadra, Suvishal, Sumanas, Saumanas and Pritikar. Nine Anudish are Aditya, Archi, Archimalini, Vair, Vairochan, Saum, Saumrup, Ark and Sphatik. Five Anuttar are Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparajita and Sarvarthasiddhi.

   

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Sthiti-prabhava-sukha-dyuti-leshya-

vishuddhindriyavadhi-vishayato (a)dhikah

_There is increase with regard to the lifetime, influence of power, happiness, lumination of body, purity in thought-colouration, capacity of the senses and range of clairvoyance in the Heavenly beings residing in the higher palces.

   

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Gatishariraparigrahabhimanato hinah

_But there is decrease with regard to

motion, stature, attachment and pride.

   

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Pita-padma-shuklaleshya dvitrishesheshu

_The thought colouration (leshya) of the Heavenly beings in the first four heavens is yellow; five to ten Heavens is grey, eleven to sixteen Heavens is white and in Graiveyaka, Anudish and Anuttar is super white.

   

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Praggraiveyakebhyah kalpah

_Sixteen Heavens are called Kalpas and the rest are called Kalpatit. Those living in Kalpatit are called Ahamindra and are equal in grandeur.

   

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Brahmalokalaya laukantikah

_The fifth Heaven i.e. Brahmaloka is the abode of Laukantikas, who take the next birth as humans and attain liberation.

   

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Sarasvataditya-vahnyaruna-gardatoya-tushitavyabadharishtashca

_Lokantikas are of eight classs. They are Sarasvata, Aditya, Vahni, Aruna, Gardatoya, Tushita, Avyabadha and Arishta.

   

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Vijayadishu dvicaramah

  _Ahmindras in Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta and Aparajita take two births as humans before attaining liberation while those in Sarvarthasiddhi take one birth as humans before attaining liberation.

   

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Aupapadika-manushyebhyah sheshastiryagyonayah

_The beings other than celestial,

 infernal and human beings are animals.

   

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Sthitirasura-naga-suparna-dvipa-sheshanam sagaropama-tripalyopa-marddhahinamitah

_The maximum lifespan of Asura kumar is one

Sagara, Naga kumar is three palyas, Suparna

 kumar is two and a half palyas, Dvipa kumar

is two palyas and the rest of the

 Residential devas is one and a half palyas.

   

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Saudharmeshanayoh sagaropame adhike

_The maximum lifespan of Heavenly beings is same in the pair of two Kalpas. In the first pair of Saudharma and Aishana Kalpas the maximum lifespan is a little over two sagaras.

   

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Sanatkumara-mahendrayoh sapta

_In the second pair of Sanatkumara and Mahendra the maximum lifespan of the Heavenly beings is seven sagaras.

   

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Tri-sapta-navaikadasha-trayodasha-

panchadashabhiradhikani tu

_The maximum lifespan of the Heavenly beings in the balance six pairs of Kalpas exceeds that of seven sagaras in second pair of Kalpas by three, seven, nine, eleven, thirteen and fifteen sagaras respectively. Thus maximum lifespan in the eighth pair of kalpas is 22 sagaras.

   

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Aranachyutadurdhvamekaikena navasu graiveyakeshu vijayadishu sarvarthasiddhau cha

_Above Arana and Achyuta, the last pair of Kalpas, the maximum lifespan in each of nine Graiveyak increases by one sagaras and the last Graiyeyak having 31 sagaras. The maximum lifespan of the Heavenly beings in all nine Anudish is 32 sagaras and in all five Anuttar is 33 sagaras. Life span of the Heavenly beings in sarvarthsiddhi is fixed as 33 sagaras.

   

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Apara palyopamamadhikam

_The minimum lifespan of Heavenly beings in the first pair of Kalpas is a little over one palyopama.

   

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Paratah paratah purva-purva(a)nantarah

_The maximum lifespan of the Heavenly beings in the immediately preceding pair of Kalpas is the minimum lifespan of the Heavenly beings of the next pair of Kalpas. Similarly the minimum life span is 22 sagaras in the first Graiveyak and increases to 30 sagaras in the last Graiveyak, 31 sagaras in all nine Anudish and 32 sagaras in Anuttars except Sarvarthasiddhi.

 

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Narakanam cha dvitiyadishu

_From the second infernal region onwards the

minimum lifespan of infernal beings in a

region is same as the maximum lifespan

 in the previous infernal region.

   

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Dasha-varsha-sahastrani prathamayam

_The minimum lifespan of infernal beings in 

the first region is ten thousand years.

   

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Bhavaneshu cha

_In the Residential regions also the minimum lifespan of the Residential devas is ten thousand years.

   

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Vyantaranam cha

_The Peripatetic devas also have a minimum lifespan of ten thousand years.

   

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Para palyopamamadhikam

_The maximum lifespan of the Peripatetic devas

is a little over one palya.

   

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Jyotiskanam cha

_The maximum lifespan of the Stellar devas

is also a little over one palya.

   

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Tadashtabhago (a)para

_The minimum lifespan of the Stellar devas

is one-eighth of a palya.

   

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                  Laukantikanamashtau sagaropamani sarvesham

                    _Lifespan is eight sagaras for all Laukantikas.

 ===============================================

It explains the following:

The Types of Gods

The lesya or soul-colouring appropriate to the third nikaya

The sub-types of the Four Nikayas

An Inner Classification of the Four Nikayas of gods

The Rule Regarding the Number of Indras

The Situation as to Lesya in the First Two Nikayas

An Account of Sexual Enjoyment on the part of gods

An Account of the above mentioned Types of the Four Nikayas of Gods

The Ten Types of Bhavanapatis

The Types and Sub-types of Vyantaras

The Five Types of Jyotiska

The Mobile Jyotiskas

The Division of Time

The Static Jyotiskas

The Vaimanika gods

The Relative Superiority and Inferiority of Gods in Respect of Certain Matters

Sthiti or Life-duration

Prabhava or Efficacy

Sukha or Pleasure and Dyutti or Glow

Lesya-visuddhi or Purity of Soul-colouring

Indriya-vijaya or Object of Sensuous Cognition

Avadhijnana-visaya or Object of avadhi-cognition

Gatti or Movement

Sarira or Body

Parigraha or Appropriation

Abhimana or Arrogance

Ucchvasa or Breath

Ahara or Nourishment

Vedana or Feeling

Upapata or Ability for Birth

Anubhava or Inherent Loka-nature

The Rules as to Lesya Among the Vaimanikas

The Enumeration of Kalpas

An Account of the Gods Designated Lokantika

The Specific Peculiarity of the Gods Residing in Anuttara Vimanas

The Nature of Animals

An Adhikara-sutra

The Maximum Life-duration in Case of the Bhavanapati-nikaya

The Maximum Life-duration in the Case of the Vaimanikas

The Minimum Life-duration in the Case of the Vaimanikas

The Minimum Life-duration in the Case of the Hellish-Beings

The Minimum Life-duration in the Case of the Bhavanapatis

The Life-duration in the Case of the Vyantaras

The Life-duration in the Case of the Jyotiskas