Non-Living things (Ajiv)
Anything that does not have
the life or a consciousness is Ajiva. Ajiva literally means without a soul
and therefore, they cannot accumulate any karmas. They have no birth,
death, pleasure, or pain; they are achetan (inert). Examples of Ajivas
are: a box, car, fan, television, photo frame, iron, watch, etc.
The Jain Philosophy has
divided Ajivas into the following five categories:
(1) Dharmastikay (Medium of
(2) Adharmastikay (Medium
(3) Akashastikay (Space).
(4) Pudgalastikay (
(5) Kal (Time).
Dharmastikay is formed from
two words: Dharma + Astikay. The term Dharma here does not refer to
religion, but means the medium of motion. Astikay means collection of
Dharmastikay denotes the
medium of motion for things in the universe. In the absence of this
medium, Jivas and other things would be unable to move. This medium
prevails in lok, but is absent in alok.
This term is also formed of
two terms: Adharma + Astikay. Here again, Adharma does not refer to a lack
of religion, but rather it means the medium of rest. In the absence of
this medium, jivas and other things would continuously move. This medium
also prevails in lok, but is absent in alok.
Äkäshtikay is formed of
two words: Äkäsh and Astikay. Whole space in the universe is called Äkäsh.
In Jainism, Akash is divided into two parts: Lokakash (Lok) and Alokakash
(Alok). Jiva, Pudgal, Kal, Dharmästikäy, and Adharmästikäy exist only
in Lokäkäsh. Alokakash is an empty space and does not contain any Jiva,
Pudgal, kal, Dharmästikäy, and Adharmästikäy.
The word Pudgal is made up
of two terms: Pud means addition and Gal means division. In other words,
what continuously changes by addition and/or division is called the Pudgal
or the matter. All the matters in the universe are called Pudgals.
A pudgal has the form or a
shape. A pudgal can be experienced by touching, tasting, smelling, or
seeing. Like Jiva, Pudgal is also mobile. The karman particles that attach
to our souls are the pudgal. Pudgal can only be divided and subdivided to
a certain extent. This indivisible smallest part of pudgal is called
Paramänu. A paramänu is much more minute than even an atom. When a
Paramänu is attached to the main pudgal, it is called a Pradesh. These
sub-atomic paramänus are too minute to be detected by normal vision, but
they can be combined. Thus, when a paramänu is combined with other
paramänus, they are called a skandha. A part of a skandha is called the
desh. Such skandhas may be large or small. Small skandhas may be invisible
to the eye, but they can be seen when the combinations are larger.
Käl means time, which
brings forth changes. A child becomes a young person, a young person
becomes an old person, and the old person dies. In other words, something
which is new becomes old, worn, and torn with the time. All of these
changes involve the time. The past, present, and future are the different
modes of the time and are measured in terms of the years, months, days,
hours, minutes or seconds. For all practical purposes a second happens to
be the smallest measurement of time. Jainism however, recognizes a very
tiny measurement of time known as samay which is an infinite small part of
The following are the
measurements of the time as adopted by the Jainism:
Indivisible time = 1 Samay
(finest units of
Countless Samayas = 1
16777216 Ävalikäs = 1
30 Muhurtas = 1 Day and
15 Days and nights = 1
2 Pakshas = 1 Month
12 Months = 1 Year
Countless years = 1
10 Crores of Crores of
Palyopams = 1 Sägaropam
10 Crores of Crores of
Sägaropams = l Utsarpini or 1 Avasarpini.
1 Utsarpini + Avasarpini =
1 Kälchakra (One time cycle).