Jainworld
Jain World
Sub-Categories of Science And Jainism
Physics And Metaphysics In Jainism
  Mathematicoscientific Ideas In The Jaina Karma Theory
  Modern Physics and Jain Darshan
  Anekantavad
  Metaphysics
  Jain Idols Hidden Science


MATHEMATICOSCIENTIFIC IDEAS IN THE JAINA KARMA THEORY

ABSTRACT        by   Prof. L C Jain

The Jaina Karma Theory is very little known in its mathematical aspect outside the circle of the learned votaries

in the Digambara Jaina Community. Even the mathematical symbols are left out while studying the

Gomma²asåra and the Labdhisåra texts which are the summary texts compiled by Nemicandra

Siddhåntacakarvartî in the 10th-11th century. The present paper summarises the fundamental ideas of the Karma

Theory on which the foundations were laid, specifically in the Digambara Jaina School.

INTRODUCTION

The Gomma²asåra Karma Kå¿ðastarts with the following verse introducing the nature or configuration of karma:

payaði sîla sahåo jîva½gå¿a´ a¿åi sa´ba´dho/

ka¿ayovale mala´ vå tå¿itthatta´ saya´siddha´// GKK-I/2//

Just as fire moves up, wind moves horizontatally and water moves down, similarly whatsoever happens

absolutely is called the nature or celebate or nature. The purpose here is with the nature of the bios and the

karma. The nature of the bios is to transform in form of love, etc., and the nature of the Karma is to generate or

create love, etc. However, without the fault of interdependence, the relation between the bios and Karma has

been said to be ab aeterno. Moreover the bios is non-material and the Karma is material, still their relation exists

as such, a the mineral god is found as a combination of pure gold and stone. Thus the existence of such a

relation is self evident.

The bios , through its yogic action at the rise of the bodily genetic coding Karma, assimilates eight types of

Karmas, known as knowledge screening, etc., at every instant, in all its points. This amount has been shown to

be infinitesimal part of the set of the accomplished beings and infinite times the set of the non-accomplishable

bios, and called as an instant-effective-bond (samaya prabaddha). This amount is a variable lying between the

minimal and the maximal. Similarly there are the measureable amounts of the existent, rising and decaying

Karmas according to various circumstances.

In general qualitatively Karma is one alone. According to the classification based on the fluent(dravya) and phase

(bhåva), Karma is of two types. The fluent Karma is a mass of matter and the energy lying in it to give fruition is

called the phase Karma. Otherwise also due to formality of cause and effect, the ignorance, etc., generated due

to energy of fruition are also called the phase Karmas. The basic eight types of Karmas are further subdided into

48 types and coulbe again further subdivided into innumerate universes types. Some of them are blocking and

others are non-blocking. In Samayasåra one may find a similar detail of the relation as

jîva pari¿åma hedu´ kammatta´ puggalå pari¿amanti´/

puggala kamma ¿imitta´ taheva jîvo vi pari¿amaî//SS-403//

¿avi kuvvai kamma´gu¿e jîvo kamma´taheva jîva gu¿e/

a¿¿o¿¿a ¿imitte¿a du pari¿ama´ jå¿a do¿ha´pi//SS-404//

Due to the stimulus phase of a bios, the matter gets transformed into Karma. The bios also gets transformed

does not transform the attributes(gu¿as) of the Karmas, nor does the Karmas transform the attributes of the

bios. The relation of the stimulus and the responder exists in the bonding and the bonder phase. But the

unbounded matter and the bios have no relation of the stimulus and the responder. Thus both the fluents, in the

state of the stimulus and the responderhave the similar state. Wheresoever both these fluents have not equal

state, there is said to be characteristic of a neutral external stimulus (medium) as in case of the aether fluent.

Such a relation is called the stimulus and the field(upådåna) relation.

This has again been emphasized in the Samasåra

Ja´ ku¿ai bhåvamådå kattå so hodi tassa bnåvassa/

Kammatta´ pari¿amade tamhi saya´ puggala´ davva´//SS-417//

Whatsoever the phase(bhåva), the bios acts upon, it becomes the actor of that phase, and on becoming an

actor, the matter-fluent gets transformed automatically. There are many types of variforms(varga¿ås), well

described are of the twenty-three types out of which is the Karmå¿a varga¿å which is capable of being

transformed into the state of akarma as a fluent(dravya). “davvavagga¿å duvihå—kammavagga¿å--¿o

kammavagga¿å”//DVL, vol. 14, 5/6/71/52/5//. The Karma fluent pervades the whole universe in the form of a fine

dust. Those Karma matter particles get into flow towards the bios , assimilated when he is involved in the yogic

activity through the operations of the mind, speech and corpus. They are rather arrested or bonded due to

emotional (mohic or ka¼åyika phases of the bios These bound particles have been called as various Karmas,

creating deformation in the very dispositional activities and behaviour of the soul keeping him bond or

dependence. The charmed bios feels pleasure or pain while absorbed in tthem. Thence arose the search for

getting independence from transmigration through getting rid of a single foreign agency, the Karma, which was

then made a mathematical object, rather a complete system in itself. The modern set up of the system theory is

a development of the twentieth century.

Thus the purpose of diverting the attention from very many things and images as friendly or otherwise, led them

to have a unified theory which could explain every even of the life of a bios as an individual or in a group of

species, search began to probe into the mathematical manoeuvre of separating the two systems which had non-

linear interactions, actions and reactions between the bios and the Karma. They turned their attention towards a

scientific view of cause and effect , leaving the teleological speculationfar behind.

It was thus observed that the configurations and the particles bonds were due to yogic activity or volitions and

the life-time as well as energy intensity bonds were due to emotions or mohic activity. The configurations of

Karma worked as hubs of a Karmic wheel round which the number of mass particles, their life-time and intensity

of energy bonds corresponded in varying measures. Thus the school needed a measuring process for their

values between their maxima and minima. They might have taken resource to the follwing process

1. Formation of constants, variables, parameters and correspondence relations between them.

2. Formation of measuring units for quantitative measures of fluents, phases, yoga, emotion, time, space.

3. Formation of maxima and minima of various sets(rå¹is) where the units worked as members.

4. Formation of correspondence relations between phases of the bios and Karmas in individual as well

as collective cases.

5. Formation of conditions, constraints and restraints, serving as limitations in the natural world of

events in absolute flat space and absolute time, for corresondence relations between actions, reactions and

interactions of the bios and Karmas.

Now we pass on to see that the Jaina school tried to systemize the actions, etc., or the henomenological events

expected to happen in the life of a bios through their measure system which included the proper infinities,

comparability of the sets which were finite or transfinite through divergent sequences locating them in terms and

their stations.as follows

1. Present set of state(sattva) or states corresponding to its heredity consideration. This might have

evolved the idea of a remnant structural system, constantly changing and tending to to have inputs through

yogic and mohic activities every instant which was regarded as indivisible as a space point or an ultimate

particle of matter (paramå¿u). This system was alsopouring out the decayed cells (ni¼ekas) in course of time

or through certain yogic or mohic retarded or acclerated activities. This can be seen very well by their

manipulation through a life-time stucture matrix of a very simple type as shown in the figure.

2. Defining the constituents of the present state, the structure of the state, transformation in the state due

to input of yogic and mohic activities and output of activities t various rates, through constants, variables and

parameters of Karma fluent as well as phases. These gave equations of motion of the system or asystems.

3. Overall effects of changing the growth or decay in the rate of Karmas due to their rise, decay,

destruction, etc., on the bios activities or on faculty of its negentropic structures and functions, even beyond

the range of the Karmas.

4. Observational data collected in states of retarded yoga and emotions and setting up correspondence relations

as equation of motion of the unified system for observing the change in the state as well as in the output. This

also included the study of yogic and mohic controllability of the unified system.

5. The ultimate results guessed as approximate states of the bios on completely detaching it from the

Karma system. This , according to their finding, meant the paragon state of a bios attained after annihilating

the total Karma system for setting the soul wholly free from all foreign agencies, and fully endowed with the

natural eternal existence with endless knowledge, vision, power and bliss.