Jain World
Sub-Categories of Science And Jainism
Physics And Metaphysics In Jainism
  Mathematicoscientific Ideas In The Jaina Karma Theory
  Modern Physics and Jain Darshan
  Jain Idols Hidden Science


From various research works it may be found that the systematic methodlogy developed in Jaina school of

science can be considered as follows:

1.The models of language generation and functioning were developed for the synchronic and diachronic aspects

of study into the karma phenomena through the Syådvåda and anekånta dialectical system of prediction through

primary and secondary views. Their scientfic evaluation was published by Mahalonabis and Haldane. Further

contribution may be seen in the unpublished monographs.

2. The development of closed and open number systems, finite and transfinite means for fluent measure (dravya

pramå¿a)through constructive and existential sets (råsis). The remaining set theoretic manipulation is based on

the simile(upamå) constructed quarter (k¼etra)and time(kåla) measures.These are the phase (bhåva) measures


3. Evolution of the system theoretic knowledge of maxima and minima (utkâ¼²a and jaghanya), quantitatively

and qualitatively in so far as the intermediates (madhyamas) were to be placed and located through their

comparability(alapabahutva)results in the close and open dynamical Karmic systems were concerned. Their

transfinite topology has been discussed This is used to analyze the development of structional organismic

system of typical characteristics in the forms of control stations (gu¿asthånas)and wayward stations (mårga¿å

sthånas). It may be invariably noted that most of the results in all sciences today have been obtained for the

micro and macro cosmos through the functional application of maxima and minima theory of variational calculus,

applied to statistical and dynamical systems.

4.The development of open system ideas of input values and functions(dravya asrava, bandha and bhåva åsrava,

bandha) , output values and functions (dravya nirjarå and bhåva nirjarå),independence values and functions

(dravya and bhåva åsatva) and so on, and their transitions and transformations as operands and operaters(dravya

and bhåva kara¿a) every instant.The quantitative results are depicted through the constructive and existential

concepts of geometric regressions (gunahani) The concept of feedback is same as that of homeostasis in a

biological system. It may be found out that the concepts of controllability, reachability, and the corresponding

observability, constructibility and determinability in the ancient concepts of Karma theory. It has the form of


5.The development of unified systems in the wholeness study of the astronomical, cosmological and bio-

theoretical systems. The studies of spiroelliptic orbits in the kinematic motions of astral bodies (here diurnal and

annual motion is unified for the sun and the moon), referred to the grid system of gaganakha¿ðas and altitude in

yojanas (through shadow reckoning) The commentaries extended over twenty centuries appear to be sufficient

for the understanding of the profound systems approach of the Jaina school developed for a non-violence

culture.basic to freedom.


Firstly, it is essential to study basic concepts and principles of the Jaina karmic theory in ancient symbolism

and the convenient corresponding working symbolism and terminology related to canonical texts containing

karma as a functional system. In the commentaries of the canonical texts of Jaina school of science the

symbols are used to denote more than one term , distinguishable each time through context. No doubt, this had

made it possible to work with minimum number of symbols in ancient times, but if the context is ignored then it

will be rather difficult to understand for what that symbol stands for. Hence the working symbols with

distinguishable symbols and at the same time with a limiting or minimal possible number of symbols

are evolved. Thus the following table gives the ready reference of the terms, ancient symbolism as well as

working symbolism.There are so many symbols but those symbols are selected which are sufficient for the

present work. There are different tables referring different aspects which are mentioned with the tables I, II AND III.



There are different methods to write the numbers in Jaina canonical texts viz. by the name of objects, by the

name of alphabets, with or without denomination, by abbreviation, etc.

i. For metric scale notation, ten has taken the base and the writing way was mainly of two types. The first way

was to move the numbers from left to right for ascertaining their numerical meaning like Vedic literature can be

taken as LWM., e.g. Eight, fifty, seven hundred, seven thousand, (608 karmakanda) which is having the value as


The second way was to move from right to left, e.g., Eight crores one lac eight thousand one hundred seventy-

five (351 Jivakanda) which is equal to 80108175.

ii. For non metric scale notation,the numbers were written in denominational way, e.g., the word one kodakodi is

frequently observed in karmakanda which stands for ten millian x ten millian. Or the another example as one less

thirty hundred one ninety = 2991.(869 karmakanda)

iii. The subtractive principle was used for vinculum numbers, e.g., two less hundred = 98 (104 karmakanda)

iv. The number maight be written by the process of repeating mid digits, e.g., one seven nine nine two

nabha(zero) nabha eight four five four five sixteen with sixteen times six thirty and four by eleven

= 17992008451636363636363636363636363636363636 and 4/11 (25 trilokasara)