Jain World
Sub-Categories of Ashta Pahuda
FAITH (Darshana)
  Conduct (Charitra)

Enlightment (Bodh)

  Realisation (Bhava
  Emancipation (Moksha)
  Insignia (Linga)

Virtue (Sheel)


Ashta Pahuda

Acharya Kund kund  

Courtesy of  Jain Mission Information


1. Revealed by the Arhat in a intent, and composed correctly by the divine gandhara,-seeking the meaning of such scripture saints realise the supreme end.

2. Knowing that scripture, as understood well by acharyas in succession from two points of view (conventional and absolute), one who puts himself on the path of emancipation is blessed (Bhavya). (A Bhavya is one whose emancipation is ensured). (See,verse II, 6)

3. One versed in the scripture destroys birth and rebirth. A needle without thread is lost but not one with thread (Sutra means "Scripture" as well as `thread').

4. A person with (faith in) scripture is never lost; he may even through self-realisation get rid of mundane existence, though he may be without vision (to begin with).

5. One who knows the categories, soul etc., and (so under stands) what to reject and what to appropriate is one with right faith.

6. Knowing the scripture, uttered by the Jina, from the conventional and the absolute point of view, the saint destroys the accumulation of (Karmic) dirt and attains bliss.

7. One who transgresses the scripture in spirit or letter should be considered to e of wrong faith; one who wears clothes should not even playfully eat off his hands. ( a practice prescribed only for munis who give up clothing.)

8. A man may become the equal of Hari and Hara and be born in heaven a crore of times; even then he does not attain perfection; he is still said to be of the world.

9. One who conducts himself in various deed like a noble lion, and bears the weight (of responsibility) of a teacher, if devoid of restraint, falls into sin and becomes a non-believer.

10. The Highest and the best of Jinas have declared nudity and taking food off one's hands to be (the insignia of) the one way to liberation; all the rest lead astray.

11. One who is possessed of self-restraint and is free from paraphernalia and possession is adorable by gods and demons in the world.

12. Those saints who, endowed with a hundred powers, endure twenty-two kinds of hardships, destroy and shed karmas (and) become adorable.

13. Of the other forms, those of right faith and knowledge permitting themselves the possession of clothes are said to be worthy of (being greeted as) "Icchakaras" (desirous) ( A recog nised form of greeting for the order).

14. One who, confirmed in the (teachings of the scripture, understands the real meaning of `Icchakar is poised in right faith; giving up the other activities he attains happiness in the next world.

15. If after that he does not seeks self-realisation, though he may perform all other duties without exception, he cannot attain perfection; he is still said to be of the world.

16. For this reason you should cultivate self-realisation in three ways, (thought, word and deed); what leads to emancipation should learnt assiduously.

17. The saints are not to have possessions even to the extent of the point of a hair. They eat food given by others off their hands (standing) at one place, (and so require no possessions).

18. One with form as at birth does not keep in his hands (any thing) even to the extent of the husk of a sessamum seed. If he does own on a small or a large scale, he is born again in the lowest form of life.

19. The type (of ascetics) having possessions on a small or large scale is to be condemned. According to the Jina's word. One free from possessions is (really) homeless.

20. One who observes the five great vows, and the three restraints (of thought, word and deed) is a sanyat (a man of self-control); without ties, he is on the way to emancipation and is adorable.

21. The second class of insignia is said to be that of a holy layman (allowed only a loin-cloth) who wanders about to beg for food and eats it off a leaf, cautious in speech or keeping silent.

22. The insignia for women are taking only one meal (in the day) putting on one piece of clothing even for a recluse and eating with clothing on.

23. Even a Tirthankara cannot achieve perfection with clothing; according to the Jina's scripture, nudity is the one path to emancipation; the rest are all wrong paths.

24. omitted.

25. omitted.

26. omitted.

27. Those who take permissible things in moderation as one takes water from the sea just enough to wash ones clothes, those who overcome desire,-they conquer all suffering.