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Jain World
Sub-Categories of Samansuttam
Mangalasutra
  Jinasasanasutra
  Sanghasutra
 

Nirupanasutra

  Samsaracakrasutra 
  Karmasutra
  Mithyatvasutra
 

Raga-pariharasutra

  Dharmasutra
  Samyamasutra
  Aparigrahasutra
  Ahimsasutra
 

Apramadasutra

  Siksasutra
  Atmasutra
  Moksamargasutra
  Ratnatrayasutra
  Samyag-Darsana-Sutra
  Samyagjnanasutra
  Samyakcaritrasutra
  Sadhanasutra
  Dvividha Dharmasutra
  Sravakadharmasutra
  Sramanadharmasutra
  Vratasutra
  Samiti-Guptisutra
  Avasyakasutra
  Tapasutra
  Dhyanasutra
  Anupreksasutra
  Lesyasutra
  Atmavikasasutra (Gunasthana)
  Samlekhanasutra
  Tattvasutra
  Dravysutra
  Srstisutra
  Anekantasutra
  Pramanasutra
  Nayasutra
  Syadvada Va Saptabhangisutra
  Samanvayasutra
  Niksepasutra
  Samapana
  Virastavana
 

SamanSuttam

4. Nirupanasutra

Precepts On Scriptural Exposition

Jo na pamananayehim, nikkhevenam nirikkhade attham.

Tassajuttam juttam, juttamjuttam ca padihadi. (32)

To one, who does not ascertain the meaning (of a word) by Pramana, Naya and Niksepa, appears what is proper to be improper and what is improper to proper. (32)

Nanam hodi pamanam, nao vi nadussa hidayabhavattho.

Nikkheo vi uvao, juttie atthapadigahanam. (33)

Knowledge is pramana : naya is view-point of the knower, the way of knowing is called Niksepa i.e. reasoning to understand the proper meaning of the text. (33)

Nicchayavavaharanaya, mulabheya nayana savvanam.

Nicchayasahanaheum, pajjayadavvatthiyam munaha. (34)


The real point of view (Niscaya-naya) and the empirical point of view (vyavahara-naya) are the two fundamental types of view-points (nayas). The dravyarthika naya (substantial point of view) and the paryayarthika-naya or the modal point of view are the two means for comprehending the real nature of a thing. (34)

Jo siya bheduvayaram, dhammanam kunai egavatthussa.

So vavaharo bhaniyo, vivario nicchayo hoi. (35)


The empirical point of view (or the Vyavahara-naya) is fragmentary i. e. it does take a thing as whole but concentrates on its units only. The opposite of it is called the real view-point which takes a comprehensive view and takes into consideration the thing as a whole. (35)

Vavharenuvadissai, nanissa carittam damsanam nanam.

Na vi nanam na carittam, na damsanam Janago suddho. (36)


From the stand-point of vyavahara-naya it is said that a knower is possessed of conduct, faith and knowledge, but in fact (that is, from the stand-point of niscaya-naya) he possesses neither knowledge nor conduct, nor faith but is purely of the form of a knower. (36)

Evam vavaharanao, padisiddho jana nicchayanayena.

Nicchayanayasida puna, munino pavanti nivvanam. (37)

Know that the empirical point of view is contradicted by the real point of view. The saints who take recourse to the real point of view (Niscaya-Naya) attain salvation. (37)

Jaha na vi sakkamanajjo, anajjabhasam vina u gaheum.

Taha vavaharena vina, paramatthuvaesanamasakkam. (38)

Just as it is impossible to explain things to a non-Arya without taking recourse to a non-Aryan language, similarly it is impossible to explain the ultimate truth without taking recourse to vyavahara-naya. (38)

Vavaharo'bhuyattho, bhuyattho desido du suddhanao.

Bhuyatthamassido khalu, sammaitthi havai jivo. (39)

It is said that the empirical point of view does not explain reality as it is, while the real point of view explains it as it is. He' who takes recourse to the reality as it is, attains the right faith. (39)

Nicchayamavalambanta, nicchayato nicchayam ajananta.

Nisanti caranakaranam, bahirakaranalasa kei. (40)

Those who have recourse to the real point of view only and does not know it correctly, being negligent regarding to the minor rule of external conduct spoil the whole discipline i,. e. major and minor code of conduct. (40)

Suddho suddhadeso, nayavvo paramabhavadarisihim.

Vavaharadesida puna, je du aparame tthida bhave. (41)


Reality can be understood properly by those who have realized the highest truth: but for those who are in a lower state it is proper to expound the reality through the empirical point of view. (41)

Nicchayao dunneyam, ko bhave kammi vattai samano.

Vavaharao ya kirai, jo puvvatthio crittammi. (42)


Verily, it is very difficult to know the mental states of monks; therefore the criterion of senionrity in the order of monks should be decided by practical vie-point i.e. standing monkhood. (42)

Tamha savve vi naya, micchaditthi sapakkhapadibaddha.

Annonnanissiya una, havanti sammattasabbava. (43)

Hence all the nayas (view-points), so long as they remain confined to their own respective stand-points, are perverted, but when they are mutually dependent on one another, they verily become true. (43)

Kajjam nanadiyam, ussaggavavayao bhave saccam.

Tam taha samayaramto, tam saphalam hoi savvam pi. (44)


Conduct, knowledge atc. are right one when they satisfy general rules as well as the exceptional conditions. They should be practised in such a manner that they become fruitful. (44)