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  Dravyasamgraha
 

Samaya Sara

Translation and commentary by J. L. Jaini 1930

SAMAYAPRABHRITAM,

CHAPTER I.

1. Having bowed to all the Siddhas (Perfect Souls) who have attained a condition of existence indestructible, purified (of all karmic matter), unparalleled, I shall speak of this Samayaprabhritam, O (listeners), (as) spoken by the knowers of all scriptural knowledge.

2. Know the Soul (which is) concentrated in (right) conduct, belief and knowledge, to be self-abosorption. And know that (which) stands in (the condition) determined by (the operation) of karmic matter (to be) non-self-absorption.

3. Absorbed in oneness, the soul (is ) everywhere admirable in the Universe. The predication of bondage (as being) one with it is censurable.

4. The discourse relating to sense-enjoyments and karmic bondage is heard, understood, and experienced by all the (mundane souls). But realization of absolute oneness (with its own nature) free from (attachments, etc.) is not easy of attainment.

5. I describe that absolute oneness of the soul on the strength of my (own self-realization). What I describe should be accepted (after verification by your own experience). If I err, (it) should not be considered a deception.

6. But that knowing substance (pure soul) does not become of perfect vows (or of any higher spiritual stage), nor of Imperfect vows (or of any lower Spiritual Stage). Thus say the pure (from the standpoint of pure soul). And indeed that which is the known is even the same (as knower, i.e., itself, in self-absorption).

7. From the practical (point of view) (right) conduct, belief, and knowledge are predicated of the knowing soul. But (from non-differential point of view there is) neither knowledge nor conduct nor belief. The knower (is) pure (knower itself).

8. But as a non-Aryan (is) never capable of understanding without a non-Aryan tongue, so without practical standpoint, an exposition of reality is impossible.

9. The saints, (who are) the expounders of the Universe, call him a knower of Scripture, who in reality, from knowledge of the scriptures, knows this very soul (to be) absolutely pure.

10. The Conquerors call him a knower of scriptural knowledge who has all scriptural knowledge; because the soul (is) all knowledge, therefore (it is also) the knower of scriptural knowledge (Shruta-Kevali).

11. Meditation verily must be performed in (right) belief, knowledge and conduct. But they all three (are) the soul, therefore perform meditation in the (pure) soul (itself).

12. The saint, who (is) always attentive to this soul meditation, follows (true) right conduct. He attains liberation from all troubles in a short time.

13. The practical standpoint does not yield the real meaning. But the pure (or real) standpoint has been said to give the real meaning. The soul dependent on the real standpoint verily is a right-believer.

14. The real standpoint expounds pure substance. It should be meditated upon by the seers of real substance. But the practical standpoint is said (to be of use for) those who (are) fixed in the lower thought-activity.

15. The ascertainment, from the real standpoint, of soul, non-soul, merit and demerit, inflow, stoppage, shedding, bondage and liberation is right-belief.

16. Know that (person to be one of) real standpoint who sees the soul unbound and untouched (by karmic and physical matter, like a lotus-leaf by water), not other than itself (in all its mundane existences, like gold in its various forms, as ring, bracelet, necklace, etc.), steadfast in itself (even as the sea at rest), inseparable (from its attributes, as a diamond from its brilliance, etc.), and not united with impure thoughts (which are non-self, as water is not united with heat or solidity, both of which are non-water).

17. (He), who sees (i.e., believes, understands and experiences) the soul, unbound and untouched (by karmic and physical matter), not other than itself (in all its mundane existences), inseparable (from its attributes), knows the whole doctrine of the conqueror (Jina), in the body of the scriptures.

18. Verily the soul is in my (right) knowledge. In my (right) belief, and in my (right) conduct, the soul is. In my renunciation, in the (thought-activity which produces) stoppage (of inflow of karmic matter into the soul, and in my) self-concentration, (there is) soul.

19. (Right) belief, knowledge and conduct should always be pursued by a saint (from the practical standpoint). Know all these three, again, (to be) the soul itself from the real standpoint.

20-21. As any man whosoever, knowing a king, believes (him as such), and then, being desirous of wealth, serves him by all efforts; so in reality the (pure) soul (as) king should be known, similarly should be believed, and then that same indeed should be realized by one desirous of liberation.

22. I am in karmic matter (and thought-activity produced by it), and in physical matter; or I (am) the Karmic and quasi-Karmic matter. So long as this understanding (goes on), indeed, (the soul) till then is of perverse knowledge.

23. In (one's pure) soul or in non-soul, in whichever (of the two, the soul) is observed for the time being, in that same, liberation or bondage results (respectively). So (it) is briefly described (by the conquerors).

24. Whatever though-activity the soul produces, the same (soul) is the doer of that thought-activity, from the real standpoint. From the practical standpoint (it is) the doer of material karmas.

25. Other foreign substance, living, non-living, or mixed is I, I am it. I am of them; and they are mine.

26. It was mine formerly, I (was) its in the past time. (It) will again be mine; I also will be it.

27. Thus the wrong-believer indulges in such perverse thought activity of soul. But a right-believer, knowing the real standpoint, does not so indulge.

28. The soul whose intellect is deluded by wrong knowledge and (which is) with many kinds of thought-activity, says of he matter-substance (whether it is) bound or not bound (with the soul), this is mine.

29. That the soul always (possesses) the characteristics of conscious attentiveness, is seen in the knowledge of the all- knowing. How can the soul be the matter, which thou says it is mine?

30. If that (soul) becomes matter-substance, the other (i.e., matter) will gain soulness. Then (you) can say that this matter-substances (is) mine.

31. If soul (is) not body, lauding of Tirthankara and also of Acharya (head of the saints) is wrong; therefore the soul is only the body.

32. The practical standpoint tells (that) soul and body are certainly one, but from real standpoint soul and body (are) not one substance at any time whatsoever.

33. By lauding this material body (which is) separate from the soul, a saint understands that the perfect deity is lauded (and) adored by him.

34. That (lauding) is not from the real standpoint: the qualities of the body are not found really in the perfect soul. He, who lauds the attributes of the perfect soul, really lauds the perfect soul.

35. As admiring the city can never become admiration of the king, (so by) lauding the qualities of the body the attributes of the perfect soul are never lauded.

36. He, who having conquered the senses realizes the soul (as) full of its own inherent knowledge, him they, who (are) saints (and) knowers of the real standpoint really call a conqueror of the senses.

37. The saints, the knowers of reality, call him a conqueror of delusion, who, having conquered delusion, realizes the soul (as) full of its own inherent knowledge.

38. And when destruction of delusion takes place in a saint, the conqueror of delusion, then verily he is called delusionless by the knowers of reality.

39. As self-knowledge renounces all (impure) thought- activities, knowing them to be other than itself, therefore, self-knowledge must be recognized as renunciation in reality.

40. As any man whatsoever knowing another's thing to be as such gives (it) up, so the (right) knower renounces all non-self thought-activities knowing them to be non-self.

41. Delusion has no concern with me. I am only the attentive one. The knowers of pure soul call me as having no concern with delusion.

42. The mediums of motion, etc., are not mine. I am only the attentive one. The knowers of the pure soul call me as having no concern with (substances, such as) mediums of motion.

43. I (am) one (i.e., myself) really pure, full of perfect conation and knowledge, always immaterial. Another (i.e., the non-self) is never mine in any way, even to the extent of an atom.

44. Some ignorant persons, who do not know (what) soul (is), and yet declare other (than soul to be the) soul, describe soul as (if it were identical with) attachment (to worldly objects), and (as) karma.

45. Others consider the intense or mild action of the feelings of attachment as soul, and others (consider) quasi-karmas as soul.

46. Others (consider) the operation of Karma as soul, (and others consider that) soul is that which is (the result of) the intense and mild qualities of the fruition of karmas.

47. Others believe soul to be both the soul and karmas combined together, and some believe the soul to be the result of the combination of karmas.

48. Thus, in many ways, (persons) of perverse intellect call the soul other (than itself). (Such persons) are therefore classed by the knowers of Reality as (those who) describe the non-soul as soul.

49. (It is) said by the Perfect Conqueror that all these conditions are produced by the operation of material karmas. How can they be called souls?

50. The conquerors say (that) all the eight kinds of karmas are all material. What is called pain is the (resulting) fruit of their maturity.

51. All these thought-activities, attachment, etc., (are) souls. This has been described by the conquerors as a statement from the practical standpoint.

52. From the practical standpoint the remark is made of (his) military forces; "the king has gone out" (although not) the king only (but also his military forces are) gone out (with him).

53. And similarly from the practical standpoint this has been said in the Scripture that this non-soul thought-activity, attainment, etc., (is) the soul. From the real standpoint the soul in itself is alone.

54. Know the soul (to be) without taste, without color, without smell, invisible, without sound, with consciousness as its attribute, cognizable by no (external) sign and without any material shape.

55. In the soul, there is no color, neither smell, nor taste and neither touch, nor materiality, nor body, nor (physical) figuration, nor (physical) constitution.

56. In the soul, there is no attachment, nor hatred; nor is there (any) delusion, nor Pratyaya (i.e., the causes of bondage, wrong-belief, etc.), neither karmic matter, and there is no quasi-karma matter also in it.

57. In the soul, there is no Varga (i.e., a group of the degrees of a particular attribute in an atom), nor Vargana (i.e., a group of Vargas), nor Spardhaka (i.e., a group of Varganas) whatsoever, neither any degree of attachment or impure thought-activity, nor any degree of fruition.

58. In the soul there is no place whatsoever for the soul's vibratory activity (which causes inflow of karmic matter), nor any place for bondage. And there is no place of operation (of karmas) nor any place of soul-quest whatsoever.

59. And in the soul (there is) no place of he duration of bondage, nor any place of passioned agitation. And also no place of mild passionateness nor any place of attainment of restraint.

60. And also (there are no soul-classes, nor spiritual stages in the soul. Because, certainly all these conditions are caused by material substances (namely, karmic and physical matter).

61. Although from the practical standpoint these are (found) in the soul from color up to stages of spirituality, yet from the real standpoint (there are) no (such) conditions whatever.

62. And the connection with these (conditions) should be known (to be) the same as (that of) milk (with) water. But all these are not in the soul, because (it is really) full of the attribute of conscious-attentiveness (i.e., perfect conation and knowledge).

63. Common people, seeing someone looted, in the way, say, "the way is looted," but no way whatsoever is (really) looted.

64. Similarly, seeing the karmic matter and color of physical matter in the soul, (it) has been said by the conquerors from the practical standpoint, "this color (is) of the soul."

65. Similarly taste, smell, touch, bodily-figure, etc., which have all been described (before), (have been described) from the practical standpoint, thus do the seers of reality preach.

66. In particular incarnations of mundane souls color, etc., are (found). But in (the souls) liberated from cycle of existence there are no , etc., whatsoever.

67. And also if thou holdest certainly all these conditions (to be) in the soul, really, then in reality (there) does not remain (any) difference whatsoever between the soul and the non-soul.

68. If (thou believest) color, etc., to be (inseparably connected) with mundane souls, then mundane souls will acquire materiality.

69. O thou, of perverse intellect, thus from thy mode of talk the material substance would become soul. And then matter, having attained Liberation, will acquire soulness.

70. One and two, three and four, and five-sensed souls, gross and developable (Paryapta) and their opposites (fine and undevelopable Sukshma and Aparyapta) (these are) natures (Prakriti) of body--making (nama) karma.

71. These classes of souls (14 jiva samasa) are formed by their own material modifications, influenced by their auxiliary causes. How can they be called souls (in reality)?

72. In the Scripture the souls are said to be developable, undevelopable, fine and gross, (because) the soul's name is given to the body from the practical standpoint.

73. And these spiritual stages which are said (to be) due to the operation of deluding karmas, how can they be souls? They are always said to be devoid of (pure) consciousness.

74. And so long as he does not know the special difference between the two (i.e., the pure) soul and the (thought) inflow (in the form of anger, etc.); till then he is ignorant. (Such a) soul indulges in anger, etc. (as being one with them).

75. In the soul indulging in anger, etc., the accumulation (the soaking) of karmas takes place. Thus has the bondage of the soul been described by the self-seeing.

76. But when by this soul is realized the special difference between the (pure) soul and the (thought-activity causing) inflow, then (there is) no bondage in that (soul).

77. (When the soul) has known the impurity of inflow-thoughts and (their) contrarily (to the soul) and (their being) causes of mundane misery, then the soul turns back from them.

78. I (am) certainly the one, pure, unattached to the non-self, full of perfect conation and knowledge; fixed in that (pure soul), and absorbed in that, I shall lead all these (anger, etc.) to destruction.

79. Knowing these (anger, etc.) which are bound to the soul, as transitory, impermanent, helpless, and painful (now) and pain-producing (in the future), (a right-believer) turns back from them.

80. And the soul does not (primarily) cause modification of karmic matter and similarly modification of quasi-karmic matter. He who realizes this, is the knower.

81. The soul has been called the doer of meritorious and (demeritorious) thought-activities (from practical standpoint); but it (is really) not the doer (of them) by any means whatsoever. He who knows (this) is the (right) knower.

82. And the knower (himself) certainly knowing material karmas of many kinds neither modifies, nor assimilates, nor is transformed into the form of non-self-substance.

83. And certainly the knower, knowing his own thought-activity of many kinds, neither modifies, nor assimilates, nor is transformed into the form of non-self substance.

84. And certainly the knower, knowing infinite (kinds) of fruition of material karmas, neither modifies, nor assimilates, nor is transformed into the forms of non-self substance.

85. Similarly matter-substance also is shaped into its own modifications, (it) neither modifies, nor assimilates nor is transferred into the forms of other substance.

86. Material molecules are transformed into karmas (of 8 kinds) by reason of the (mundane) soul's thought-activity; similarly the (mundane) soul also is transformed (into its impure thought- activity) by reason of (operation of) karmic matter.

87. The soul never produces the attributes of karmic matter; similarly the karmas (never produce) the attributes of soul and of the modifications of these two, know each one to be the auxiliary cause of the other.

88. For this reason, really the soul is the doer (of its modifications) by its own thought-activity. And is not the doer of all the modifications caused by karmic matter.

89. Thus from the real standpoint the soul really causes or is the doer of (its own modifications). Again know (that) the soul also enjoys its own self.

90. And the (mundane) soul from the practical standpoint does (or produces) many kinds of material karmas and it also enjoys (the material fruits of) material karmas of many kinds.

91. If the soul causes this karmic matter, and enjoys the same, (from the real standpoint also), there results the doctrine that one primary cause can produce contradictory primary effects. (Such is the) right teaching of the conqueror.

92. Because thus (they) hold both soul and matter natures (to be caused by the same); therefore the followers of the double doctrine are wrong believers.

93. As the soul produces its own (impure) thought-activity by the auxiliary cause of material karmas, similarly it enjoys its own (impure) though-activity by the help of material karmas.

94. Again, wrong belief (is) of two kinds, (of the nature of) soul, (and of the nature of) non-soul. Similarly wrong knowledge, vowlessness, (soul's) vibratory activity, delusion, anger, etc., these conditions (are each of two kinds).

95. Karmic matter, (as) wrong belief, soul's vibratory activity, vowlessness, wrong knowledge, (is) the non-soul. But conscious attentiveness (to) wrong knowledge, vowlessness, wrong belief (is) the soul.

96. Of the attentive (soul) with delusion, (there are) three thought-activities (from) beginningless time. (They) should be known (to be) wrong belief, wrong knowledge, and wrong conduct.

97. Conscious attentiveness, (really) pure and without karmic dirt, (assumes) three aspects in connection with these (three, wrong belief, knowledge, and conduct); (and then) attentiveness (is said to be) the doer (or causer) of such thought-activity as it then produces.

98. Whatever thought-activity the soul causes, he becomes doer of that thought-activity; owing to that (thought-activity) karmic matter is itself modified into (8 kinds of) karmas.

99. The soul full of wrong knowledge takes the nonself (for) the self, and also taking the self (for) the nonself, becomes the doer of karmas (i.e., becomes subject to the bondage of karmic matter).

100. The soul, full of right knowledge, not taking nonself as self, and also not taking self as nonself, becomes the non-doer of karmas.

101. This attentive soul with three kinds (of wrong belief, etc.,) develops this false notion, "I am anger." (Then) he becomes the doer of that attentiveness (i.e.,) of that (false) thought-activity of the soul.

102. This attentive soul with three kinds (of wrong belief, etc.,) develops this false notion, "I am medium of motion, etc.," and (then) he becomes the doer of that attentiveness (i.e.,) of that (false) thought-activity of the soul.

103. Thus the man of perverse intellect mistakes other substances for one's self, and also mistakes the self for the non-self owing to his perverse thoughts.

104. That soul is described by the knowers of reality as the doer (of its false notions) on account of this (i.e., wrong belief, etc). He, who realizes this, renounces all wrong notions of becoming (their) doer.

105. It is from the practical standpoint that the soul produces pitcher, cloth, chariot (and other) things, senses, and karmas and quasi-karmas of various kinds in this world.

106. And if that (soul) produces the non-self substances in reality, (then) it becomes one with them. Because (it is) not one with them, therefore the soul is not the doer of them.

107. The soul does not make the pitcher, nor cloth, nor the other things; soul's vibratory activity (of mind, body, and speech) and conscious attention are the producers (of them), and that soul is the doer of that vibration and attention.

108. The soul does not cause the knowledge-obscuring and other (karmas) which are conditions of material karmas. He who knows (this) is the knower.

109. Whatever thought-activity, good or bad, the soul causes, certainly that (soul is) the doer of that (thought-activity). That (thought-activity) of that (soul) is the (thought) karma. And that soul (is) the enjoyer of that (thought-activity).

110. Whatever attribute (is) in whatever substance, that (attribute) certainly is not changed into another (attribute of another) substance. That (attribute) not changing into another, how can it cause to modify that other substance?

111. The soul does not cause nature of substance or attribute in material karmas; not causing these two in that (matter), how he (can be) the doer of that (karma).

112. But seeing the modification of karmic bondage by the (auxiliary) cause of (mundane) soul's thought-activity, it is said from the practical point of view that karmas have been caused by the soul.

113. The war conducted by the warriors is waged by the king: so says the world. Similarly (it is said that) knowledge-obscuring, etc., (karmas) are caused by the soul from the practical standpoint.

114. The soul produces, causes, binds, causes to modify and assimilate karmic matter. (This) is (so), speaking from the practical standpoint.

115. As the king, from the practical standpoint, is said to be the producer of `vices and virtues' (in the subjects). So the soul, from the practical standpoint, is said to be the producer of the modifications of matter (i.e., merit and demerit).

116. Generally four causes have been said to be the makers of (karmic) bondage. And they should be known to be wrong belief, vowlessness, passions and soul's vibratory activity.

117. And again of these (four), thirteen divisions have been described: from delusion up to the end of the (spiritual stage of) vibrating perfect soul.

118. From the real standpoint these (are) unconscious (i.e., non-soul), because (they are) produced by the operation of material karmas. Though they cause the karmas, the soul (is) never the enjoyer of them (from the real standpoint).

119. Because these spiritual stages, (the real) causes (of bondage), bind karmas, therefore the soul (is) not the doer (of them really); but the spiritual stages cause the karmas.

120. As the conscious attentiveness of the soul (is) not other than itself; so, if anger also be not other than the soul, then there would result the oneness of the soul and of non-soul.

121. Thus in this world whatever is soul, that itself in reality (will become) the non-soul. This impossibility (would result) by identifying (with soul) the causes of physical and karmic (bondage).

122. And if (you consider that) anger is one thing (and) the conscious (soul) full of attention (is really quite) another (thing), then like anger, the (other) causes (of bondage), the karmic and quasi-karmic (matter) also (should be taken to be) other (than the soul).

123. If karmic matter is not itself bound in the soul, it is not itself transformed into karmic modifications (of eight kinds), then that (karmic matter) would become (a substance) incapable of modification.

124. And (in the case of) molecules of karmic matter not transforming themselves with karmic forms (of eight kinds), there would result the nonexistence of the cycle of mundane existence, or the philosophy of Sankhya (would be established).

125. (If) soul causes karmic matter (to transform) with karmic forms (of eight kinds), how then can the conscious (soul) cause transformation in them, (when) they by themselves are incapable of modification.

126. If this thy soul neither itself is bound by karmas nor itself is transformed (modified) into anger, etc., (impure conscious thought-activities), then it (soul) becomes incapable of modification.

127. If the soul were not to modify itself into anger etc., thought-activity, there would result the non-existence of the mundane cycle of existences or the Sankhya doctrine (would be established).

128. (If) the karmic matter of anger causes modification of soul into anger thought-activity, (then) how (the karmic matter) causes to transform into anger the soul which by itself (is) incapable of modification?

129. That the soul itself is transformed into anger thought- activity, (if) this (is) thy wisdom, (then) it will be wrong (that) the karmic matter of anger causes the modification of the soul into anger.

130. Being affected by anger (karma) the soul itself (becomes) anger; being affected by pride (karma), (it becomes) pride, indulging in deceit (it becomes) deceit, and in greed, it becomes greed.

131. The knowers of reality call him the possessionless ascetic, who, giving up worldly possessions, realizes the pure soul, full of conscious attentiveness.

132. The knowers of reality call him a saint, a conqueror of delusion, who has got rid of deluded thought-activity, and who realizes the soul possessed of its inherent perfect knowledge.

133. The knowers of reality call him as detached from the company of meritorious deeds, who after having given up meritorious thought-activities realizes the pure soul full of conscious attentiveness.

134. Whatever thought-activity the soul causes, it becomes the doer of that thought-activity. That (thought-activity is) full of (right) knowledge in a soul with (right) knowledge (and is) full of wrong knowledge in one with perverse knowledge.

135. The thought-activity of the perverse soul (is) full of wrong knowledge, by that it binds karmas; while in the soul with right knowledge, (it) is full of right knowledge and therefore it does not bind karmas.

136. As thought-activity of right knowledge only proceeds from a substance with right knowledge, therefore in a right-knower all the thought-activities are of right-knowledge.

137. As from a substance with wrong knowledge, thought-activity of wrong knowledge only is produced; therefore in a perverse soul (all) the thought-activities (are) of wrong knowledge.

138-139. As from a golden material, earrings and similar things are made, and from an iron matter only bracelets, etc., (of iron) are produced. Similarly in the perverse soul, many kinds of thought-activities full of wrong knowledge are produced and in the soul with (right) knowledge, all the thought-activities are full of (right) knowledge.

140-142. In souls, the belief in wrong principles (i.e., principles as they are not) (is due) to operation of wrong belief (deluding karma); and vowlessness in souls (is due) to the operation of right conduct deluding (karma). And in souls, the wrong knowledge of the principles (is due) to operation of knowledge-obscuring (karma); and the passion tossed thought activity of the soul (is due) to the operation of passion (karma). And the impulse of activity of the soul, which (is) good and perusable, or bad and abandonable, should be known to be due to rise of soul-vibrations (caused by operation of body subclass of body-making karma).